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  • Bog bodies in context: developing a best practice approach

    Chapman, H.; Van Beek, R.; Gearey, B.; Jennings, Benjamin R.; Smith, D.; Nielsen, N.H.; Elabdin, Z.Z. (2019)
    Bog bodies are among the best-known archaeological finds worldwide. Much of the work on these often extremely well-preserved human remains has focused on forensics, whereas the environmental setting of the finds has been largely overlooked. This applies to both the ‘physical’ and ‘cultural’ landscape and constitutes a significant problem since the vast spatial and temporal scales over which the practice appeared demonstrate that contextual assessments are of the utmost importance for our explanatory frameworks. In this article we develop best practice guidelines for the contextual analysis of bog bodies after having assessed the current state of research and presented the results of three recent case studies including the well-known finds of Lindow Man in the United Kingdom, Bjældskovdal (Tollund Man and Elling Woman) in Denmark, and Yde Girl in the Netherlands. Three spatial and chronological scales are distinguished and linked to specific research questions and methods. This provides a basis for further discussion and a starting point for developing approaches to bog body finds and future discoveries, while facilitating and optimising the re-analysis of previous studies, making it possible to compare deposition sites across time and space.
  • Recent advances in the analysis of polysialic acid from complex biological systems

    Guo, Xiaoxiao; Elkashelf, Sara M.; Loadman, Paul M.; Patterson, Laurence H.; Falconer, Robert A. (2019-11-15)
    Polysialic acid (polySia) is a unique, well-characterised carbohydrate polymer highly-expressed on the cell surface of neurons in the early stages of mammalian brain development. Post-embryogenesis, it is also re-expressed in a number of tumours of neuroendocrine origin. It plays important roles in modulating cell-cell, and cell-matrix adhesion and migration, tumour invasion and metastasis. Techniques for structural and quantitative characterisation of polySia from tumours and cancer cells are thus essential in exploring the relationship between polySia expression levels and structural and functional changes associated with cancer progression and metastasis. A variety of techniques have been developed to structurally and quantitatively analyse polySia in clinical tissues and other biological samples. In this review, analytical approaches used for the determination of polySia in biological matrices in the past 20 years are discussed, with a particular focus on chemical approaches, and quantitative analysis.
  • Tunable supramolecular gel properties by varying thermal history

    Debnath, S.; Roy, S.; Abul-Haija, Y.M.; Frederix, P.W.J.M.; Ramalhete, S.M.; Hirst, A.R.; Javid, Nadeem; Hunt, N.T.; Kelly, S.M.; Angulo, J.; et al. (2019-06-12)
    The possibility of using differential pre‐heating prior to supramolecular gelation to control the balance between hydrogen‐bonding and aromatic stacking interactions in supramolecular gels and obtain consequent systematic regulation of structure and properties is demonstrated. Using a model aromatic peptide amphiphile, Fmoc‐tyrosyl‐leucine (Fmoc‐YL) and a combination of fluorescence, infrared, circular dichroism and NMR spectroscopy, it is shown that the balance of these interactions can be adjusted by temporary exposure to elevated temperatures in the range 313–365 K, followed by supramolecular locking in the gel state by cooling to room temperature. Distinct regimes can be identified regarding the balance between H‐bonding and aromatic stacking interactions, with a transition point at 333 K. Consequently, gels can be obtained with customizable properties, including supramolecular chirality and gel stiffness. The differential supramolecular structures also result in changes in proteolytic stability, highlighting the possibility of obtaining a range of supramolecular architectures from a single molecular structure by simply controlling the pre‐assembly temperature.
  • Investigation of molecular and mesoscale clusters in undersaturated glycine aqueous solutions

    Zimbitas, G.; Jawor-Baczynska, A.; Vesga, M.J.; Javid, Nadeem; Moore, B.D.; Parkinson, J.; Sefcik, J. (2019-10)
    In this work DLS, NTA, SAXS and NMR were used to investigate populations, size distributions and structure of clusters in undersaturated aqueous solutions of glycine. Molecular and colloidal scale (mesoscale) clusters with radii around 0.3-0.5 nm and 100–150 nm, respectively, were observed using complementary experimental techniques. Molecular clusters are consistent with hydrated glycine dimers present in equilibrium with glycine monomers in aqueous solutions. Mesoscale clusters previously observed in supersaturated glycine solutions appear to be indefinitely stable, in mutual equilibrium within mesostructured undersaturated solutions across all glycine concentrations investigated here, down to as low as 1 mg/g of water.
  • Endoplasmic reticulum stress signalling induces casein kinase 1-dependent formation of cytosolic TDP-43 Inclusions in motor neuron-like cells

