Bradford Scholars is the University of Bradford online research archive. Access is free to anyone interested in research being conducted at Bradford. In the repository you will find a range of materials from journal articles and conference papers to research reports and theses.

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Shown below is a list of communities and the collections and sub-communities within them. Click on a name to view that community or collection home page.

  • Behaviour of buried pipes adjacent to ground voids under dynamic loading

    Mohamed, Mostafa H.A.; Sheehan, Therese; Aljaberi, Mohammad S.A.A. (University of BradfordSchool of Civil and Structural Engineering. Faculty of Engineering and Informatics, 2023)
    Protection of buried pipes is a serious issue that concerns countries around the world. Therefore, there is a need for new soil improvement techniques such as geosynthetic materials installation to protect these pipes from damage. This study used large-scale laboratory tests to study the behaviour of buried pipes. A total of 22 large-scale tests were performed to study the behaviour of buried flexible HDPE pipes with and without void presence under the protection of the geogrid reinforcing layers subjected to incrementally increasing cyclic loading. The presence of voids located at the spring-line of the flexible buried pipes, led to a considerable increase in the soil surface settlement, pressure recorded at the pipe crown, spring-line and invert, pipe deformation and strain recorded in the pipe wall. Increasing the pipe burial depth contributed to significant reductions in the soil surface settlement, pressure recorded at the pipe crown and invert, pipe deformation and strain recorded in the pipe wall. However, the void presence limited the contribution of increasing the pipe burial depth. The inclusion of a geogrid reinforcing layer contributed to a considerable reduction in the soil surface settlement, pressure recorded at the pipe crown, spring-line and invert, pipe deformation and strain recorded in the pipe wall. The use of a combination of geogrid reinforcing layers and increasing the pipe burial depth contributed in diminishing the ground void presence effect, where better pressure distribution inside the system was achieved. Consequently, more protection was provided to the buried pipe.
  • A State-of-the-Art Artificial intelligence model for Infectious Disease Outbreak Prediction. Infectious disease outbreak have been predicted in England and Wales using Artificial Intelligence, Machine learning, and Fast Fourier Transform for COVID-19.

    Youseffi, Mansour; Li, Jian-Ping; Fayad, Moataz B.M. (University of BradfordDepartment of Biomedical and Electronics Engineering. Faculty of Engineering and Informatics, 2023)
    The pandemic produced by the COVID-19 virus has resulted in an estimated 6.4 million deaths worldwide and a rise in unemployment rates, notably in the UK. Healthcare monitoring systems encounter several obstacles when regulating and anticipating epidemics. The study aims to present the AF-HIDOP model, an artificial neural network Fast Fourier Transform hybrid technique, for the early identification and prediction of the risk of Covid-19 spreading within a specific time and region. The model consists of the following five stages: 1) Data collection and preprocessing from reliable sources; 2) Optimal machine learning algorithm selection, with the Random Forest tree (RF) classifier achieving 94.4% accuracy; 3) Dimensionality reduction utilising principal components analysis (PCA) to optimise the impact of the data volume; 4) Predicting case numbers utilising an artificial neural network model, with 52% accuracy; 5) Enhancing accuracy by incorporating Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) feature extraction and ANN, resulting in 91% accuracy for multi-level spread risk classification. The AF-HIDOP model provides prediction accuracy ranging from moderate to high, addressing issues in healthcare-based datasets and costs of computing, and may have potential uses in monitoring and managing infectious disease epidemics.
  • Predicate Calculus for Perception-led Automata

