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  • Using a smartphone on the move: do visual constraints explain why we slow walking speed?

    Rubio Barañano, Alejandro; Faisal, Muhammad; Barrett, Brendan T.; Buckley, John G. (Springer Nature, 2021)
    Viewing one’s smartphone whilst walking commonly leads to a slowing of walking. Slowing walking-speed may occur because of safety concerns or because of visual constraints. We determine how walking-induced phone motion affects the ability to read on-screen information. Phone-reading performance (PRP) was assessed whilst participants walked on a treadmill at various speeds. The fastest speed was repeated, wearing an elbow-brace (Braced) or with the phone mounted stationary (Fixed). An audible cue (‘text-alert’), indicated participants had 2 seconds to lift/view the phone and read aloud a series of digits. PRP was the number of digits read correctly. Each condition was repeated 5 times. 3D-motion analyses determined phone-motion relative to the head, from which the variability in acceleration in viewing distance, and in the gaze angles in the up-down and right-left directions were assessed. A main-effect of condition indicated PRP decreased with walking speed; particularly so for the Braced and Fixed conditions (p=0.022). Walking condition also affected the phone’s relative motion (p
  • CLEAR - Orthokeratology

    Vincent, S.J.; Cho, P.; Chan, K.Y.; Fadel, D.; Ghorbani Mojarrad, Neema; González-Méijome, J.M.; Johnson, L.; Kang, P.; Michaud, L.; Simard, P.; et al. (2021-04)
    Orthokeratology (ortho-k) is the process of deliberately reshaping the anterior cornea by utilising specialty contact lenses to temporarily and reversibly reduce refractive error after lens removal. Modern ortho-k utilises reverse geometry lens designs, made with highly oxygen permeable rigid materials, worn overnight to reshape the anterior cornea and provide temporary correction of refractive error. More recently, ortho-k has been extensively used to slow the progression of myopia in children. This report reviews the practice of ortho-k, including its history, mechanisms of refractive and ocular changes, current use in the correction of myopia, astigmatism, hyperopia, and presbyopia, and standard of care. Suitable candidates for ortho-k are described, along with the fitting process, factors impacting success, and the potential options for using newer lens designs. Ocular changes associated with ortho-k, such as alterations in corneal thickness, development of microcysts, pigmented arcs, and fibrillary lines are reviewed. The safety of ortho-k is extensively reviewed, along with an overview of non-compliant behaviours and appropriate disinfection regimens. Finally, the role of ortho-k in myopia management for children is discussed in terms of efficacy, safety, and potential mechanisms of myopia control, including the impact of factors such as initial fitting age, baseline refractive error, the role of peripheral defocus, higher order aberrations, pupil size, and treatment zone size.
  • Fast versus gradual adaptation of soft monthly contact lenses in neophyte wearers

    Wolffsohn, J.S.; Ghorbani Mojarrad, Neema; Vianya-Estopa, M.; Nagra, M.; Huntjens, B.; Terry, L.; Sweeney, L.E.; Dutta, D.; Joshi, M.R.; Wright, D.; et al. (2021)
    To determine if a gradual adaptation period is necessary for neophytes when fitted with modern hydrogel or silicone hydrogel reusable disposable contact lenses. Across four sites, 74 neophytes (18-28 years) were randomly assigned to a reusable lens cleaned nightly with Opti-Free® Puremoist® multi-purpose contact lens solution: Proclear® (hydrogel) or Biofinity® (silicone hydrogel) and an adaptation schedule: fast (10 h wear from the first day) or gradual (4 h on the first day, increasing their wear time by 2 h on each subsequent day until they had reached 10 h). Masked investigators graded ocular surface physiology and non-invasive tear breakup time (NIBUT) and a range of comfort, vision and lens handling subjective ratings (0-100 visual analogue scales) were recorded at the baseline visit and after 10 h of lens wear, 4-6 days and 12-14 days after lens fitting. Subjective scores were also repeated after 7 days. There was no difference (p > 0.05) in ocular surface physiology or NIBUT between fast and gradual adaptation groups at any time point in either lens type with the exception of increased corneal staining (p = 0.019) in the silicone hydrogel fast adaptation group after 4-6 days, but was similar by 12-14 days. Subjective scores were also similar across the visits and lens types with the exception of 'lens awareness' (p = 0.019) which was less in the gradual versus the fast adaptation silicone hydrogel lens group at 12-14 days. There seems to be no clinical benefit for recommending a gradual adaptation period in new wearers fitted with modern soft reusable disposable contact lenses. The findings of this work add to a growing body of evidence suggesting that such advice is unnecessary in regular soft contact lens wear, which has important ramifications for the initial clinical management of these patients.
  • An epidermal-specific role for arginase1 during cutaneous wound repair