    Hicks, D.A.; Cross, Laura L.; Williamson, Ritchie; Rattray, Marcus (2019)
    Motor neuron disease (MND) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease with no effective treatment. One of the principal pathological hallmarks is the deposition of TAR DNA binding protein 43 (TDP-43) in cytoplasmic inclusions. TDP-43 aggregation occurs in both familial and sporadic MND; however, the mechanism of endogenous TDP-43 aggregation in disease is incompletely understood. This study focused on the induction of cytoplasmic accumulation of endogenous TDP-43 in the motor neuronal cell line NSC-34. The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stressor tunicamycin induced casein kinase 1 (CK1)-dependent cytoplasmic accumulation of endogenous TDP-43 in differentiated NSC-34 cells, as seen by immunocytochemistry. Immunoblotting showed that induction of ER stress had no effect on abundance of TDP-43 or phosphorylated TDP-43 in the NP-40/RIPA soluble fraction. However, there were significant increases in abundance of TDP-43 and phosphorylated TDP-43 in the NP-40/RIPA-insoluble, urea-soluble fraction, including high molecular weight species. In all cases, these increases were lowered by CK1 inhibition. Thus ER stress signalling, as induced by tunicamycin, causes CK1-dependent phosphorylation of TDP-43 and its consequent cytosolic accumulation.
  • Magnetic geophysical mapping of prehistoric iron production sites in central Norway

    Stamnes, A.A.; Stenvik, L.F.; Gaffney, Christopher F. (2019-08)
    The slag pit furnace of the Trøndelag tradition for iron production is a very specific cultural-historical tradition in central Norway in the Early Iron Age, but few of these iron production sites have been excavated in their entirety and there is therefore a lack of information about their size, spatial layout and organisation in the landscape. The aim of this paper is therefore to investigate how magnetic geophysical methods can be used as a way of locating, delimiting and characterising activity zones and specific archaeological features associated with this tradition of iron production. The NTNU University Museum in Trondheim performed geophysical surveys of four different iron production sites, combining topsoil volume magnetic susceptibility measurements and detailed fluxgate gradiometer surveys. Analysing and comparing the survey results with sketches and topographic survey results, as well as comparable geophysical survey data from iron production sites elsewhere in Norway, made it possible to gain new and valuable cultural-historical and methodological knowledge. The topsoil volume susceptibility measurements revealed a strong contrast between the main production areas and the natural background measurement values, often in the range of 7–27 times the median background values. The absolute highest measured values were usually in the area closest to the furnaces, and within the slag mounds. Satellites of high readings could be interpreted as roasting sites for iron ore, and even areas with known building remains related to the iron production sites had readings stronger than the median. The fluxgate gradiometer data helped to characterise individual features further, with strong geophysical contrast between features within the iron production sites and the areas surrounding them. Also, by analysing their physical placement, geophysical characteristics such as contrast, magnetic remanence and size, it was possible to gain further insight into the spatial organisation by indicating the potential location of furnaces, the spread of slag and the handling of iron ore. The latter involved both where the roasted iron ore was stored and where it was roasted. The geophysical characteristics of the furnaces were less uniform than situations reported elsewhere in Norway, which can be explained by the reuse of furnaces and slag pits. The spread of highly remanent material in and around the furnaces and elsewhere within the limits of the iron production sites also created a disturbed magnetic picture rendering it difficult to provide an unambiguous archaeological interpretation of all the geophysical anomalies identified. In conclusion, these results showed that the geophysical methods applied made it possible to indicate the physical size, layout and internal spatial organisation of iron production sites of the Trøndelag slag pit furnace tradition.
  • Cellular uptake and efflux of palbociclib in vitro in single cell and spheroid models