    Neagu, Daniel; Campean, I. Felician; Byrne, Thomas J. (University of BradfordSchool of Engineering. Faculty of Engineering and Digital Technologies, 2023)
    Artificial Intelligence is a fuzzy concept. My role, as I see it, is to put down a working definition, a criterion, and a set of assumptions to set up equations for a workable methodology. This research introduces the notion of Artificial Intelligent Agency, denoting the application of Artificial General Intelligence. The problem being handled by mathematics and logic, and only thereafter semantics, is Self-Supervised Machine Learning (SSML) towards Intuitive Vehicle Health Management, in the domain of cybernetic-physical science. The present work stems from a broader engagement with a major multinational automotive OEM, where Intelligent Vehicle Health Management will dynamically choose suitable variants only to realise predefined variation points. Physics-based models infer properties of a model of the system, not properties of the implemented system itself. The validity of their inference depends on the models’ degree of fidelity, which is always an approximate localised engineering abstraction. In sum, people are not very good at establishing causality. To deduce new truths from implicit patterns in the data about the physical processes that generate the data, the kernel of this transformative technology is the intersystem architecture, occurring in-between and involving the physical and engineered system and the construct thereof, through the communication core at their interface. In this thesis it is shown that the most practicable way to establish causality is by transforming application models into actual implementation. The hypothesis being that the ideal source of training data for SSML, is an isomorphic monoid of indexical facts, trace-preserving events of natural kind.
  • Numerical study of steel–concrete composite cellular beam using demountable shear connectors

    Dai, Xianghe; Yang, Jie; Zhou, Kan; Sheehan, Therese; Lam, Dennis (20023-05)
    Steel concrete composite beams have been increasingly used in practice due to their advantages with respect to their structural features and constructability. However, in conventional composite beam systems composite action is applied via shear connectors welded at the top flange of the down-stand steel beam and embedded in the concrete slabs, making it less favourable for the beam system to be disassembled and reused. This paper presents a numerical study of a new composite beam system consisting of a cellular steel beam, metal deck flooring and demountable shear connectors. According to the experimental study, this composite beam system made the demounting, reassembly, and member reuse possible, and did not compromise the loading capacity. In the numerical study presented in the paper, a finite element model was developed and validated against the results obtained from the previous experimental study. The parametric study further examined the effects of concrete strength, shear connector arrangements and asymmetry ratios of steel beam section to the load capacity of the composite beam system. The analysis and comparison provided a deeper insight into the behaviour of this type of shear connector. Through this numerical study, the structural merits of the composite beam system using demountable shear connectors were highlighted. Finally, the mid-span plastic moment of the composite beam was predicted using the direction method provided in SCI publications and compared with the moment–deflection relationship obtained from FE modelling.
  • A critical realist exploration of the mother’s subjective experience of her relationship with her baby. The importance of recognising and supporting reciprocity in infant care and the barriers to achieving this

    Not named; Milne, Elizabeth J.M. (University of BradfordFaculty of Health Studies, 2022)
    Research emphasises the importance of the mother-infant relationship for infants’ well-being. To benefit interventions, the current research, using a critical realist lens, investigates an area that research has neglected, which is the subjective experience of the mother-infant relationship, including experiences of moments of connection. Bourdieu’s ‘thinking tools’ enables exploration of mechanisms that may affect the mother-infant relationship. How the study’s results can inform health visiting practice is considered. Six mothers were interviewed, four of whom participated in a video of their mother-infant interaction. Two focus groups, each with six health visitors, discussed their practice in the context of supporting the mother-infant relationship. Interpretative phenomenological analysis and thematic analysis were employed. This research indicated a high arousal state, referred to as Vigilantia, was experienced by mothers and infants. Vigilantia appeared to support mothers’ drive to make sense of their young infants but also seemed associated with mothers’ reliance on a discourse of the ‘traditional baby’, which stressed instrumental care and omitted the relational infant. The mothers found it difficult to make sense of the “bizarre” relational connection they felt for their infants. Health visitors described obstacles to supporting the mother-infant relationship associated with their service’s design and their role. Health visitors also seemed to identify with some mothers and in doing so could overlook the infants. Neoliberal values discount the relational and these values affect the experience of the mother-infant relationship. Ideas for improving practice are suggested, as well as acknowledgment of the need for social structural changes.

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