Bradford Scholars is the University of Bradford online research archive. Access is free to anyone interested in research being conducted at Bradford. In the repository you will find a range of materials from journal articles and conference papers to research reports and theses.

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  • An Empirical Analysis of Foreign Direct Investment in the Libyan Oil Industry

    Baimbridge, Mark J.; Abushhewa, Tarek (University of BradfordBradford University School of Management, 2008)
    This study investigates the major factors that have restricted the flow of foreign direct investment (FDI) into the oil sector in Libya. The study focuses on the period from 2000 to 2009. This period is significant since, during this time Libya witnessed dramatic foreign and economic policy changes. The research objectives are: (1) To identify the determinants of foreign direct investment into Libya’s oil industry for the period 2000-2009; (2) To reveal the obstacles and barriers which hinder FDI in Libya’s oil industry; (3) To determine the extent that the Libyan Government FDI policy influenced FDI in Libya’s oil industry. The rationale for this thesis was driven by filling an empirical void of FDI studies on the oil industry in Libya and by the intention of providing practical insights for current and future Libyan governments. This study comprises of an analysis of the 30 multinational (MNCs) oil companies that are operating in the Libyan oil industry through questionnaire and interview data from executives employed by those MNCs, as well as data from ten Libyan senior government officials involved in the Libyan oil industry and/or FDI policies. The research has provided support for several of the determinants of FDI flows traditionally found in the literature. The survey and time series analysis further reveals that access to Libya’s proven oil and gas reserves was the singular most important determinate for influencing the MNCs to undertake FDI. Furthermore, the findings identified that Libyan government foreign policy had some impact on the MNCs decision to undertake FDI. The research findings with regards to the role played by environmental risk as a determinate of FDI, demonstrate that there is no significant relationship between overall levels of environmental risk and a country‘s performance in attracting FDI. Also, this research has identified a number of factors that are causing obstacles and challenges to the attractiveness of Libya as a location for foreign investment. It has revealed that MNCs are significantly dissatisfied by the stability of the public institutions and the lack of effective regulations in Libya.
  • Military Intervention in Africa. External Military Interventions and Security Prospects in Africa

    Dando, Malcolm R.; O'Connell, James; Rogers, Paul F.; Bob-Manuel, Kio L. (University of BradfordSchool of Peace Studies, 1990)
    The research was an investigation into the phenomenon of external military interventions in Africa. The broad interpretation often given to intervention compelled both an African view on the subject and an operational definition. External military intervention was defined as the execution of any military plans by a state or its citizens in another state, in a manner that radically alters the existing socio-political, economic and military conditions in the target state, with or without its consent. The role and effects of external powers in six conflict cases in Africa were examined. A taxonomy on intervention identified the phenomenon in its internal and external manifestations. Apart from the more publicised military role of extra-African powers in the region, the increasing role of African States as intra-continental interventionists was also considered. The research concluded that aspects of the problems perceived as endemically African may have their roots in events influenced by external actions. However, some African states were seen as contributing to this situation as well. The view was expressed that restraints by states in their exercise of power and perceived wisdom may reduce the level of conflicts in the contemporary world.
  • Autoscaling through Self-Adaptation Approach in Cloud Infrastructure. A Hybrid Elasticity Management Framework Based Upon MAPE (Monitoring-Analysis-Planning-Execution) Loop, to Ensure Desired Service Level Objectives (SLOs)