    Jove, M.; Spencer, Jade A.; Hubbard, M.E.; Holden, E.C.; O'Dea, R.D.; Brook, B.S.; Phillips, Roger M.; Smye, S.W.; Loadman, Paul M.; Twelves, C.J. (2019)
    Adequate drug distribution through tumours is essential for treatment to be effective. Palbociclib is a cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) 4/6 inhibitor approved for use in patients with hormone receptor (HR) positive, HER2 negative metastatic breast cancer (BC). It has unusual physicochemical properties, which may significantly influence its distribution in tumour tissue. We studied the penetration and distribution of palbociclib in vitro, including the use of multicellular three-dimensional models and mathematical modelling. MCF-7 and DLD-1 cell lines were grown as single cell suspensions (SCS) and spheroids; palbociclib uptake and efflux were studied using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Intracellular concentrations of palbociclib for MCF-7 SCS (Cmax 3.22 µM) and spheroids (Cmax 2.91 µM) were 32 and 29 fold higher and in DLD-1, 13 and 7 fold higher, respectively than the media concentration (0.1 µM). Total palbociclib uptake was lower in DLD-1 cells than MCF-7 cells both in SCS and in spheroids. Both uptake and efflux of palbociclib were slower in spheroids than SCS. These data were used to develop a mathematical model of palbociclib transport that quantifies key parameters determining drug penetration and distribution. The model reproduced qualitatively most features of the experimental data and distinguished between SCS and spheroids, providing additional support for hypotheses derived from the experimental data. Mathematical modelling has the potential for translating in vitro data into clinically relevant estimates of tumour drug concentrations.
  • Precision pharmacology: Mass spectrometry imaging and pharmacokinetic drug resistance

    Jove, M.; Spencer, Jade A.; Clench, M.; Loadman, Paul M.; Twelves, C. (2019-09)
    Failure of systemic cancer treatment can be, at least in part, due to the drug not being delivered to the tumour at sufficiently high concentration and/or sufficiently homogeneous distribution; this is termed as “pharmacokinetic drug resistance”. To understand whether a drug is being adequately delivered to the tumour, “precision pharmacology” techniques are needed. Mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) is a relatively new and complex technique that allows imaging of drug distribution within tissues. In this review we address the applicability of MSI to the study of cancer drug distribution from the bench to the bedside. We address: (i) the role of MSI in pre-clinical studies to characterize anti-cancer drug distribution within the body and the tumour, (ii) the application of MSI in pre-clinical studies to define optimal drug dose or schedule, combinations or new drug delivery systems, and finally (iii) the emerging role of MSI in clinical research.
  • Development and validation of the vision-related dizziness questionnaire

    Armstrong, Deborah; Alderson, Alison J.; Davey, Christopher J.; Elliott, David B. (2018-05-29)
    Purpose: To develop and validate the first patient-reported outcome measure (PROM) to quantify vision-related dizziness. Dizziness is a common, multifactorial syndrome that causes reductions in quality of life and is a major risk factor for falls, but the role of vision is not well understood. Methods: Potential domains and items were identified by literature review and discussions with experts and patients to form a pilot PROM, which was completed by 335 patients with dizziness. Rasch analysis was used to determine the items with good psychometric properties to include in a final PROM, to check undimensionality, differential item functioning, and to convert ordinal questionnaire data into continuous interval data. Validation of the final 25-item instrument was determined by its convergent validity, patient, and item-separation reliability and unidimensionality using data from 223 patients plus test–retest repeatability from 79 patients. results: 120 items were originally identified, then subsequently reduced to 46 to form a pilot PROM. Rasch analysis was used to reduce the number of items to 25 to produce the vision-related dizziness or VRD-25. Two subscales of VRD-12-frequency and VRD-13-severity were shown to be unidimensional, with good psychometric properties. Convergent validity was shown by moderately good correlations with the Dizziness Handicap Inventory (r = 0.75) and good test–retest repeatability with intra-class correlation coefficients of 0.88. conclusion: VRD-25 is the only PROM developed to date to assess vision-related dizziness. It has been developed using Rasch analysis and provides a PROM for this under-researched area and for clinical trials of interventions to reduce vision-related dizziness.
  • Adherence to coronary artery disease secondary prevention medicines: exploring modifiable barriers

