Bradford Scholars is the University of Bradford online research archive. Access is free to anyone interested in research being conducted at Bradford. In the repository you will find a range of materials from journal articles and conference papers to research reports and theses.

Contact the repository team via with any queries about Open Access or to deposit your research papers.



Shown below is a list of communities and the collections and sub-communities within them. Click on a name to view that community or collection home page.

  • A Study of Environmental Policies and Regulations, Governance Structures and Environmental Performance: The Role of Female Directors

    Elmagrhi, M.; Ntim, C.G.; Elamer, Ahmed A.; Zhang, Q. (2018)
    This paper seeks to contribute to the existing business strategy and the environment literature by examining the effect of governance structures on environmental performance within a unique context of improving environmental governance, policies, regulations and management. Specifically, we investigate the extent to which corporate board gender diversity, including the proportion, age and level of education of female directors, affect environmental performance of Chinese publicly listed corporations. Using one of the largest Chinese datasets to-date, consisting of a sample of 383 listed A-shares from 2011 to 2015 (i.e., observations of 1,674), our findings are three-fold. First, we find that the proportion and age of female directors have a positive effect on the overall corporate environmental performance. Second, our findings indicate that the proportion and age of female directors also have a positive effect on the three individual environmental performance components, namely environmental (i) strategy, (ii) implementation and (iii) disclosure, respectively. Finally, and by contrast, we do not find any evidence that suggests that the level of education of female directors has any impact on environmental performance, neither the overall environmental performance measure nor its individual components. Our findings have important implication for regulators and policy-makers. Our evidence is robust to controlling for alternative measures, other governance and firm-level control variables, and possible endogeneities. We interpret our findings within a multi-theoretical framework that draws insights from agency, legitimacy, neo-institutional, resource dependence, stakeholder, and tokenism theoretical perspectives.
  • The Corporate Governance–Risk Taking Nexus: Evidence from Insurance Companies

    Elamer, Ahmed A.; AlHares, A.; Ntim, C.G.; Benyazid, I. (2018)
    This study examines the impact of internal corporate governance mechanisms on insurance companies’ risk-taking in the UK context. The study uses a panel data of all listed insurance companies on FTSE 350 over the 2005-2014 period. The results show that the board size and board meetings are significantly and negatively related to risk-taking. In contrast, the results show that board independence and audit committee size are statistically insignificant, but negatively related to risk-taking. The findings are robust to alternative measures and endogeneities. Our findings have important implications for investors, managers, regulators of financial institutions and effectiveness of corporate governance reforms that have been pursued.
  • A 70-W Asymmetrical Doherty Power Amplifier for 5G Base Stations

    Abdulkhaleq, Ahmed M.; Al-Yasir, Yasir; Ojaroudi Parchin, Naser; Brunning, J.; McEwan, N.; Rayit, A.; Abd-Alhameed, Raed A.; Noras, James M.; AbdulJabbar, N. (2018)
    Much attention has been paid to making 5G developments more en-ergy efficient, especially in view of the need for using high data rates with more complex modulation schemes within a limited bandwidth. The concept of the Doherty power amplifier for improving amplifier efficiency is explained in addi-tion to a case study of a 70W asymmetrical Doherty power Amplifier using two GaN HEMTs transistors with peak power ratings of 45W and 25W. The rationale for this choice of power ratio is discussed. The designed circuit works in the 3.4GHz frequency band with 200 MHz bandwidth. Rogers RO4350B substrate with dielectric constant εr=4.66 and thickness 0.035 mm is used. The perfor-mance analysis of the Doherty power amplifier is simulated using AWR MWO software. The simulated results showed that 54-64% drain efficiency has been achieved at 8 dB back-off within the specified bandwidth with an average gain of 10.7 dB.
  • Academies, managerialism and school teachers’ working lives: a labour process perspective

