Bradford Scholars is the University of Bradford online research archive. Access is free to anyone interested in research being conducted at Bradford. In the repository you will find a range of materials from journal articles and conference papers to research reports and theses.
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Discourses of Power and Representation in British Broadcasting Corporation Documentary Practices: 1999-2013This dissertation re-evaluates the ways in which contemporary television documentary practices engage their audience. Bringing together historical frameworks, and using them to analyse a range of examples not considered together within this context previously, the main finding is that the use of spectacle to engage the audience into a visceral response cuts across all of the examples analysed, regardless of the subject matter being explored. Drawing on a media archaeological approach, the dissertation draws parallels with the way in which pre-cinema engaged an audience where the primary point of engagement came from the image itself, rather than a narrative. Within a documentary context, which is generally understood as a genre which is there to educate or inform an audience, the primacy of spectacle calls for a re-evaluation of the form and function of documentary itself. Are twenty-first century documentary practices manufacturing an emotional connection to engage the audience over attempting to persuade with reasoning and logic? The answer contained within this dissertation is that they are.
Design and characterization of biodegradable multi layered electrospun nanofibers for corneal tissue engineering applicationsTissue engineering is one of the most promising areas for treatment of various ophthalmic diseases particularly for patients who suffer from limbal stem cell deficiency and this is due to the lack of existence of appropriate matrix for stem cell regeneration. The aim of this research project is to design and fabricate triple layered electrospun nanofibers as a suitable corneal tissue engineering scaffold and the objective is to investigate and perform various in vitro tests to find the most optimum and suitable scaffold for this purpose. Electrospun scaffolds were prepared in three layers. Poly(d, l-lactide-co-glycolide; PLGA, 50:50) nanofibers were electrospun as outer and inner layers of the scaffold and aligned type I collagen nanofibers were electrospun in the middle layer. Furthermore, the scaffolds were cross-linked by 1-ethyl-3-(3 dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide hydrochloride and glutaraldehyde. Structural, physical, and mechanical properties of scaffolds were investigated by using N2 adsorption/desorption isotherms, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, contact angle measurement, tensile test, degradation, shrinkage analysis, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). In addition, capability to support cell attachment and viability were characterized by SEM, 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide assay, and 4′,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole staining. According to the result of Brunauer–Emmett–Teller analysis, specific surface area of electrospun scaffold was about 23.7 m2 g-1. Tensile tests on cross-linked scaffolds represented more suitable hydrophilicity and tensile behavior. In addition, degradation rate analysis indicated that noncross-linked scaffolds degraded faster than cross-linked one and cross-linking led to controlled shrinkage in the scaffold. The SEM analysis depicted nano-sized fibers in good shape. Also, the in vitro study represented an improved cell attachment and proliferation in the presence of human endometrial stem cells for both cross-linked and noncross-linked samples. The current study suggests the possibility of producing an appropriate substrate for successful cornea tissue engineering with a novel design.
Fabrication of 3D hybrid scaffold by combination technique of electrospinning-like and freeze-drying to create mechanotransduction signals and mimic extracellular matrix function of skinFabrication of extracellular matrix (ECM)-like scaffolds (in terms of structural-functional) is the main challenge in skin tissue engineering. Herein, inspired by macromolecular components of ECM, a novel hybrid scaffold suggested which includes silk/hyaluronan (SF/HA) bio-complex modified by PCP: [polyethylene glycol/chitosan/poly(ɛ-caprolactone)] copolymer containing collagen to differentiate human-adipose-derived stem cells into keratinocytes. In followed by, different weight ratios (wt%) of SF/HA (S1:100/0, S2:80/20, S3:50/50) were applied to study the role of SF/HA in the improvement of physicochemical and biological functions of scaffolds. Notably, the combination of electrospinning-like and freeze-drying methods was also utilized as a new method to create a coherent 3D-network. The results indicated this novel technique was led to ~8% improvement of the scaffold's ductility and ~17% decrease in mean pore diameter, compared to the freeze-drying method. Moreover, the increase of HA (>20wt%) increased porosity to 99%, however, higher tensile strength, modulus, and water absorption% were related to S2 (38.1, 0.32 MPa, 75.3%). More expression of keratinocytes along with growth pattern similar to skin was also observed on S2. This study showed control of HA content creates a microporous-environment with proper modulus and swelling%, although, the role of collagen/PCP as base biocomposite and fabrication technique was undeniable on the inductive signaling of cells. Such a scaffold can mimic skin properties and act as the growth factor through inducing keratinocytes differentiation.
The determinants of bank branch location in India: An empirical investigationBank branching plays a significant role in a wide range of economic activities. Existing studies on determinants of bank branching activities largely focus on developed countries, studies devoted to developing countries are scant. We present the first study that examines the determinants of bank branching activities in one of the largest developing country India. We employ a unique longitudinal data to study the determinants of bank branch location in India. This data is collected at the state level covering 25 Indian states for the period 2006 to 2017. We employ Poisson regression that are better suited for modelling counted dependent variable. First, region and bank specific factors such as size of population and bank deposits influence location of bank branches. Second, the relationship between these factors and branch locations is heterogeneous across different types of banks and across states with different business environments. First, from the view of banks, considering the factors of branch location are crucial in order to set out branching strategy. Irrespective of policy measures aimed at promoting financial inclusion in India, we show that banks consider economic activities in the region in locating their branches. Second, from the view of policy makers and regulators, such branching strategy could potentially contribute to financial exclusion. As a result, population in the less developed regions may be excluded from accessing financial services. Hence, policy makers and regulators should take into this account when formulating policies aimed at promoting financial inclusion. First, while existing studies largely focus on developed countries, studies devoted to developing countries are scant. To the best of our knowledge, we have not come across any study that investigates the determinants of bank branch location in India, so we reasonably believe that ours is a first-of-its-kind. Second, our study provides a new perspective concerning how regional and bank specific factors influence banks of different ownership in locating branches. Third, while traditional regression used to be a method of choice among early studies, we employ Poisson regression that are better suited for modelling counted dependent variable.
Big Social Data Analytics: A Model for the Public SectorThe influence of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) particularly internet technology has had a fundamental impact on the way government is administered, provides services and interacts with citizens. Currently, the use of social media is no longer limited to informal environments but is an increasingly important medium of communication between citizens and governments. The extensive and increasing use of social media will continue to generate huge amounts of user-generated content known as Big Social Data (BSD). The growing body of BSD presents innumerable opportunities as well as challenges for local government planning, management and delivery of public services to citizens. However, the governments have not yet utilised the potential of BSD for better understanding the public and gaining new insights from this new way of interactions. Some of the reasons are lacking in the mechanism and guidance to analyse this new format of data. Thus, the aim of this study is to evaluate how the body of BSD can be mined, analysed and applied in the context of local government in the UK. The objective is to develop a Big Social Data Analytics (BSDA) model that can be applied in the case of local government. Data generated from social media over a year were collected, collated and analysed using a range of social media analytics and network analysis tools and techniques. The final BSDA model was applied to a local council case to evaluate its impact in real practice. This study allows to better understand the methods of analysing the BSD in the public sector and extend the literature related to e-government, social media, and social network theory