    Crompton, R.A.; Williams, H.; Campbell, L.; Lim, H.K.; Saville, C.; Ansell, David M.; Reid, A.; Wong, J.; Vardy, L.A.; Hardman, M.J.; et al. (2021)
    Non-healing wounds are a major area of unmet clinical need remaining problematic to treat. Improved understanding of pro-healing mechanisms is invaluable. The enzyme arginase1 is involved in pro-healing responses with its role in macrophages best characterized. Arginase1 is also expressed by keratinocytes; however, arginase1 function in these critical wound repair cells is not understood. We characterized arginase1 expression in keratinocytes during normal cutaneous repair and reveal de novo temporal and spatial expression at the epidermal wound edge. Interestingly, epidermal arginase1 expression was decreased in both human and murine delayed healing wounds. We therefore generated a keratinocyte specific arginase1-null mouse model (K14-cre;Arg1fl/fl) to explore arginase function. Wound repair, linked to changes in keratinocyte proliferation, migration and differentiation, was significantly delayed in K14-cre;Arg1fl/fl mice. Similarly, using the arginase inhibitor nor-NOHA, human in vitro and ex vivo models further confirmed this finding, revealing the importance of the downstream polyamine pathway in repair. Indeed, restoring the balance in arginase1 activity via addition of putrescine, proved beneficial in wound closure. In summary, we demonstrate that epidermal arginase1 plays a, to our knowledge, previously unreported intrinsic role in cutaneous healing, highlighting epidermal arginase1 and downstream mediators as potential targets for the therapeutic modulation of wound repair.
  • Patients' views of visual field testing and priorities for research development and translation into practice

    Muthusamy, V.; Turpin, A.; Nguyen, B.N.; Denniss, Jonathan; McKendrick, A.M. (2021-10)
    There is limited information regarding the views of patients, as healthcare consumers, on visual field testing, and no information regarding their preferences for future test developments. This study aimed to increase knowledge of patients' subjective experience of visual field assessment and to explore their opinions and priorities regarding current active areas of research and development. Online questionnaire with purposive sampling design. Adults who regularly perform visual field tests in Australia who report having glaucoma or being at risk of glaucoma. An anonymous survey, implemented using the Qualtrics webtool, with both closed and open ended questions designed to explore opinions regarding visual field testing, visit attendance for perimetry, as well as priorities for developments. The survey assessed three domains: 1) opinions regarding visual field test duration and visit frequency; 2) subjective experience; and 3) perspectives on future developments for perimetry. 152 complete survey responses were obtained. The median (IQR) age of participants was 66 (60-72) years. Most participants (70%) had experience of performing more than 11 visual field tests. Participants recalled that they completed visual field tests in median of 6 minutes (IQR: 5-8 minutes) and were willing to accept additional time (median: 5, IQR: 3-6 minutes) to obtain more information. Participants were prepared to increase both the number of visual field tests per eye and the frequency of visual field tests (median: 3, IQR: 2-4 visits per year), in order to gain more information about their visual status. Regarding future developments, the most preferred option was "similar test times but an increase in the level of information about my visual field", which ranked significantly higher than all other options including "shorter test times that maintain the currently available level of information about my visual field." Our study confirms, in a different population and healthcare system, previous research reporting patient perspectives on visual field assessment. We further reveal that healthcare consumers show a strong preference for accurate information about their vision and report being prepared to undergo longer visual field tests or more visual field tests to achieve that outcome.
  • Enhanced Objective Detection of Retinal Nerve Fiber Bundle Defects in Glaucoma With a Novel Method for En Face OCT Slab Image Construction and Analysis

