Bradford Scholars is the University of Bradford online research archive. Access is free to anyone interested in research being conducted at Bradford. In the repository you will find a range of materials from journal articles and conference papers to research reports and theses.
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Evaluation the performance of the tin (IV) oxide (SnO2) in the removal of sulfur compounds via oxidative-extractive desulfurization process for production an eco-friendly fuelCatalysts play a vital role in petroleum and chemical reactions. Intensified concerns for cleaner air with strict environmental regulations on sulfur content in addition to meet economic requirements have generated significant interests for the development of more efficient and innovative oxidative catalysts recently. In this study, a novel homemade nano catalyst (manganese oxide (MnO2) over tin (IV) oxide (SnO2)) was used for the first time as an effective catalyst in removing dibenzothiophene (DBT) from kerosene fuel using hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) as oxidant in catalytic oxidative-extractive desulfurization process (OEDS). The catalyst was prepared by impregnation method with various amount of MnO2 loaded on SnO2. The oxidation step was carried out at different operating parameters such as reaction temperature and reaction time in batch reactor. The extractive desulfurization step was performed by using acetonitrile as solvent under several operating conditions (agitation speed and mixing time). The activity of MnO2/SnO2 catalyst in removing various sulfur compounds from kerosene fuel at the best operating conditions was investigated in this work. The results of the catalyst characterization proved that a high dispersion of MnO2 over the SnO2 was obtained. The experiments showed that the highest DBT and various sulfur compounds removal efficiency from kerosene fuel under the best operating conditions (oxidation: 5% MnO2/SnO2, reaction temperature of 75 0C, and reaction time of 100 min, extraction: acetonitrile, agitation speed of 900 rpm, and mixing time of 30 min) via the catalytic oxidative-extractive desulfurization process was 92.4% and 91.2%, respectively. Also, the MnO2/SnO2 catalyst activity was studied after six consecutive oxidation cycles at the best operating conditions, and the catalyst prove satisfactory stability in terms of sulfur compounds removal. After that, the spent catalyst were regenerated by utilizing different solvents (methanol, ethanol and iso-octane), and the experimental data explained that iso-octane achieved highest regeneration efficiency.
Eight-Element Antenna Array with Improved Radiation Performances for 5G Hand-Portable DevicesThis study aims to introduce a new phased array design with improved radiation properties for future cellular networks. The procedure of the array design is simple and has been accomplished on a low-cost substrate material while offering several interesting features with high performance. Its schematic involves eight air-filled slot-loop metal-ring elements with a 1 × 8 linear arrangement at the top edge of the 5G smartphone mainboard. Considering the entire board area, the proposed antenna elements occupy an extremely small area. The antenna elements cover the range of 21–23.5 GHz sub-mm-wave 5G bands. Due to the air-filled function in the configurations of the elements, low-loss and high-performance radiation properties are observed. In addition, the fundamental characteristics of the introduced array are insensitive to various types of substrates. Moreover, its radiation properties have been compared with conventional arrays and better results have been observed. The proposed array appears with a simple design, a low complexity profile, and its attractive broad impedance bandwidth, end-fire radiation mode, wide beam steering, high radiation coverage, and stable characteristics meet the needs of 5G applications in future cellular communications. Additionally, the smartphone array design offers sufficient efficiency when it comes to the appearance and integration of the user’s components. Thus, it could be used in 5G hand-portable devices.
Evaluation of solar energy powered seawater desalination pro-cesses: A reviewSolar energy, amongst all renewable energies, has attracted inexhaustible attention all over the world as a supplier of sustainable energy. The energy requirement of major seawater desalination processes such as multistage flash (MSF), multi-effect distillation (MED) and reverse osmosis (RO) are fulfilled by burning fossil fuels, which impact the environment significantly due to the emission of greenhouse gases. The integration of solar energy systems into seawater desalination processes is an attractive and alternative solution to fossil fuels. This study aims to (i) assess the progress of solar energy systems including concentrated solar power (CSP) and photovoltaic (PV) to power both thermal and membrane seawater desalination processes including MSF, MED, and RO and (ii) evaluate the economic considerations and associated challenges with recommendations for further improvements. Thus, several studies on a different combination of seawater desalination processes of solar energy systems are reviewed and analysed concerning specific energy consumption and freshwater production cost. It is observed that although solar energy systems have the potential of reducing carbon footprint significantly, the cost of water production still favours the use of fossil fuels. Further research and development on solar energy systems are required to make their use in desalination economically viable. Alternatively, the carbon tax on the use of fossil fuels may persuade desalination industries to adopt renewable energy such as solar.
