Bradford Scholars is the University of Bradford online research archive. Access is free to anyone interested in research being conducted at Bradford. In the repository you will find a range of materials from journal articles and conference papers to research reports and theses.

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  • Refractive management of patients undergoing cataract surgery. The development of pre and post-operative refractive management guidelines for patients undergoing cataract surgery in the UK

    Elliott, David B.; Alderson, Alison J.; Charlesworth, Emily (University of BradfordSchool of Optometry and Vision Science. Faculty of Life Sciences, 2022)
    Cataract surgery is the most commonly performed surgery within the UK with 400,000 surgeries performed each year. Currently no guidelines exist for clinicians regarding target refraction discussions, spectacle provision post-operatively and driving advice following surgery. The PhD aimed to start the process of developing pre- and post-operative management guidelines for patients developed by both optometrists and ophthalmologists which could then be disseminated to both professions in the hope of improving the overall outcome of surgery. The current literature highlighted target refraction discussions were lacking or non-existent which left some myopes dissatisfied after surgery due to an emmetropic target refraction leaving them unable to read without glasses as they did prior to surgery. Target refraction discussions were found to be linked with years of experience and this needs further exposure in continuing professional development. Post-operative driving advice was found to be inconsistent and vary between practitioners and between optometry and ophthalmology. Advice was found to vary from driving “immediately” following surgery up to 6 weeks post-operatively. Re-analysis of (de Juan et al. 2013) data during our systematic review and meta-analysis found refraction to be stable 1-2 weeks following surgery for 93% of patients. It was found a large change between pre- and post-surgery cylindrical power/axis may be an indicator that refractive stability has not occurred. Although this study had limitations it confirmed refraction is stable sooner than the current guidelines of 4-6 weeks. Finally, we used a Delphi process to develop refractive management guidelines with a total of fifteen recommendations finalised.
  • Perspectives of minority ethnic caregivers of people with dementia interviewed as part of the IDEAL programme

    Victor, C.R.; van den Heuvel, E.; Pentecost, C.; Quinn, Catherine; Charlwood, C.; Clare, L. (2024)
    Postwar migrants from the Caribbean and Indian subcontinent (Bangladesh, India, and Pakistan) to the UK are now experiencing the onset of age-related diseases such as dementia. Our evidence base, both quantitative and qualitative, documenting the experiences of family caregivers of people with dementia is largely drawn from studies undertaken with white European, North American, and Australasian populations. Consequently, there is a need for research in the field of dementia caregiving to reflect the increasing diversity in ethnic identities of the older adult population of the UK. Using semistructured interviews, we investigated the experiences of 18 caregivers of people with dementia in Black Caribbean, Black African, and South Asian (Indian, Pakistani, and Bangladeshi) communities in England. Participants were recruited from the Join Dementia Research platform and were predominantly female intergenerational carers. We identified the following three themes: motivation to care (spending time with the care recipient and reciprocity), positive and negative consequences of caregiving (rewards and consequences), and the cultural context of caregiving (cultural norms and values supporting caregiving and negative attitudes towards dementia). Our findings develop existing literature by identifying (a) the importance of spending time with the person they care for, (b) the absence of faith as a caregiving driver, and (c) the challenge of watching the declining health of a parent. We highlight how the different motivations to care are intertwined and dynamic. This is illustrated by the linking of obligation and reciprocity in our dataset and positive and negative experiences of caregiving.
  • The Galaxy platform for accessible, reproducible, and collaborative data analyses: 2024 update

