Bradford Scholars is the University of Bradford online research archive. Access is free to anyone interested in research being conducted at Bradford. In the repository you will find a range of materials from journal articles and conference papers to research reports and theses.

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  • Understanding Factors Facilitating the Diffusion of Financial Technology (FinTech) A Case Study of the Gulf Cooperation Council

    Omar, Amizan; Mahroof, Kamran; Hamadien, Ammar M. (University of BradfordSchool of Management. Faculty of Management, Law and Social Sciences, 2022)
    This study focuses on the factors influencing the diffusion of FinTech in the Gulf Cooperation Council countries, analysing both financial institutions and technology companies. The research acknowledges the challenges associated with the spread of FinTech and aims to address these issues. The research employs Institutional Theory. To achieve comprehensive insights, a qualitative technique is employed. The initial phase involves an extensive literature review to understand FinTech and identify gaps in academic research. Subsequently, the impact of PESTEL factors is highlighted based on the literature. In the third stage, semi-structured interviews are conducted with 25 participants, representing three to four individuals per country. The Thematic Analysis approach is employed to analyse the interview data. The study's findings reveal that several factors significantly influence the adoption of FinTech services as a preferred transaction method. Perceived utility, security, and social impact concerns are identified as drivers of behavioural intentions. Additionally, the technical attributes and ease of use of digital tools impact behavioural patterns. Furthermore, the innovation and technical features embedded within FinTech products and services contribute to their diffusion and acceptance. The research has practical implications for both academia and practitioners in the FinTech industry. It assists financial service providers and institutions in designing user-centric FinTech products and services. Enhancing security and usability is crucial to improving the user experience and consumer confidence. By considering technological and behavioural characteristics and analysing the impact of PESTEL elements, this study contributes to the existing literature on technology diffusion, providing valuable insights to academics and practitioners.
  • The role of the diagnostic radiographer in child safeguarding: Implications for education and practice. A multimethod exploration comprising quantitative and qualitative approaches to identify how diagnostic radiographers can contribute towards child safeguarding in an evolving clinical environment

    Wilson, Andrew S.; Snaith, Beverly; Hardy, Maryann L.; Beck, James J.W. (University of BradfordFaculty of Health Studies, 2021)
    Background- Diagnostic radiography is an established method of investigating child safeguarding concerns. The role of the radiographer in identifying signs that represent safeguarding concerns and acting as a conduit between the patient and other professionals is less well understood. Aims- To evaluate the role of the radiographer in child safeguarding. Establish the contributory factors that influence that role and identify the measures that can be taken to maximise the contribution that could be made to protect patients. Methods- A multimethod approach of two studies (KAP survey and semi-structured interviews) was implemented sequentially to permit the second study to be influenced by the results of the first. Results - An inconsistent knowledge base in terms of child safeguarding exists. A positive attitude towards the profession’s role was identified and an inference that the profession does contribute to the escalation process, albeit only exceptionally. Conclusion- Those in the earlier stages of their career are most in need of recognising suspicious appearances. Radiographic appearances are commensurate with the modality utilised and needs accounting for within education. Contemporary practice makes assessment of more abstract appearances of child safeguarding concerns challenging. The systems of escalating concerns are known, and the profession is willing and able to contribute. Recommendations- Educational focus on the recognition of pathognomonic signs of abuse and aetiology to permit recognition of occasions when injury and clinical history disagree. Education should also include child safeguarding concerns commensurate with the modality utilised and as part of image reporting. Further research is needed to promote the role of the profession and to evaluate the impact of technological advancement on the profession’s capability to contribute effectively.
  • Peacebuilding Evaluations within International Organisations. Investigation of their relevance, roles and effects

    Greene, Owen J.; Vredeveld, Sabine (University of BradfordFaculty of Management, Law and Social Sciences. School of Social Sciences, 2021)
    Responding to and preventing violent conflict continue to be a major concern on the international agenda. However, the results of peacebuilding projects are often mixed and some interventions have even proven harmful in the past. In the debates on aid effectiveness, evaluations have been advocated as being an effective instrument to better understand the results of development and peacebuilding projects and thereby ultimately to improve the practice. However, despite a long tradition of evaluation utilisation research dating back to the 1970s, the effects of peacebuilding evaluations are far from being understood. The concept of evaluation use is too narrow and does not take the diversity of potential positive and negative evaluation effects into account. There is little evidence concerning the organisational factors that influence the use and effects of evaluations. Using a comparative case study analysis in three organisations implementing peacebuilding activities (Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit, Saferworld and the World Bank), this study examines the roles and effects of peacebuilding evaluations within international organisations. The results show a wide range of positive and negative evaluation effects that are promoted or hindered by different attitudes and the process of the evaluation, in addition to organisational and other contextual factors. To improve our understanding of the interlinkages in this context, evaluation pathways causally linking different effects and factors are proposed.
  • Countering Terrorism in the North West Pakistan - Exploring local and global perspectives