Applying a new technique, the interferon gamma liposomal delivery system to improve drug delivery in the treatment of Lung CancerLung cancer is one of the main causes of death worldwide, with most patients suffering from an advanced unresectable or metastatic non-small cell lung cancer. The mortality trends are mostly related to patterns of tobacco use, specifically from cigarettes. Tobacco is the basic etiological agent found as a consequence of the inhalation of tobacco smoke. Published data show the use of interferons (IFNs) in the treatment of lung tumours due to their potential in displaying antiproliferative, anti-angiogenic, immunoregulatory, and proapoptotic effects. Type1 IFNs have been employed as treatments for many types of cancer, both for haematological cancers and solid tumours. The IFN-γ (naked) functions as an anticancer agent against various forms of cancer. Hence, this study aimed to investigate the genoprotective and genotoxic effects of IFN-γ liposome (nano) on 42 blood samples from lung cancer patients, compared to the same sample size from healthy individuals. The effectiveness of IFN- γ liposome against oxidative stress was also evaluated in this study. A concentration of 100U/ml of IFN-γ liposome was used to treat the lymphocytes in: Comet and micronucleus assays, Comet repair, Western blotting and real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) were based on a preliminary test for the optimal dose. The lymphocytes from lung cancer patients presented with higher DNA damage levels than those of healthy individuals. IFN-γ liposome was not found to induce any DNA damage in the lymphocytes. Also, it caused a significant reduction in DNA damage in the lymphocytes from lung cancer patients in; Comet, Comet repair and micronucleus assays. Furthermore, the 100U/ml of IFN-γ liposome significantly reduced the oxidative stress caused by H2O2 and appeared to be effective in both groups using the Comet and micronucleus assays. Results from; Comet, Comet repair and micronucleus assays were consistent. The data obtained indicated that IFN-γ in both forms (naked INF-γ and INF-γ nano-liposome) may potentially be effective for the treatment of lung cancer and showed the ability of IFN-γ liposome to reduce the DNA damage more than the naked form. The IFN-γ in both forms has also shown anti-cancer potential in the lymphocytes from lung cancer patients by regulating the expression of p53, p21, Bcl-2 at mRNA and protein levels by up-regulating the p53 and p21 to mediate cell cycle arrest and DNA repair in lung cancer patients. The findings of this study are consistent with the view that the naked IFN-γ and liposome could have a significant role in cancer treatment, including lung cancer.
An Investigation into the Role of Local Government in Enhancing the Public Participation in Sindh, Pakistan: Policy and Practice in Service DeliveryIt is generally recognised that the primary role of the decentralise local governance is to establish closer relationship between rural communities and the governing authorities in local development. In Pakistan, the system of local governments has always been introduced by the non-democratic forces. The decentralised governments have often been discontinued by the civilian governments of Pakistan. This study has sought to examine the role of the decentralised local governance in initiating the local community participation in local development in the province of Sindh, Pakistan. This thesis responds the questions about the initiatives taken by the local government authorities and the genuine local community participation in local community development programs. It further explores the main barriers to local public participation in the local policy making and implementation in Sindh. The findings suggest that the challenges to participation have been ever increasing. The military establishment’s hold on the central state policies has weakened the public empowering national laws. Furthermore, the local government’s role to initiate meaningful local community involvement in development projects of the decentralised local governance has been engrossed by the hold of feudal lords, corruption, favouritism, and the attitude of indifference on the part of provincial and national governments. Thus, it is argued that, in such dominant military state and feudal lords’ system, there is no positive link between the local government reforms and the democratic participation in the local decision-making. Based on these findings, a realistic model for participation is introduced and relevant implications are considered.