    Abueg, L.A.L.; Afgan, E.; Allart, O.; Awan, A.H.; Bacon, W.A.; Baker, D.; Bassetti, M.; Batut, B.; Bernt, M.; Blankenberg, D.; et al. (2024-07-05)
    Galaxy ( is deployed globally, predominantly through free-to-use services, supporting user-driven research that broadens in scope each year. Users are attracted to public Galaxy services by platform stability, tool and reference dataset diversity, training, support and integration, which enables complex, reproducible, shareable data analysis. Applying the principles of user experience design (UXD), has driven improvements in accessibility, tool discoverability through Galaxy Labs/subdomains, and a redesigned Galaxy ToolShed. Galaxy tool capabilities are progressing in two strategic directions: integrating general purpose graphical processing units (GPGPU) access for cutting-edge methods, and licensed tool support. Engagement with global research consortia is being increased by developing more workflows in Galaxy and by resourcing the public Galaxy services to run them. The Galaxy Training Network (GTN) portfolio has grown in both size, and accessibility, through learning paths and direct integration with Galaxy tools that feature in training courses. Code development continues in line with the Galaxy Project roadmap, with improvements to job scheduling and the user interface. Environmental impact assessment is also helping engage users and developers, reminding them of their role in sustainability, by displaying estimated CO2 emissions generated by each Galaxy job.
  • Fast Fourier transforms and fast Wigner and Weyl functions in large quantum systems

    Lei, Ci; Vourdas, Apostolos (2024-05)
    Two methods for fast Fourier transforms are used in a quantum context. The first method is for systems with dimension of the Hilbert space with d an odd integer, and is inspired by the Cooley-Tukey formalism. The ‘large Fourier transform’ is expressed as a sequence of n ‘small Fourier transforms’ (together with some other transforms) in quantum systems with d-dimensional Hilbert space. Limitations of the method are discussed. In some special cases, the n Fourier transforms can be performed in parallel. The second method is for systems with dimension of the Hilbert space with odd integers coprime to each other. It is inspired by the Good formalism, which in turn is based on the Chinese reminder theorem. In this case also the ‘large Fourier transform’ is expressed as a sequence of n ‘small Fourier transforms’ (that involve some constants related to the number theory that describes the formalism). The ‘small Fourier transforms’ can be performed in a classical computer or in a quantum computer (in which case we have the additional well known advantages of quantum Fourier transform circuits). In the case that the small Fourier transforms are performed with a classical computer, complexity arguments for both methods show the reduction in computational time from to . The second method is also used for the fast calculation of Wigner and Weyl functions, in quantum systems with large finite dimension of the Hilbert space.
  • Proportion of Antipsychotics with CYP2D6 Pharmacogenetic (PGx) Associations Prescribed in an Early Intervention in Psychosis (EIP) Cohort: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Jameson, Adam; Faisal, Muhammad; Fylan, Beth; Bristow, Greg C.; Sohal, J.; Dalton, C.; Sagoo, G.S.; Cardno, A.G.; McLean, Samantha (2024-04)
    Background: Prescribing drugs for psychosis (antipsychotics) is challenging due to high rates of poor treatment outcomes, which are in part explained by an individual’s genetics. Pharmacogenomic (PGx) testing can help clinicians tailor the choice or dose of psychosis drugs to an individual’s genetics, particularly psychosis drugs with known variable response due to CYP2D6 gene variants (‘CYP2D6-PGx antipsychotics’). Aims: This study aims to investigate differences between demographic groups prescribed ‘CYP2D6-PGx antipsychotics’ and estimate the proportion of patients eligible for PGx testing based on current pharmacogenomics guidance. Methods: A cross-sectional study took place extracting data from 243 patients’ medical records to explore psychosis drug prescribing, including drug transitions. Demographic data such as age, sex, ethnicity, and clinical sub-team were collected and summarised. Descriptive statistics explored the proportion of ‘CYP2D6-PGx antipsychotic’ prescribing and the nature of transitions. We used logistic regression analysis to investigate associations between demographic variables and prescription of ‘CYP2D6-PGx antipsychotic’ versus ‘non-CYP2D6-PGx antipsychotic’. Results: Two-thirds (164) of patients had been prescribed a ‘CYP2D6-PGx antipsychotic’ (aripiprazole, risperidone, haloperidol or zuclopenthixol). Over a fifth (23%) of patients would have met the suggested criteria for PGx testing, following two psychosis drug trials. There were no statistically significant differences between age, sex, or ethnicity in the likelihood of being prescribed a ‘CYP2D6-PGx antipsychotic’. Conclusions: This study demonstrated high rates of prescribing ‘CYP2D6-PGx-antipsychotics’ in an EIP cohort, providing

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