    Cheloni, R.; Dewsbery, S.D.; Denniss, Jonathan (2021-10-04)
    To introduce and evaluate the performance in detecting glaucomatous abnormalities of a novel method for extracting en face slab images (SMAS), which considers varying individual anatomy and configuration of retinal nerve fiber bundles. Dense central retinal spectral domain optical coherence tomography scans were acquired in 16 participants with glaucoma and 19 age-similar controls. Slab images were generated by averaging reflectivity over different depths below the inner limiting membrane according to several methods. SMAS considered multiple 16 µm thick slabs from 8 to 116 µm below the inner limiting membrane, whereas 5 alternative methods considered single summary slabs of various thicknesses and depths. Superpixels in eyes with glaucoma were considered abnormal if below the first percentile of distributions fitted to control data for each method. The ability to detect glaucoma defects was measured by the proportion of abnormal superpixels. Proportion of superpixels below the fitted first percentile in controls was used as a surrogate false-positive rate. The effects of slab methods on performance measures were evaluated with linear mixed models. The ability to detect glaucoma defects varied between slab methods, χ2(5) = 120.9, P
  • Fundus-controlled perimetry (microperimetry): Application as outcome measure in clinical trials

    Pfau, M.; Jolly, J.K.; Wu, Z.; Denniss, Jonathan; Lad, E.M.; Guymer, R.H.; Fleckenstein, M.; Holz, F.G.; Schmitz-Valckenberg, S. (2021-05)
    Fundus-controlled perimetry (FCP, also called 'microperimetry') allows for spatially-resolved mapping of visual sensitivity and measurement of fixation stability, both in clinical practice as well as research. The accurate spatial characterization of visual function enabled by FCP can provide insightful information about disease severity and progression not reflected by best-corrected visual acuity in a large range of disorders. This is especially important for monitoring of retinal diseases that initially spare the central retina in earlier disease stages. Improved intra- and inter-session retest-variability through fundus-tracking and precise point-wise follow-up examinations even in patients with unstable fixation represent key advantages of these technique. The design of disease-specific test patterns and protocols reduces the burden of extensive and time-consuming FCP testing, permitting a more meaningful and focused application. Recent developments also allow for photoreceptor-specific testing through implementation of dark-adapted chromatic and photopic testing. A detailed understanding of the variety of available devices and test settings is a key prerequisite for the design and optimization of FCP protocols in future natural history studies and clinical trials. Accordingly, this review describes the theoretical and technical background of FCP, its prior application in clinical and research settings, data that qualify the application of FCP as an outcome measure in clinical trials as well as ongoing and future developments.
  • What Are the Barriers and Enablers to the Implementation of Pharmacogenetic Testing in Mental Health Care Settings?

    Jameson, Adam; Fylan, Beth; Bristow, Greg C.; Sagoo, G.S.; Dalton, C.; Cardno, A.; Sohal, J.; McLean, Samantha L. (2021-09-22)
    In psychiatry, the selection of antipsychotics and antidepressants is generally led by a trial-and-error approach. The prescribing of these medications is complicated by sub-optimal efficacy and high rates of adverse drug reactions (ADRs). These both contribute to poor levels of adherence. Pharmacogenetics (PGx) considers how genetic variation can influence an individual’s response to a drug. Pharmacogenetic testing is a tool that could aid clinicians when selecting psychotropic medications, as part of a more personalized approach to prescribing. This may improve the use of and adherence to these medications. Yet to date, the implementation of PGx in mental health environments in the United Kingdom has been slow. This review aims to identify the current barriers and enablers to the implementation of PGx in psychiatry and determine how this can be applied to the uptake of PGx by NHS mental health providers. A systematic searching strategy was developed, and searches were carried out on the PsychInfo, EmBase, and PubMed databases, yielding 11 appropriate papers. Common barriers to the implementation of PGx included cost, concerns over incorporation into current workflow and a lack of knowledge about PGx; whilst frequent enablers included optimism that PGx could lead to precision medicine, reduce ADRs and become a more routine part of psychiatric clinical care. The uptake of PGx in psychiatric care settings in the NHS should consider and overcome these barriers, while looking to capitalize on the enablers identified in this review.
  • USP11 controls R-loops by regulating senataxin proteostasis