    Rogers, Paul F.; Bluth, Christoph; Samad, A. Yunas; Russell, John; Raja, Waqas Z. (University of BradfordPeace Studies Department. Faculty of Social Sciences and Humanities, 2019)
    This thesis investigates global fight against terrorism in North West Pakistan and Afghanistan from a 21st century perspective in 2018. It focuses on local attitudes towards the War on Terror and their interplay with geo-strategic, regional, international and Pakistan’s domestic landscapes. In doing so, it questions the efficacy of existing academic and policy approaches towards achieving sustainable peace in North West Pakistan in particular and South Asia in general. It also evaluates the impact of regional rivalries especially in between Pakistan and India on the achievement of US foreign policy interests. Part-1 reviews existing literature on terrorism especially in post 9/11 setting. It examines the international discord of agreeing on a single definition of terrorism and its ramifications. It sequentially focuses on character of security in North West Pakistan and neighbouring Afghanistan since colonial times. It also identifies various traditional, religious and societal angles of Pashtun tribes; which always inspired them to fight against external powers. Part-2 combines academic investigations with empirical evidence. The results are correlated with current discussions on modern terrorism, geopolitical pulls and regional rivalries to create a holistic picture. It identifies local attitudes and regional rivalries as major impediments towards achievement of sustainable peace. Research findings indicated that predominant Western academic debates on the conflict were foreign policy inspired with little local and veteran input. By adapting a pragmatic approach the terrorism challenge can be addressed and the region can contribute towards the continuation of ‘Rules Based Order’ within the current phase of Great Power Rivalry.
  • Simulation, Design and Implementation of Antenna for 5G and beyond Wave Communication. Simulation, Design, and Measurement of New and Compact Antennas for 5G and beyond and Investigation of Their Fundamental Characteristics

    Abd-Alhameed, Raed; Noras, James M.; Ulla, Atta (University of BradfordDepartment of Biomedical and Electronics Engineering. Faculty of Engineering and Informatics, 2022)
    The fifth generation (5G) has developed a lot of interest, and there have been many reported initiatives in both industry and academics. Multiple-input-multiple-output (MIMO) is the most promising wireless access technique for next-generation networks in terms of spectral and energy efficiency (MIMO). In 4G systems, 2-Element MIMO antennas are already used, while 5G mobile terminals for smartphone hand-held devices are projected to use a bigger number of elements. The placement of many antennas in the restricted space of a smartphone PCB is one of the most critical challenges. As a result, for sub-6 GHz 5G applications, a new design technique based on dual-polarised antenna resonators for 6-Element, 8-Element MIMO configuration is proposed. The proposed MIMO design could improve the smartphone antenna system's chan-nel capacity, diversity function, and multiplexing gain, making it appropriate for 5G applica-tions. For distinct prospective bands of the sub-6 GHz spectrum, such as 2.6, 3.6, and 5.8 GHz, different types of novel and compact diversity MIMO antennas using Patch, Slot, and Planar inverted F antenna (PIFA) resonators are examined. Unlike previously reported MIMO antennas, the proposed designs provide full radiation coverage and polarisation diversity, as well as adequate gain and efficiency values to support several mainboard sides. Apart from sub-6 GHz frequencies, 5G devices are projected to support the centimetre/milli-metre wave spectrum's higher bands. To create linear phased arrays, small antennas can be placed at various locations on a smartphone board. For 5G smartphones, we propose novel linear phased arrays with tiny parts like Dipole and Quasi-Yagi resonators. In comparison to previously published designs, the suggested phased arrays have desirable qualities such as compact size, wide beam-steering, broad bandwidth, end-fire radiation, high gain, and efficiency. With a reduced mutual coupling function, the suggested 5G antennas can provide single-band, multi-band, and broad-band characteristics. Both models and measurements are used to an-alyse the fundamental features of 5G antennas, and good agreement is found. Furthermore, in the presence of the user and the smartphone components, good features are seen due to the small size and superior arrangement of elements. Because of these benefits, the sug-gested antennas are well-suited for usage in 5G smartphone applications.

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