Bradford Scholars is the University of Bradford online research archive. Access is free to anyone interested in research being conducted at Bradford. In the repository you will find a range of materials from journal articles and conference papers to research reports and theses.
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Nanoindentation analysis of oriented polypropylene: Influence of elastic properties in tension and compression(2018-08)Polypropylene has been oriented by solid-phase deformation processing to draw ratios up to ∼16, increasing tensile stiffness along the draw direction by factors up to 12. Nanoindentation of these materials showed that moduli obtained for indenter tip motion along the drawing direction (3) into to 1–2 plane (axial indentation) were up to 60% higher than for indenter tip motion along the 2 direction into the 1–3 plane (transverse indentation). In static tests, tensile and compressive determinations of elastic modulus gave results differing by factors up to ∼5 for strain along the draw direction. A material model incorporating both orthotropic elasticity and tension/compression asymmetry was developed for use with Finite Element simulations. Elastic constants for the oriented polypropylene were obtained by combining static testing and published ultrasonic data, and used as input for nanoindentation simulations that were quantitatively successful. The significance of the tension/compression asymmetry was demonstrated by comparing these predictions with those obtained using tensile data only, which gave predictions of indentation modulus higher by up to 70%.
Experimental study on the flexural behavior of ECC-concrete hybrid composite beams reinforced with FRP and steel bars(2018)This paper aims to investigate the flexural behavior of engineered cementitious composite (ECC)-concrete hybrid composite beams reinforced with fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) bars and steel bars. Thirty two hybrid reinforced composite beams having various ECC height replacement ratio and combinations of FRP and steel reinforcements were experimentally tested to failure in flexure. Test results showed that cracking, yield and ultimate moments as well as the stiffness of hybrid and ECC beams are improved compared with traditional concrete beams having the same reinforcement, owing to the excellent tensile properties of ECC materials. The average crack spacing and width decrease with the increase of ECC height replacement ratio. The ductility of hybrid reinforced composite beams is higher than that of traditional reinforced concrete beams while their practical reinforcement ratios are similar. Reinforced ECC beams show considerable energy dissipation capacity owing to ECC’s excellent deformation ability. Considering the constitutive models of materials, compatibility and equilibrium conditions, formulas for the prediction of cracking, yield and ultimate moments as well as deflections of hybrid reinforced ECC-concrete composite beams are developed. The proposed formulas are in good agreement with the experimental results. A comprehensive parametric analysis is, then, conducted to illustrate the effect of reinforcement, ECC and concrete properties on the moment capacity, curvature, ductility and energy dissipation of composite beams.
Polynuclear complexes as precursor templates for hierarchical microporous graphitic carbon: An unusual approach(2018-07)A highly porous carbon was synthesized using a coordination complex as an unusual precursor. During controlled pyrolysis, a trinuclear copper complex, [CuII3Cl4(H2L)2]·CH3OH, undergoes phase changes with melt and expulsion of different gases to produce a unique morphology of copper-doped carbon which, upon acid treatment, produces highly porous graphitic carbon with a surface area of 857 m2 g–1 and a gravimetric hydrogen uptake of 1.1 wt % at 0.5 bar pressure at 77 K.
Team-based Learning: Engaging learners and creating team accountability(2018-06)Team-based Learning (TBL) is a new teaching strategy that may take small group learning to a new level of effectiveness. TBL shifts the focus from content delivery by teachers to the application of course content by student teams. Teams work on authentic problems, make collaborative decisions, and develop problem-solving skills required in their future workplace. Prior to redesigning the MPharm programme according to TBL principles, several pilots were set up to research how students responded to this new way of teaching. One pilot focussed on the introduction of TBL as a phenomena and aimed to find out if and how TBL engaged students, how students were held accountable by their teams, and more importantly how that affected their lifeworld. Ashworth’s lifeworld contingencies provided the theoretical framework as it ranges from students’ selfhood, embodiment and social interactions to their ability to carry out tasks they are committed to and regard as essential (Ashworth, 2003).
Social and political elements of inclusive practice(2016-02-25)Laying claim to highest attainable standard of health is a human right. Support for this right is provided by the United Nations Declaration of Human Rights (United Nations [UN], 1948) and a small number of legally binding international treaties. Among the most important of these for health are the International Covenant on Economic, Social, and Cultural Rights (ICESCR) (UN, 1966a) and the Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) (UN, 1989). Both these human rights treaties are legally binding for those countries that have ratified them. The ICESCR, in particular, articulates a comprehensive view of the obligations of state members of the United Nations (UN) to respect, protect and fulfil the right to the enjoyment of the highest attainable standard of physical and mental health – known as ‘the right to health’. It provides for both freedoms, such as the right to be free from non-consensual and uninformed medical treatment, medical experimentation, or forced HIV testing, as well as entitlements. These entitlements include the right to a system of protection on an equal basis for all, a system of prevention, treatments and control of disease, access to essential medicines, and services for sexual and reproductive health; and access to information and education about health for everyone. The Committee on Economic, Social, and Cultural Rights (ECSCR) monitors compliance with these provisions. Most states have ratified the ICESCR, and all but two (Somalia and the US) have ratified the CRC.