    Jurga, Mateusz; Abugable, A.A.; Goldman, Alastair S.H.; El-Khamisy, Sherif F. (2021)
    R-loops are by-products of transcription that must be tightly regulated to maintain genomic stability and gene expression. Here, we describe a mechanism for the regulation of the Rloop- specific helicase, senataxin (SETX), and identify the ubiquitin specific peptidase 11 (USP11) as an R-loop regulator. USP11 de-ubiquitinates SETX and its depletion increases SETX K48-ubiquitination and protein turnover. Loss of USP11 decreases SETX steady-state levels and reduces R-loop dissolution. Ageing of USP11 knockout cells restores SETX levels via compensatory transcriptional downregulation of the E3 ubiquitin ligase, KEAP1. Loss of USP11 reduces SETX enrichment at KEAP1 promoter, leading to R-loop accumulation, enrichment of the endonuclease XPF and formation of double-strand breaks. Overexpression of KEAP1 increases SETX K48-ubiquitination, promotes its degradation and R-loop accumulation. These data define a ubiquitination-dependent mechanism for SETX regulation, which is controlled by the opposing activities of USP11 and KEAP1 with broad applications for cancer and neurological disease.
  • Scales of relevance and the importance of ambiguity

    Croucher, Karina T.; AHRC, University of Bradford and the Higher Education Innovation Fund. (2021-08)
  • Probing the role of Val228 on the catalytic activity of Scytalidium catalase

    Goc, G.; Balci, B.A.; Yorke, Briony A.; Pearson, Y.; Yuzugullu Karakus, Y. (2021-08)
    Scytalidium catalase is a homotetramer including heme d in each subunit. Its primary function is the dismutation of H2O2 to water and oxygen, but it is also able to oxidase various small organic compounds including catechol and phenol. The crystal structure of Scytalidium catalase reveals the presence of three linked channels providing access to the exterior like other catalases reported so far. The function of these channels has been extensively studied, revealing the possible routes for substrate flow and product release. In this report, we have focussed on the semi-conserved residue Val228, located near to the vinyl groups of the heme at the opening of the lateral channel. Its replacement with Ala, Ser, Gly, Cys, Phe and Ile were tested. We observed a significant decrease in catalytic efficiency in all mutants with the exception of a remarkable increase in oxidase activity when Val228 was mutated to either Ala, Gly or Ser. The reduced catalytic efficiencies are characterized in terms of the restriction of hydrogen peroxide as electron acceptor in the active centre resulting from the opening of lateral channel inlet by introducing the smaller side chain residues. On the other hand, the increased oxidase activity is explained by allowing the suitable electron donor to approach more closely to the heme. The crystal structures of V228C and V228I were determined at 1.41 and 1.47 Å resolution, respectively. The lateral channels of the V228C and V228I presented a broadly identical chain of arranged waters to that observed for wild-type enzyme.
  • Social status and diet. Reconstruction of diet of individuals buried in some early medieval chamber graves from Poland by carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes analysis

    Blaszczyck, D.; Beaumont, Julia; Krzyszowski, A.; Poliński, D.; Drozd-Lipińska, A. (Science Direct, 2021-08)
    The study presents results of the investigations of diet based on carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios (δ13C and δ15N) of the bone collagen of individuals buried in medieval elite chamber graves from the territory of the state of the first Piasts, Poland (the second half of the 10th and the first half of the 11th century). The aim of the research was to determine the diet of individuals buried in such funerary structures, to compare this with commoners buried in ordinary graves, and investigate any sex-related patterns. Rib bone samples were taken from individuals buried in chamber graves at Bodzia, Dziekanowice, Pień and Sowinki. Results indicate that the elite male diet was based on C3 plants with possible contribution of some C4 plants (millet) and substantial consumption of animal proteins including fish. The bone collagen δ13C and δ15N of male chamber burials suggested consumption of higher trophic level foodstuffs (meat and fish) whilst the female diet, and that of the juveniles, was similar to the commoners in the rest of the population.
  • A Pharmacist view of the impact/management of medicines shortages (MedS) in the pharmaceutical supply chain (Spain)

    Sai Reddy Jetty, V.; Breen, Liz; Acosta Gomez, J. (Pharmacy Education, 2020-09)
  • Stressors and coping mechanisms of family care-givers of older relatives living with long-term conditions in mainland China: A scoping review of the evidence

