Bradford Scholars is the University of Bradford online research archive. Access is free to anyone interested in research being conducted at Bradford. In the repository you will find a range of materials from journal articles and conference papers to research reports and theses.
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Process Simulation of Impurity Impacts on CO2 Fluids Flowing in PipelinesCaptured carbon dioxide flowing in pipelines is impure. The impurities contained in the carbon dioxide fluid impact on the properties of the fluid. The impact of each impurity has not been adequately studied and fully understood. In this study, binary mixtures containing carbon dioxide and one impurity, at the maximum permitted concentration, flowing in pipelines are studied to understand their impact on pipeline performance. A hypothetical 70 km uninsulated pipeline is assumed and simulated using Aspen HYSYS (v.10) and gPROMS (v.5.1.1). The mass flow rate is 2,200,600 kg/h; the internal and external diameters are 0.711 m and 0.785 m. 15 MPa and 9 MPa were assumed as inlet and minimum pressures and 33 oC as the inlet temperature, to ensure that the fluid remain in the dense (subcritical or supercritical) phase. Each binary fluid is studied at the maximum allowable concentration and deviations from pure carbon dioxide at the same conditions is determined. These deviations were graded to rank the impurities in order of the degree of impact on each parameter. All impurities had at least one negative impact on carbon dioxide fluid flow. Nitrogen with the highest concentration (10-mol %) had the worst impact on pressure loss (in horizontal pipeline), density, and critical pressure. Hydrogen sulphide (with 1.5-mol %) had the least impact, hardly changing the thermodynamic properties of pure carbon dioxide.
Bond between glass fibre reinforced polymer bars and high - strength concreteIn this study, bond properties of glass fibre reinforced polymer (GFRP) bars embedded in high-strength concrete (HSC) were experimentally investigated using a pull-out test. The experimental program consisted of testing 84 pull-out specimens prepared according to ACI 440.3R-12 standard. The testing of the specimens was carried out considering bar diameter (9.5, 12.7 and 15.9 mm), embedment length (2.5, 5, 7.5 and 10 times bar diameter) and surface configuration (helical wrapping with slight sand coating (HW-SC) and sand coating (SC)) as the main parameters. Twelve pull-out specimens reinforced with 16 mm steel bar were also tested for comparison purposes. Most of the specimens failed by a pull-out mode. Visual inspection of the tested specimens reinforced with GFRP (HW-SC) bars showed that the pull-out failure was due to the damage of outer bar surface, whilst the detachment of the sand coating was responsible for the bond failure of GFRP (SC) reinforced specimens. The bond stress – slip behaviour of GFRP (HW-SC) bars is different from that of GFRP (SC) bars and it was also found that GFRP (SC) bars gave a better bond performance than GFRP (HW-SC) bars. It was observed that the reduction rate of bond strength of both GFRP types with increasing the bar diameter and the embedment length was reduced in the case of high-strength concrete. Bond strength predictions obtained from ACI-440.1R, CSAeS806, CSA-S6 and JSCE design codes were compared with the experimental results. Overall, all design guidelines were conservative in predicting bond strength of both GFRP bars in HSC and ACI predictions were closer to the tested results than other codes.
A new method for investigating the relationship between diet and mortality: hazard analysis using dietary isotopesBioarchaeological and clinical data show that diet influences health, and this relationship is crucial to how we understand past health with respect to sex and age. We propose a new method that coinvestigates the relationship between mortality risk and diet in the past. Our method integrates dietary stable isotope data (δ13 Carbon and δ 15 Nitrogen) from Roman Britain (N=659) with hazards analysis. The results show that these data can be informatively used in this type of analysis in general, and that in the context of Roman Britain, higher δ 13C is associated with lower risks of mortality while higher δ 15N is associated with elevated risks of mortality. Importantly, the results emphasize that a bioarchaeological approach to interpretation must be taken in order to more fully understand the results obtained by the method
Fast, facile and solvent‐free dry melt synthesis of oxovanadium(IV) complexes: Simple design with high potency towards cancerous cellsA range of oxobis(phenyl‐1,3‐butanedione) vanadium(IV) complexes have been successfully synthesized from cheap starting materials and a simple and solvent‐free one‐pot dry‐melt reaction. This direct, straightforward, fast and alternative approach to inorganic synthesis has the potential for a wide range of applications. Analytical studies confirm their successful synthesis, purity and solid‐state coordination, and we report the complexes’ uses as potential drug candidates for the treatment of cancer. After a 24‐hour incubation of A549 lung carcinoma cells with the compounds, they reveal cytotoxicity values 11‐fold greater than cisplatin, and remain non‐toxic towards normal cell types. Additionally, the complexes are stable over a range of physiological pH values and show the potential for interactions with BSA.