    Kamala, Mumtaz A.; Qahwaji, Rami S.R.; Butt, Sarfraz S. (University of BradfordFaculty of Engineering and Informatics, 2019)
    The project aims to propose MAPE based hybrid elasticity management framework on the basis of valuable insights accrued during systematic analysis of relevant literature. Each stage of MAPE process acts independently as a black box in proposed framework, while dealing with neighbouring stages. Thus, being modular in nature; underlying algorithms in any of the stage can be replaced with more suitable ones, without affecting any other stage. The hybrid framework enables proactive and reactive autoscaling approaches to be implemented simultaneously within same system. Proactive approach is incorporated as a core decision making logic on the basis of forecast data, while reactive approach being based upon actual data would act as a damage control measure; activated only in case of any problem with proactive approach. Thus, benefits of both the worlds; pre-emption as well as reliability can be achieved through proposed framework. It uses time series analysis (moving average method / exponential smoothing) and threshold based static rules (with multiple monitoring intervals and dual threshold settings) during analysis and planning phases of MAPE loop, respectively. Mathematical illustration of the framework incorporates multiple parameters namely VM initiation delay / release criterion, network latency, system oscillations, threshold values, smart kill etc. The research concludes that recommended parameter settings primarily depend upon certain autoscaling objective and are often conflicting in nature. Thus, no single autoscaling system with similar values can possibly meet all objectives simultaneously, irrespective of reliability of an underlying framework. The project successfully implements complete cloud infrastructure and autoscaling environment over experimental platforms i-e OpenStack and CloudSim Plus. In nutshell, the research provides solid understanding of autoscaling phenomenon, devises MAPE based hybrid elasticity management framework and explores its implementation potential over OpenStack and CloudSim Plus.
  • Beyond the vessel: Organic residue analysis of Late Bronze and Early Iron Age south-east European pottery

    Armit, Ian; Stern, Ben; Heron, Carl P.; Büster, Lindsey S.; Bastos, Beatriz I.F. de (University of BradfordFaculty of Life Sciences: School of Archaeological and Forensic Sciences, 2019)
    The Encounters and Transformations in Iron Age Europe project (ENTRANS) aims to expand our knowledge regarding the nature and impact of cultural encounters during the European Iron Age. The study of ceramic vessels was included in the project, in order to further understand cultural practices in the south-east Alpine region. Organic residue analysis is an important tool in archaeological research for determining the presence of food and other organic substances associated with ceramic vessels. It has the potential to significantly improve our understanding of Iron Age societies and the interactions between them. This research focuses on the analysis of visible and absorbed organic residues from 377 ceramic vessels, from Late Bronze Age and Early Iron Age sites in Slovenia and Croatia, by gas-chromatography mass spectrometry. Two methods of lipid extraction were compared in a pilot study compressing 30 potsherds from Kaptol (solvent vs. acid extraction). This study revealed that more information was obtained by acid extraction, thus it was selected as the main method of extraction for this project. Differences between settlement, funerary and ritual sites were observed, suggesting that the vessels placed in the graves were not previously used or carried foodstuff with low lipid content, such as liquids and dry foods/cereals. Some types of residues were only identified in funerary vessels, specifically potential castor oil in Kaptol, mixed with other fats and oils. Lipid biomarkers and lipid ratios revealed significant differences between contexts and different sites, suggesting that the differences in cultural practices can also be identified in the use of ceramic vessels. Some residues were also sampled for gas-chromatography compound-specific isotope ratio mass spectrometry and bulk isotope analysis (only visible residues), which identified potential dairy fats in two potsherds from Poštela. The results were also compared with the contextual information, mainly the faunal remains, and the data obtained from the osteology and diet study preformed with individuals from the same area and chronology as the ceramic vessels.
  • Differences and Similarities between Coronavirus and other Viruses

    Abdul-Al, Mohamed; Abd-Alhameed, Raed A.; Youseffi, Mansour; Qahwaji, Rami S.R.; Shepherd, Simon J. (2020-09-03)
    Coronavirus is the most dangerous virus in the world wide and it can easy spread between people, animals and plants because it is existing on one strand of RNA (Ribonucleic Acid) and it can duplicate faster than any virus. The source of coronavirus is still unknown, but some sources said that it came from seafood market and other sources said that it came from bat and snakes. It starts in Wuhan; China and every day the fatality increases. The symptoms are like a SARS-CoV (acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus)) and MERS-CoV (Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus). By using nucleotide sequence of coronavirus from NCBI (National Center for Biotechnology Information) and some programs that ran on Matlab, the results show that there are some differences and similarities between coronavirus and other viruses such as Ebola, Flu-b, Hepatitis B, HIV and Zika especially for DEBs (distinct excluded blocks) program that shows at 5bp (base pair) there is a common with slightly difference between coronavirus “cgggg” and Ebola virus “cgtgg”. The aim from this study is to find a way to help doctors and scientists to stop spreading the coronavirus or to destroy it.

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