Bradford Scholars is the University of Bradford online research archive. Access is free to anyone interested in research being conducted at Bradford. In the repository you will find a range of materials from journal articles and conference papers to research reports and theses.

Contact the repository team via with any queries about Open Access or how to deposit your research papers.



Shown below is a list of communities and the collections and sub-communities within them. Click on a name to view that community or collection home page.

  • Geophysical investigation of the neolithic Calanais landscape

    Bates, C.R.; Bates, M.; Gaffney, Christopher F.; Gaffney, Vincent L.; Raub, T.D. (2019-12)
    The northern and western isles of Scotland have proved fertile ground for archaeological investigation over the last 100 years. However, the nature of the landscape with its rugged coastlines and irregular topography, together with rapid peat growth rates, make for challenging surveying. Commonly, an archaeological monument or series of monuments is identified but little is known about the surrounding areas and, in particular, the palaeo-landscapes within which the monuments are located. This situation is exemplified by the standing stones of Calanais in Lewis. Here, surrounding peat bogs have buried a significant portion of the landscape around which the stones were first erected. This project identifies remote sensing geophysical techniques that are effective in mapping the buried (lost) landscape and thus aid better contextualisation of the stone monuments within it. Further, the project demonstrates the most appropriate techniques for prospecting across these buried landscapes for as yet unidentified stone features associated with the lives of the people who constructed the monuments.
  • Increased expression of TLR7 and TLR9 in alopecia areata

    Kang, H.; Wu, W-Y.; Yu, M.; Shapiro, J.; McElwee, Kevin J. (2020)
    Alopecia areata (AA) is thought to be an autoimmune process. In other autoimmune diseases, the innate immune system and Toll‐like receptors (TLRs) can play a significant role. Expression of TLR7, TLR9 and associated inducible genes was evaluated by quantitative PCR in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from 10 healthy individuals and 19 AA patients, categorized according to disease duration, activity and hair loss extent. Microdissected scalp biopsies from five patients and four controls were also assessed by quantitative PCR and immunohistology. TLR9 was significantly upregulated 2.37 fold in AA PBMCs. Notably, TLR9 was most significantly upregulated in patients with active AA, as shown by a positive hair pull test, compared to stable AA patients. In hair follicle bulbs from AA patients, IFNG and TLR7 exhibited statistically significant 3.85 and 2.70 fold increases in mRNA, respectively. Immunohistology revealed TLR7 present in lesional follicles, while TLR9 positive cells were primarily observed peri‐bulbar to AA affected hair follicles. The increased expression of TLR7 and TLR9 suggest components of the innate immune system may be active in AA pathogenesis.
  • Unconditional quantile regression analysis of UK inbound tourist expenditures

    Sharma, Abhijit; Woodward, R.; Grillini, Stefano (2020-01)
    Using International Passenger Survey (2017) data, this paper employs unconditional quantile regression (UQR) to analyse the determinants of tourist expenditure amongst inbound tourists to the United Kingdom. UQR allows us to estimate heterogeneous effects at any quantile of the distribution of the dependent variable. It overcomes the econometric limitations of ordinary least squares and quantile regression based estimates typically used to investigate tourism expenditures. However, our results reveal that the effects of our explanatory variables change across the distribution of tourist expenditure. This has important implications for those tasked with devising policies to enhance the UK’s tourist flows and expenditures.
  • Perspectives on the future of manufacturing within the Industry 4.0 era

    Hughes, L.; Dwivedi, Y.K.; Rana, Nripendra P.; Williams, M.D.; Raghaven, V. (2020)
    The technological choices facing the manufacturing industry are vast and complex as the industry contemplates the increasing levels of digitization and automation in readiness for the modern competitive age. These changes broadly categorized as Industry 4.0, offer significant transformation challenges and opportunities, impacting a multitude of operational aspects of manufacturing organizations. As manufacturers seek to deliver increased levels of productivity and adaptation by innovating many aspects of their business and operational processes, significant challenges and barriers remain. The roadmap toward Industry 4.0 is complex and multifaceted, as manufacturers seek to transition toward new and emerging technologies, whilst retaining operational effectiveness and a sustainability focus. This study approaches many of these significant themes by presenting a critical evaluation of the core topics impacting the next generation of manufacturers, challenges and key barriers to implementation. These factors are further evaluated via the presentation of a new Industry 4.0 framework and alignment of I4.0 themes with the UN Sustainability Goals.
  • What doesnt kill you: Early life health and nutrition in early Anglo Saxon East Anglia

    Kendall, E.J.; Millard, A.; Beaumont, Julia; Gowland, R.; Gorton, Marise; Gledhill, Andrew R. (Springer Nature, 2020)
    Early life is associated with high vulnerability to morbidity and mortality - risks which can be reduced in infancy and early childhood through strategically high levels of parental or alloparental investment, particularly in the case of maternal breastfeeding. Recent evidence has supported links between early-life health and care patterns and long-term population health. This growing body of research regarding the broader impacts of infant-parent interactions transcends a traditional partitioning of research into discrete life stages. It also highlights implications of childhood data for our understanding of population health and behaviour. Skeletal and environmental data indicate that the 5-7th century cemeteries at Littleport and Edix Hill (Barrington A), Cambridgeshire represent populations of similar material culture but contrasting environments and health. The high prevalence of skeletal stress markers at Littleport indicates a community coping with unusual levels of biological stress, potentially a consequence of endemic malaria present in the marshy Fen environs. In contrast, Edix Hill was an inland site which exhibited lower skeletal stress marker prevalence comparable to wider British data for the early medieval period. Early life patterns relating to diet and physiological stress at Littleport (n=5) and Edix Hill (n=8) were investigated through analyses of carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes from incrementally-sampled deciduous dentine. Meaningful variation in isotopic values within and between populations was observed, and should be a focus of future interdisciplinary archaeological childhood studies.

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