Bradford Scholars is the University of Bradford online research archive. Access is free to anyone interested in research being conducted at Bradford. In the repository you will find a range of materials from journal articles and conference papers to research reports and theses.
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Behaviour of continuous concrete T-beams reinforced with hybrid FRP/Steel barsThis work aims to investigate the flexural behaviour of continuous hybrid reinforced concrete T-beams (HRCT). The investigations consist of three parts; the computational part, the experimental part and the finite element analysis. The computational part included two parts, the first one is developing an analytical programme using MATLAB software to investigate the moment-curvature behaviour of HRCT-beams and to design the experimental specimens. This was followed by the experimental part, where six full-scale reinforced concrete continuous T beams were prepared and tested. One beam was reinforced with glass fibre reinforced polymer (GFRP) bars while the other five beams were reinforced with a different combination of GFRP and steel bars. The ratio of GFRP to steel reinforcement at both mid-span and middle-support sections was the main parameter investigated. The results showed that adding steel reinforcement to GFRP reinforced concrete T-beams improves the axial stiffness, ductility and serviceability in terms of crack width and deflection control. However, the moment redistribution at failure was limited because of the early yielding of steel reinforcement at the beam section that did not reach its moment capacity and could still carry more loads due to the presence of FRP reinforcement. The second part of the computational part included the comparison between the experimental results with the ultimate moment prediction of ACI 440.2R-17, and with the existing theoretical equations for moment capacity, load capacity, and deflection prediction. It was found that the ACI 440.2R-17 design code equations reasonably estimated the moment capacity of both mid-span and middle-support sections and consequently predicted the load capacity of the HRCT-beams based on fully ductile behaviour. However, Qu's and Safan's equations underestimated the predicted moment and load-capacity of HRCT-beams. Also, Bischoff's and Yoon's models underestimated the deflection at all stages of the load for both GFRP and HRCT- beams. For the numerical part, a three-dimensional finite element model has been developed using ABAQUS software to examine the behaviour of HRCT-beams. The experimental results were used to validate the accuracy of the FEM, where an acceptable agreement between the simulated and experimental results was observed. Accordingly, the model was used to predict the structural behaviour of continuous HRCT-beams by testing different parameters.
Blockchain Technology for Data Sharing in the Banking SectorKnow Your Customer compliance costs have never been higher for banks in Europe. This thesis looks at the application of blockchain technology to reduce Know Your Customer compliance costs. The work within aims to utilise the strengths of blockchain technology in order to reduce the costs of compliance for banks. This is done through collaboration with industry partners, resulting in a system designed to meet banks’ needs. The contributions of this work are: 1) A system which enables data sharing between banks, enabling 2) reduc tion of costs by at least 45%, and 3) reducing or eliminating over reliance on third parties, 4) an exploration of how to price data within the system is made in order to help banks further reduce their costs, 5) reduction of chain size by reducing the size of contract creation transactions in Ethereum by 90% for standard users, lastly, 6) to better understand the functionality and purpose of smart contracts. The system is the first of its kind to remove the requirement of third party storage solutions, and is the first to explore pricing aspects in detail.
Mold temperature- and molar mass-dependent structural formation in micro-injection molding of isotactic polypropyleneThe structural formation and development of isotactic polypropylene (iPP) upon the micro-injection molding process was investigated at different mold temperatures and molecular weights utilizing a real-time synchrotron radiation small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) technique combined with a customized micro-injection molding apparatus. Shish-kebab structure and parent-daughter lamellae were found to be formed during micro-injection molding for all iPP samples. In the case of kebab lamellae, a considerable growth in the long period and in the average thickness of lamellar crystallites and amorphous domains is observed at initial stages of crystallization for samples molded at varying temperatures. This effect is caused by the successive formation of thin lamellae in the outer layer and thick lamellae in the inner layer during the manufacturing process as evidenced by the spatial distribution of the crystalline lamellae across the thickness. In addition, the length of the shish formation increases remarkably at the onset of crystallization, the extent of which is dependent on the mold temperature. Despite the large changes of the lamellar stacks and the shish misorientation, the final length of the shish remains essentially unchanged when varying mold temperature. Since there is a critical orientation molecular weight above which the chains are stretched and oriented to form stable shish, the iPP sample with a low molar mass exhibits an overall decrease in the scattering intensity of SAXS patterns compared to the high molecular weight polypropylene.
Food security across the enterprise: a puzzle, problem or mess for a circular economy?Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explore the use, applicability and relevance of strategic planning as a process and tool when applied to exploring food security challenges, in the context of existing research on food security and food waste in the food supply chain. The issues associated with robust and resilient food supply chains within a circular economy are increasingly being seen as supportive of creating enhanced levels of food security but the authors argue that this is only sustainable when strategically planned as part of a cross-enterprise, information-rich and complex supply chain. The relevance of the Political, Economic, Social, Technological, Legal and Environmental (PESTLE) strategic planning tool is explored to establish whether it can play a role tacking the complexity of food insecurity (i.e. a lack of food security). Design/methodology/approach – This is a viewpoint piece therefore as a result, thought, normative literature and supposition are used as a means to ground and orientate the views of the authors. Findings – The authors identify and conclude that strategic planning tools like PESTLE across enterprises may not be relevant in supporting the reduction of food insecurity. This conclusion is predicated on the heightened level of complexity surrounding the pursuit of food security and the simplistic categorisation of PESTLE factors in a linear fashion that underpin this tool. Rather, the authors’ call for the use of strategic planning tools that are able to capture a large number of inter-related factors holistically. Practical implications – This insight to the inter-related factors that contribute to food insecurity will allow policy developers, decision makers and others to develop their understanding of how strategic planning can support increased levels of food security within a circular economy and across cross-enterprises. Originality/value – The authors contribute to the literature through a new insight of how normative strategic planning tools need to evolve in a complex, inter-connected world of international business and geo-politics. In doing so, it is expected that this research will motivate others to develop their line of enquiry around uncovering and exploring those inter-relationships connecting PESTLE factors.
Exploratory study of fathers providing Kangaroo Care in a Neonatal Intensive Care UnitAim and Objectives: To explore fathers' views and experiences of providing Kangaroo Care (KC) to their baby cared for in a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU). Background: Kangaroo Care has been known to improve the health outcome for preterm, low birth weight and medically vulnerable term infants and achieve the optimal perinatal health wellbeing for parents and infants. Historically, mothers are considered as the dominant KC providers, whereas fathers are spectators and have been overlooked. Little is known about the fathers' perspectives in providing KC in NICUs. Methods: Individual semi-structured interviews were conducted with 10 fathers who delivered KC to their baby when in the NICU. Data were analysed using Braun and Clarke's six-phase thematical framework. The Consolidated Criteria for Reporting Qualitative Research (COREQ) checklist was followed to report this qualitative study. Findings: Fathers in this study identified they were passing a silent language of love and connecting with their baby by the act of KC in a challenging environment. Three themes emerged: ‘Positive psychological connection’, ‘Embracing father-infant Kangaroo Care’ and ‘Challenges to father-infant Kangaroo Care’. Conclusion: The findings of this study show KC enhances the bonding and attachment between fathers and infants. The conceptualisation of the paternal role in caregiving to a newborn is evolving as a contemporary practice. Further research is warranted to confirm or refute the study findings. Policies and facilities should be modified to include father–infant KC within the fields of neonatal care. Relevance to Clinical Practice: It is important for nurses and other health professionals to support and enable fathers to give KC. Father–infant KC is recommended in neonatal care settings.