Bradford Scholars is the University of Bradford online research archive. Access is free to anyone interested in research being conducted at Bradford. In the repository you will find a range of materials from journal articles and conference papers to research reports and theses.

Contact the repository team via with any queries about Open Access or to deposit your research papers.



Shown below is a list of communities and the collections and sub-communities within them. Click on a name to view that community or collection home page.

  • Organometallic iridium arene compounds: the effects of C-donor ligands on anticancer activity

    Lord, Rianne M.; McGowan, P.C. (2019)
    In the past decade, libraries of iridium organometallic arene compounds have expanded rapidly, with the majority of their applications aimed towards effective catalysts and potential anti-cancer drug candidates. Researchers have begun to adapt the traditional “piano-stool” structures to include different bidentate ligands, ancillary ligands and extend the aromaticity and functionality of the arene substituent, all in the hope to optimize their activities and allow the determination of structure activity relationships. Many of the complexes incorporate N- and O-donor ligands, but more recently, these structures have been expanded to include C-donor ligands such as cyclometalated bidentate ligands and N-heterocyclic carbenes. This mini-review highlights the recent and ongoing research in C-donor iridium arene complexes, and discusses their importance as potential anticancer drugs.
  • The effect of electronic word of mouth communications on intention to buy: A meta-analysis

    Ismagilova, Elvira; Slade, E.L.; Rana, N.P.; Dwivedi, Y.K. (2019)
    The aim of this research is to synthesise findings from previous studies by employing weight and meta-analysis to reconcile conflicting evidence and draw a “big picture” of eWOM factors influencing consumers’ intention to buy. By using the findings from 69 studies, this research identified best (e.g. argument quality, valence, eWOM usefulness, trust in message), promising (e.g. eWOM credibility, emotional trust, attitude towards website) and least effective (e.g. volume, existing eWOM, source credibility) predictors of intention to buy in eWOM research. Additionally, the effect size of each predictor was calculated by performing meta-analysis. For academics, understanding what influences consumers’ intention to buy will help set the agenda for future research directions; for practitioners, it will provide benefit in terms of practical guidance based on detailed analysis of specific factors influencing consumers’ intention to buy, which could enhance their marketing activities.
  • Inactivation of apaziquone by haematuria: implications for the design of phase III clinical trials against non-muscle invasive bladder cancer

    Phillips, Roger M.; Loadman, Paul M.; Reddy, G. (2019-06)
    Purpose: Despite positive responses in phase II clinical trials, the bioreductive prodrug apaziquone failed to achieve statistically significant activity in non-muscle invasive bladder cancer in phase III trials. Apaziquone was administered shortly after transurethral resection and here we test the hypothesis that haematuria inactivates apaziquone. Methods: HPLC analysis was used to determine the ability of human whole blood to metabolise apaziquone ex vivo. An in vitro model of haematuria was developed and the response of RT112 and EJ138 cells following a 1-h exposure to apaziquone was determined in the presence of urine plus or minus whole blood or lysed whole blood. Results: HPLC analysis demonstrated that apaziquone is metabolised by human whole blood with a half-life of 78.6±23.0 min. As a model for haematuria, incubation of cells in media containing up to 75% buffered (pH 7.4) urine and 25% whole blood was not toxic to cells for a 1-h exposure period. Whole blood (5% v/v) significantly (p<0.01) reduced the potency of apaziquone in this experimental model. Lysed whole blood also significantly (p<0.05) reduced cell growth, although higher concentrations were required to achieve an effect (15% v/v). Conclusions: The results of this study demonstrate that haematuria can reduce the potency of apaziquone in this experimental model. These findings impact upon the design of further phase III clinical trials and strongly suggest that apaziquone should not be administered immediately after transurethral resection of non-muscle invasive bladder cancer when haematuria is common.
  • Excavations at Old Scatness, Shetland. Volume 3: The Post-medieval township

    Dockrill, Stephen J.; Bond, Julie M.; Turner, V.E.; Brown, L.D.; Bashford, D.J.; Cussans, Julia E.; Nicholson, R.A. (Shetland Heritage Publications, 2019)
  • Perceived time is spatial frequency dependent

    Aaen-Stockdale, Craig; Hotchkiss, John; Heron, James; Whitaker, David J. (2011-06-01)
    We investigated whether changes in low-level image characteristics, in this case spatial frequency, were capable of generating a well-known expansion in the perceived duration of an infrequent “oddball” stimulus relative to a repeatedly-presented “standard” stimulus. Our standard and oddball stimuli were Gabor patches that differed from each other in spatial frequency by two octaves. All stimuli were equated for visibility. Rather than the expected “subjective time expansion” found in previous studies, we obtained an equal and opposite expansion or contraction of perceived time dependent upon the spatial frequency relationship of the standard and oddball stimulus. Subsequent experiments using equi-visible stimuli reveal that mid-range spatial frequencies (ca. 2 c/deg) are consistently perceived as having longer durations than low (0.5 c/deg) or high (8 c/deg) spatial frequencies, despite having the same physical duration. Rather than forming a fixed proportion of baseline duration, this bias is constant in additive terms and implicates systematic variations in visual persistence across spatial frequency. Our results have implications for the widely cited finding that auditory stimuli are judged to be longer in duration than visual stimuli.

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