    Khatib, R.; Marshall, K.; Silcock, Jonathan; Forrest, C.; Hall, A.S. (2019-07)
    Background: Non-adherence to secondary prevention medicines (SPMs) among patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) remains a challenge in clinical practice. This study attempted to identify actual and potential modifiable barriers to adherence that can be addressed in cardiology clinical practice. Methods: This was a cross-sectional, postal survey-based study of the medicines-taking experience of patients with CAD treated at a secondary/tertiary care centre. All participants had been on SPM for ≥3 months. Results: In total, 696 eligible patients were sent the survey and 503 responded (72.3%). The median age was 70 years, and 403 (80.1%) were male; the median number of individual daily doses of all medicines was 6. The rate of non-adherence to at least one SPM was 43.5% (n=219), but 53.3% of reported non-adherence was to only one SPM. Statins contributed to 66.7% and aspirin to 61.7% of overall non-adherence identified by the Single Question (SQ) tool. In 30.8% of non-adherent patients (n=65), this was at least partly intentional. Barriers included forgetfulness (84.9%; n=186), worry that medicines will do more harm than good (33.8%; n=74), feeling hassled about medicines taking (18.7%; n=41), feeling worse when taking medicines (14.2%; n=31) and not being convinced of the benefit of medicines (9.1%; n=20). In a multivariate analysis, modifiable factors associated with overall non-adherence included being prescribed aspirin (OR: 2.22; 95% CI: 1.18 to 4.17), having specific concern about SPM (OR: 1.12; 95% CI: 1.07 to 1.18) and issues with repeat prescriptions (OR: 2.48; 95% CI: 1.26 to 4.90). Different factors were often associated with intentional versus unintentional non-adherence. Conclusions: Using appropriate self-report tools, patients share actual and potential modifiable barriers to adherence that can be addressed in clinical practice. Non-adherence behaviour was selective. Most non-adherence was driven by forgetfulness, concern about the harm caused by SPM and practical barriers.
  • Short phosphate glass fiber - PLLA composite to promote bone mineralization

    Melo, P.; Tarrant, E.; Swift, Thomas; Townshend, A.; German, M.; Ferreira, A-M.; Gentile, P.; Dalgarno, K. (Elsevier, 2019)
    The clinical application of composites seeks to exploit the mechanical and chemical properties of materials which make up the composite, and in researching polymer composites for biomedical applications the aim is usually to enhance the bioactivity of the polymer, while maintaining the mechanical properties. To that end, in this study medical grade Poly(L-lactic) acid (PLLA) has been reinforced with short phosphate-based glass fibers (PGF). The materials were initially mixed by melting PLLA granules with the short fibers, before being extruded to form a homogenous filament, which was pelletized and used as feedstock for compression moulding. As made the composite materials had a bending strength of 51 MPa ± 5, and over the course of eight weeks in PBS the average strength of the composite material was in the range 20–50 MPa. Human mesenchymal stromal cells were cultured on the surfaces of scaffolds, and the metabolic activity, alkaline phosphatase production and mineralization monitored over a three week period. The short fiber filler made no significant difference to cell proliferation or differentiation, but had a clear and immediate osteoinductive effect, promoting mineralization by cells at the material surface. It is concluded that the PLLA/PGF composite material offers a material with both the mechanical and biological properties for potential application to bone implants and fixation, particularly where an osteoinductive effect would be valuable.
  • Molecular insights on the interference of simplified lung surfactant models by gold nanoparticle pollutants

    Hossain, S.I.; Gandhi, N.S.; Hughes, Zak E.; Gu, Y.T.; Saha, S.C. (2019-08-01)
    Inhaled nanoparticles (NPs) are experienced by the first biological barrier inside the alveolus known as lung surfactant (LS), a surface tension reducing agent, consisting of phospholipids and proteins in the form of the monolayer at the air-water interface. The monolayer surface tension is continuously regulated by the alveolus compression and expansion and protects the alveoli from collapsing. Inhaled NPs can reach deep into the lungs and interfere with the biophysical properties of the lung components. The interaction mechanisms of bare gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) with the LS monolayer and the consequences of the interactions on lung function are not well understood. Coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulations were carried out to elucidate the interactions of AuNPs with simplified LS monolayers at the nanoscale. It was observed that the interactions of AuNPs and LS components deform the monolayer structure, change the biophysical properties of LS and create pores in the monolayer, which all interfere with the normal lungs function. The results also indicate that AuNP concentrations >0.1 mol% (of AuNPs/lipids) hinder the lowering of the LS surface tension, a prerequisite of the normal breathing process. Overall, these findings could help to identify the possible consequences of airborne NPs inhalation and their contribution to the potential development of various lung diseases.
  • Asymmetries between achromatic and chromatic extraction of 3D motion signals