    Morrell, Sophie E. (2018)
    The English school sector has been transformed over recent decades through wide-ranging education policies. One far-reaching change has been the dramatic rise in academy schools driven by the Conservative-Liberal Democrat Coalition (2010-2015) (Stevenson 2016), with 64.7% of secondary state-funded schools now holding academy status (Department for Education 2018). A central issue emerging from this context is the changes to school teachers’ pay and working conditions, given that autonomy over employment terms and conditions transfer from local authorities to operating education trusts under the academy model (see Academies Act 2010). Stevenson (2011) importantly argued that rather than establishing new directions in education policy, recent changes – such as the academy expansion enterprise – solidify the long-standing trajectory of restructuring to public education, underpinned by neoliberal ideologies. Such projects seek to fragment a public service accountable to local authorities, superseding it with a state-subsidised system buttressed by predominantly private investors (Stevenson 2011); pressing schools into competition for students and resources (Connell 2009). Dovetailed in this setting, a significant study by Carter and Stevenson (2012:491), exploring workforce remodelling in teaching, found strong evidence for “an accelerated form of creeping managerialism,” with middle-grade teachers carrying increasing responsibility for the monitoring of colleagues. The combined effects of markets and managerialism, that bolster the grander-scale neoliberal project, have worked in unison to fundamentally recast teachers’ experiences of work (Stevenson and Wood 2013). Currently in its analytical phase, this PhD study, informed by a labour process theoretical (LPT) perspective, set out to explore (1) the various formal and informal structures and processes (control strategies) that impact on school teachers’ work, (2) how teachers experience those control strategies, (3) teachers’ orientations to work and (4) how teachers’ orientations to work interrelate with their experiences of control strategies. Several scholars employ an LPT perspective to facilitate critical studies of teachers’ work (for examples see Carter and Stevenson 2012; Stevenson and Wood 2013). Yet there remains a paucity of research that takes an LPT approach to the in-depth interpretive analysis of teachers’ work. Inspired by a call from Reid (2003) for research that combines LPT with detailed single-site ethnographic accounts, a qualitative ethnography of one academy school in Northern England was conducted over a four-month period. This comprised interviews with 26 teachers, senior managers, HR and trade union representatives; a six-week shadowing period; non-participant observations and document collection. This article focuses on two key issues relating to the impact of academies and widespread managerialism on teachers’ work experiences: working time and teaching preparation. In particular, it highlights the erosion of autonomy previously given to teachers to manage their own time, lessons and resources; with accounts of increased frustration at the rising mechanisation of teaching. The central contribution of this paper, therefore, is the application of LPT to the context of contemporary teachers’ work in England, to gain an in-depth understanding of the impact of academies and widespread managerialism on school teachers’ working lives.
  • Effect of thermal processing on the tribology of nanocrystalline Ni/TiO2 coatings

    Cooke, Kavian O.; Khan, T.I. (2018)
    The tribological performance of a nanocrystalline coating is heavily influenced by its composition, morphology, and microstructural characteristics. This research work describes the effect of heat treatment temperature on the microstructural, morphological, and mechanical behavior of nanocrystalline Ni/TiO2 coatings produced by electrophoresis. The surface morphology and coating cross section were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The composition of coatings and the percentage of TiO2 nanoparticles incorporated in the Ni matrix were studied and estimated by using an energy-dispersive spectroscopic (EDS) analysis, while x-ray diffractometry (XRD) was used to investigate the effect of heat treatment temperature on phase structure. The results showed agglomeration of TiO2 nanoparticles on the surface of the coating. The high hardness and wear resistance recorded for the as-deposited coating was attributed to the uniform distribution of TiO2 nanoparticle clusters throughout the cross section of the coating. Heat treatment of the Ni/TiO2 coatings to temperatures above 200 °C led to significant grain growth that changed the surface morphology of the coating and reduced the strengthening effects of the nanoparticles, thus causing a reduction in the hardness and wear resistance of the coatings.

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