    Bífárìn, Oládayò, O.; Quinn, Catherine; Breen, Liz; Wu, C.; Ke, M.; Yu, L.; Oyebode, Jan R. (Cambridge University Press, 2021)
    As the ageing population in China continues to grow, more people will be living with long-term health conditions and require support from family care-givers. This scoping review therefore aims to explore sources of stress and coping mechanisms adopted by care-givers of older relatives living with long-term conditions in mainland China. Literature searches were conducted in English (CINAHL, EMBASE, MEDLINE, PsycINFO and SCOPUS) and Chinese (CNKI, WANFANG DATA, CQVIP and CBM) databases between October and November 2019. The searches focused on the stressors and coping mechanisms utilised by family care-givers residing in the community. Narrative synthesis was used to identify themes within the data. Forty-six papers were included: 20 papers from English and 26 from Chinese databases. Six themes captured stressors: care-giving time (N = 22), financial resources (N = 17), role and personal strains (N = 42), preparedness (N = 4), social roles (N = 10) and lack of adequate formal support (N = 22); and one theme captured coping (N = 14). Unmet needs of care-givers of older relatives in mainland China were found to be extensive. Only a few studies had attempted to explore the causal link between stressors, coping and the influence of culture. Findings underscore the significance of adequately capturing intricacies around care-givers’ unmet needs, rather than generalising on the basis of culture. Qualitative studies are critical to providing a better understanding of the relationship between stressors, coping and resources afforded to care-givers by their cultural environment. Having such understanding is crucial to inform the development of competent care, which promotes self-efficacy and self-actualisation in care-givers in mainland China.
  • An exploration of the impact of SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) restrictions on marginalised groups in the UK

    Eshareturi, Cyril; Wareham, C.; Rattray, Marcus; Haith-Cooper, Melanie; McCarthy, R. (2021-08)
    Background: To contain the spread of COVID-19 within the UK over the past year, there have been a series of local and national lockdowns. These restrictions are likely to have impacted upon the health and well-being of marginalised groups who rely on now closed social and community support services to stay healthy. An understanding of the experiences of marginalised people is important; therefore, this study aimed to explore the impact of the COVID-19 restrictions on the health and well-being of marginalised groups in the UK. Methods: In summer 2020, a rapid telephone survey was conducted by trained, trusted volunteers with 76 participants who were from marginalised groups. As part of this survey, 64 participants consented to describe their experience of lockdown. These case studies were thematically analysed to identify patterns of meaning. Results: Findings indicate that lockdown led to the deterioration of health of participants, impacted adversely on their socio-economic positions and affected access to food and essential supplies. In addition, government public health messaging was considered confusing and inadequate. Conclusions: This study highlights the need for pathways into services which support marginalised groups to remain accessible during periods of restrictions and essential supplies and food to be mapped and protected for marginalised individuals within our local communities.
  • Digest of Evidence 9, The Human Bone

    Clark, J.; Garner-Lahire, J.; Spall, C.; Toop, N.; Curtis-Summers, Shirley (2021-06)
  • Patient Perspectives on Factors Affecting Direct Oral Anticoagulant Use for Stroke Prevention in Atrial Fibrillation

    Medlinskiene, Kristina; Richardson, S.; Fylan, Beth; Stirling, K.; Rattray, Marcus; Petty, Duncan (2021-05-10)
    Introduction: Oral anticoagulant therapy choices for patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) expanded in the last decade with the introduction of direct oral anticoagulants (DOAC). However, the implementation of DOACs was slow and varied across different health economies in England. There is limited evidence on the patient role in the uptake of new medicines, including DOACs, apart from considering their demographic and clinical characteristics. Hence, this study aimed to address the gap by exploring the view of patients with AF on factors affecting DOAC use. Methods: A qualitative study using semi-structured interviews was conducted in three health economies in the North of England. Adult patients (>18 years) diagnosed with non-valvular AF, prescribed an oral anticoagulant (vitamin K antagonist or DOAC), and able to give written consent were recruited. Data were collected between August 2018 and April 2019. Audio recorded interviews were transcribed verbatim and analyzed using the framework method. Results: Four themes with eleven subthemes discussed identified factors affecting the use of DOACs. They were linked to limited healthcare financial and workforce resources, patient involvement in decision-making, patient knowledge about DOACs, safety concerns about oral anticoagulants, and oral anticoagulant therapy impact on patients' daily lives. Lack of a) opportunities to voice patient preferences and b) information on available therapy options resulted in some patients experiencing difficulties with the prescribed therapy. This was reported to cause negative impact on their daily lives, adherence, and overall satisfaction with the therapy. Conclusion: Greater patient involvement in decision-making could prevent and resolve difficulties encountered by some patients and potentially improve outcomes plus increase the uptake of DOACs.
  • Probing cytochrome P450 (CYP) bioactivation with chloromethylindoline bioprecursors derived from the duocarmycin family of compounds