    Kaestner, M.; Maloney, R.T.; Wailes-Newson, K.H.; Bloj, Marina; Harris, J.M.; Morland, A.B.; Wade, A.R. (2019-06)
    Motion in depth (MID) can be cued by high-resolution changes in binocular disparity over time (CD), and low-resolution interocular velocity differences (IOVD). Computational differences between these two mechanisms suggest that they may be implemented in visual pathways with different spatial and temporal resolutions. Here, we used fMRI to examine how achromatic and S-cone signals contribute to human MID perception. Both CD and IOVD stimuli evoked responses in a widespread network that included early visual areas, parts of the dorsal and ventral streams, and motion-selective area hMT+. Crucially, however, we measured an interaction between MID type and chromaticity. fMRI CD responses were largely driven by achromatic stimuli, but IOVD responses were better driven by isoluminant S-cone inputs. In our psychophysical experiments, when S-cone and achromatic stimuli were matched for perceived contrast, participants were equally sensitive to the MID in achromatic and S-cone IOVD stimuli. In comparison, they were relatively insensitive to S-cone CD. These findings provide evidence that MID mechanisms asymmetrically draw on information in precortical pathways. An early opponent motion signal optimally conveyed by the S-cone pathway may provide a substantial contribution to the IOVD mechanism.
  • Organometallic iridium arene compounds: the effects of C-donor ligands on anticancer activity

    Lord, Rianne M.; McGowan, P.C. (2019-05)
    In the past decade, libraries of iridium organometallic arene compounds have expanded rapidly, with the majority of their applications aimed towards effective catalysts and potential anti-cancer drug candidates. Researchers have begun to adapt the traditional “piano-stool” structures to include different bidentate ligands, ancillary ligands and extend the aromaticity and functionality of the arene substituent, all in the hope to optimize their activities and allow the determination of structure activity relationships. Many of the complexes incorporate N- and O-donor ligands, but more recently, these structures have been expanded to include C-donor ligands such as cyclometalated bidentate ligands and N-heterocyclic carbenes. This mini-review highlights the recent and ongoing research in C-donor iridium arene complexes, and discusses their importance as potential anticancer drugs.
  • Evaluating recruitment methods of patients with advanced cancer: a pragmatic opportunistic comparison

    Edwards, Zoe; Bennett, M.I.; Petty, Duncan R.; Blenkinsopp, Alison (2019)
    Background: Recruitment of patients with advanced cancer into studies is challenging. Objective: To evaluate recruitment methods in a study of pharmacist-led cancer pain medicines consultations and produce recommendations for future studies. Method: Two methods of recruitment were employed: 1) community-based (general practitioner computer search, identification by general practitioner, community pharmacist or district nurse and hospital outpatient list search), and 2) hospice-based (in and outpatient list search). Patients identified in method 1 were invited by post and in method 2 were invited face-to-face. Information was designed in collaboration with patients and carers. Results: 128 patients were identified (85 from the community and 43 from the hospice), 47 met the inclusion criteria. Twenty-three agreed to take part and 19 completed the study, 17 of whom were already under specialist palliative care. Recruitment rates were 7% for community-based methods and 40% for hospice. The recruitment methods differed in intensity of resource use. Recruitment via letter and a lack of engagement by healthcare professionals were found to be barriers. Facilitators included the researcher having personal involvement in recruitment. Conclusion: The overall recruitment rate was in line with other studies for this patient cohort. Attempts to identify and engage patients through community-based postal contact were less effective than where personal contact with patients was both possible and occurred. Methods were less successful at recruiting patients who were not already engaged with hospice services.
  • Inactivation of apaziquone by haematuria: implications for the design of phase III clinical trials against non-muscle invasive bladder cancer

