Bradford Scholars is the University of Bradford online research archive. Access is free to anyone interested in research being conducted at Bradford. In the repository you will find a range of materials from journal articles and conference papers to research reports and theses.
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Hypothalamic Rax+ tanycytes contribute to tissue repair and tumorigenesis upon oncogene activation in miceHypothalamic tanycytes in median eminence (ME) are emerging as a crucial cell population that regulates endocrine output, energy balance and the diffusion of blood-born molecules. Tanycytes have recently been considered as potential somatic stem cells in the adult mammalian brain, but their regenerative and tumorigenic capacities are largely unknown. Here we found that Rax+ tanycytes in ME of mice are largely quiescent but quickly enter the cell cycle upon neural injury for self-renewal and regeneration. Mechanistically, Igf1r signaling in tanycytes is required for tissue repair under injury conditions. Furthermore, Braf oncogenic activation is sufficient to transform Rax+ tanycytes into actively dividing tumor cells that eventually develop into a papillary craniopharyngioma-like tumor. Together, these findings uncover the regenerative and tumorigenic potential of tanycytes. Our study offers insights into the properties of tanycytes, which may help to manipulate tanycyte biology for regulating hypothalamic function and investigate the pathogenesis of clinically relevant tumors.
Muscle deterioration due to rheumatoid arthritis: assessment by quantitative MRI and strength testingRA patients often present with low muscle mass and decreased strength. Quantitative MRI offers a non-invasive measurement of muscle status. This study assessed whether MRI-based measurements of T2, fat fraction, diffusion tensor imaging and muscle volume can detect differences between the thigh muscles of RA patients and healthy controls, and assessed the muscle phenotype of different disease stages. Thirty-nine RA patients (13 'new RA'-newly diagnosed, treatment naïve, 13 'active RA'-persistent DAS28 >3.2 for >1 year, 13 'remission RA'-persistent DAS28 1 year) and 13 age and gender directly matched healthy controls had an MRI scan of their dominant thigh. All participants had knee extension and flexion torque and grip strength measured. MRI T2 and fat fraction were higher in the three groups of RA patients compared with healthy controls in the thigh muscles. There were no clinically meaningful differences in the mean diffusivity. The muscle volume, handgrip strength, knee extension and flexion were lower in all three groups of RA patients compared with healthy controls. Quantitative MRI and muscle strength measurements can potentially detect differences within the muscles between RA patients and healthy controls. These differences may be seen in RA patients who are yet to start treatment, those with persistent active disease, and those who were in clinical remission. This suggests that the muscles in RA patients are affected in the early stages of the disease and that signs of muscle pathology and muscle weakness are still observed in clinical remission.
Quantitative MRI in myositis patients: comparison with healthy volunteers and radiological visual assessmentTo assess whether magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based measurements of T2, fat fraction, diffusion tensor imaging, and muscle volume can detect differences between the muscles of myositis patients and healthy controls, and to identify how they compare with semi-quantitative MRI diagnosis. Sixteen myositis patients and 16 age- and gender-matched healthy controls underwent MRI of their thigh. Quantitative MRI measurements and radiologists' semi-quantitative scores were assessed. Strength was assessed using an isokinetic dynamometer. Fat fraction and T2 values were higher in myositis patients whereas muscle volume was lower compared to healthy controls. There was no difference in diffusion. Muscle strength was lower in myositis patients compared to healthy controls. In a subgroup of eight patients, scored as unaffected by radiologists, T2 values were still significantly higher in myositis patients. Quantitative MRI measurements can detect differences between myositis patients and healthy controls. Changes in the muscles of myositis patients, undetected by visual, semi-quantitative scoring, can be detected using quantitative T2 measurements. This suggests that MRI T2 values may be useful for the management of myositis patients.
Sediment deposition within rainwater: case study comparison of four different sites in Ikorodu, NigeriaBuilding roofs represents a critical pathway for sediment mixing with rainwater. This study aims to explore the correlation between roof-top deposited sediment matter in the different areas of the Ikorodu Local Government Area in Lagos, Nigeria. The deposition rate on the roof was studied for 34 weeks in total (i.e., 17 weekly analyses in the rainy season and 17 weekly analyses in the dry season). The total deposition was collected by a 10 inch funnel and directed into a 5 L container, which was partially filled with sterilised water. The roof-top deposition in four different areas was inspected and analysed. The four areas were selected based on the levels of sanitation and vege-tation. The experimental results showed that the enumerated total depositions in different areas were higher in the dry season than the rainy season, with the highest deposition occurring in the Harmattan period. The data obtained from this study have evidenced that the contamination from roof-harvested rainwater can mainly be attributed to atmospheric deposition. Another key factor was the hygiene and sanitation of the harvesting areas, including the gutter, pipes and proximity to animal faeces.
Velocity Profile and Turbulence Structure Measurement Corrections for Sediment Transport-Induced Water-Worked BedWhen using point measurement for environmental or sediment laden flows, there is well-recognised risk for not having aligned measurements that causes misinterpretation of the measured velocity data. In reality, these kinds of mismeasurement mainly happen due to the misinterpretation of bed orientation caused by the complexity of its determination in natural flows, especially in bedload laden or rough bed flows. This study proposes a novel bed realignment method to improve the measured data benchmarking by three-dimensional (3D) bed profile orientation and implemented it into different sets of experimental data. More specifically, the effects of realignment on velocity profile and streamwise turbulence structure measurements were investigated. The proposed technique was tested against experimental data collected over a water-worked and an experimentally arranged well-packed beds. Different from the well-packed rough bed, the water-worked bed has been generated after long sediment transport and settling and hence can be used to verify the proposed bed-alignment technique thoroughly. During the flow analysis, the corrected velocity, turbulence intensity and Reynolds stress profiles were compared to the theoretical logarithmic law, exponential law and linear gravity (universal Reynolds stress distribution) profiles, respectively. It has been observed that the proposed method has improved the agreement of the measured velocity and turbulence structure data with their actual theoretical profiles, particularly in the near-bed region (where the ratio of the flow measurement vertical distance to the total water depth, z/h, is limited to ≤0.4).