    Ortuzar, N.; Karu, K.; Presa, Daniela; Morais, Goreti R.; Sheldrake, Helen M.; Shnyder, Steve D.; Barnieh, Francis M.; Loadman, Paul M.; Patterson, Laurence H.; Pors, Klaus; et al. (2021-06-15)
    The duocarmycins belong to a class of agent which has great potential for use in cancer therapy. Their exquisite potency means they are too toxic for systemic use, and targeted approaches are required to unlock their clinical potential. In this study, we have explored seco-OH-chloromethylindoline (CI) duocarmycin-based bioprecursors for their potential for cytochrome P450 (CYP)-mediated cancer cell kill. We report on synthetic and biological explorations of racemic seco-CI-MI, where MI is a 5-methoxy indole motif, and dehydroxylated analogues. We show up to a 10-fold bioactivation of de-OH CI-MI and a fluoro bioprecursor analogue in CYP1A1-transfected cells. Using CYP bactosomes, we also demonstrate that CYP1A2 but not CYP1B1 or CYP3A4 has propensity for potentiating these compounds, indicating preference for CYP1A bioactivation.
  • How can the potential of the duocarmycins be unlocked for cancer therapy?

    Jukes, Zoë; Morais, Goreti R.; Loadman, Paul M.; Pors, Klaus (2021-02)
    The duocarmycins belong to a class of agent that has fascinated scientists for over four decades. Their exquisite potency, unique mechanism of action, and efficacy in multidrug-resistant tumour models makes them attractive to medicinal chemists and drug hunters. However, despite great advances in fine-tuning biological activity through structure-activity relationship studies (SARS), no duocarmycin-based therapeutic has reached clinical approval. In this review, we provide an overview of the most promising strategies currently used and include both tumour-targeted prodrug approaches and antibody-directed technologies.
  • Luminal Bioavailability of Orally Administered ω-3 PUFAs in the Distal Small Intestine, and Associated Changes to the Ileal Microbiome, in Humans with a Temporary Ileostomy

    Nana, G.; Mitra, S.; Watson, H.; Young, C.; Wood, H.M.; Perry, S.L.; Race, Amanda D.; Quirke, P.; Toogood, G.J.; Loadman, Paul M.; et al. (2021-05)
    Background: Oral administration of purified omega-3 (ω-3) PUFAs is associated with changes to the fecal microbiome. However, it is not known whether this effect is associated with increased PUFA concentrations in the gut. Objectives: We investigated the luminal bioavailability of oral ω-3 PUFAs (daily dose 1 g EPA and 1g DHA free fatty acid equivalents as triglycerides in soft-gel capsules, twice daily) and changes to the gut microbiome, in the ileum. Methods: Ileostomy fluid (IF) and blood were obtained at baseline, after first capsule dosing (median 2 h), and at a similar time after final dosing on day 28, in 11 individuals (median age 63 y) with a temporary ileostomy. Fatty acids were measured by LC–tandem MS. The ileal microbiome was characterized by 16S rRNA PCR and Illumina sequencing. Results: There was a mean 6.0 ± 9.8-fold and 6.6 ± 9.6-fold increase in ileal EPA and DHA concentrations (primary outcome), respectively, at 28 d, which was associated with increased RBC ω-3 PUFA content (P ≤ 0.05). The first oral dose did not increase the ileal ω-3 PUFA concentration except in 4 individuals, who displayed high luminal EPA and DHA concentrations, which reduced to concentrations similar to the overall study population at day 28, suggesting physiological adaptation. Bacteroides, Clostridium, and Streptococcus were abundant bacterial genera in the ileum. Ileal microbiome variability over time and between individuals was large, with no consistent change associated with acute ω-3 PUFA dosing. However, high concentrations of EPA and DHA in IF on day 28 were associated with higher abundance of Bacteroides (r2 > 0.86, P < 0.05) and reduced abundance of other genera, including Actinomyces (r2 > 0.94, P < 0.05). Conclusions: Oral administration of ω-3 PUFAs leads to increased luminal ω-3 PUFA concentrations and changes to the microbiome, in the ileum of individuals with a temporary ileostomy.

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