    Phillips, Roger M.; Loadman, Paul M.; Reddy, G. (2019-06)
    Purpose: Despite positive responses in phase II clinical trials, the bioreductive prodrug apaziquone failed to achieve statistically significant activity in non-muscle invasive bladder cancer in phase III trials. Apaziquone was administered shortly after transurethral resection and here we test the hypothesis that haematuria inactivates apaziquone. Methods: HPLC analysis was used to determine the ability of human whole blood to metabolise apaziquone ex vivo. An in vitro model of haematuria was developed and the response of RT112 and EJ138 cells following a 1-h exposure to apaziquone was determined in the presence of urine plus or minus whole blood or lysed whole blood. Results: HPLC analysis demonstrated that apaziquone is metabolised by human whole blood with a half-life of 78.6±23.0 min. As a model for haematuria, incubation of cells in media containing up to 75% buffered (pH 7.4) urine and 25% whole blood was not toxic to cells for a 1-h exposure period. Whole blood (5% v/v) significantly (p<0.01) reduced the potency of apaziquone in this experimental model. Lysed whole blood also significantly (p<0.05) reduced cell growth, although higher concentrations were required to achieve an effect (15% v/v). Conclusions: The results of this study demonstrate that haematuria can reduce the potency of apaziquone in this experimental model. These findings impact upon the design of further phase III clinical trials and strongly suggest that apaziquone should not be administered immediately after transurethral resection of non-muscle invasive bladder cancer when haematuria is common.
  • Excavations at Old Scatness, Shetland. Volume 3: The Post-medieval township

    Dockrill, Stephen J.; Bond, Julie M.; Turner, V.E.; Brown, L.D.; Bashford, D.J.; Cussans, Julia E.; Nicholson, R.A. (Shetland Heritage Publications, 2019)
  • Perceived time is spatial frequency dependent

    Aaen-Stockdale, Craig; Hotchkiss, John; Heron, James; Whitaker, David J. (2011-06-01)
    We investigated whether changes in low-level image characteristics, in this case spatial frequency, were capable of generating a well-known expansion in the perceived duration of an infrequent “oddball” stimulus relative to a repeatedly-presented “standard” stimulus. Our standard and oddball stimuli were Gabor patches that differed from each other in spatial frequency by two octaves. All stimuli were equated for visibility. Rather than the expected “subjective time expansion” found in previous studies, we obtained an equal and opposite expansion or contraction of perceived time dependent upon the spatial frequency relationship of the standard and oddball stimulus. Subsequent experiments using equi-visible stimuli reveal that mid-range spatial frequencies (ca. 2 c/deg) are consistently perceived as having longer durations than low (0.5 c/deg) or high (8 c/deg) spatial frequencies, despite having the same physical duration. Rather than forming a fixed proportion of baseline duration, this bias is constant in additive terms and implicates systematic variations in visual persistence across spatial frequency. Our results have implications for the widely cited finding that auditory stimuli are judged to be longer in duration than visual stimuli.
  • The MK2 cascade regulates mGluR-dependent synaptic plasticity and reversal learning

    Privitera, Lucia; Hogg, Ellen L.; Gaestel, M.; Wall, M.J.; Corrêa, Sonia A.L. (2019-09-01)
    The ability to either erase or update the memories of a previously learned spatial task is an essential process that is required to modify behaviour in a changing environment. Current evidence suggests that the neural representation of such cognitive flexibility involves the balancing of synaptic potentiation (acquisition of memories) with synaptic depression (modulation and updating previously acquired memories). Here we demonstrate that the p38 MAPK/MAPK-activated protein kinase 2 (MK2) cascade is required to maintain the precise tuning of long-term potentiation and long-term depression at CA1 synapses of the hippocampus which is correlated with efficient reversal learning. Using the MK2 knockout (KO) mouse, we show that mGluR-LTD, but not NMDAR-LTD, is markedly impaired in mice aged between 4 and 5 weeks (juvenile) to 7 months (mature adult). Although the amplitude of LTP was the same as in wildtype mice, priming of LTP by the activation of group I metabotropic receptors was impaired in MK2 KO mice. Consistent with unaltered LTP amplitude and compromised mGluR-LTD, MK2 KO mice had intact spatial learning when performing the Barnes maze task, but showed specific deficits in selecting the most efficient combination of search strategies to perform the task reversal. Findings from this study suggest that the mGluR-p38-MK2 cascade is important for cognitive flexibility by regulating LTD amplitude and the priming of LTP.
  • A bridge too far: is a degree the right path?

    Binns, Carole L. (2019-03-07)
    Studies of graduate destinations generally report positive outcomes for working-class graduates, particularly professionally validated programmes such as pharmacy or social work, which offer specific career pathways. However, I know of working-class graduates with good degrees from good institutions who are in relatively menial positions in the leisure and retail sector. It is as if such students are unable to move beyond working-class jobs and embrace the middle-class careers that a degree should unlock.

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