The Influence of Braking System Component Design Parameters on Pedal Force and Displacement Characteristics. Simulation of a passenger car brake system, focusing on the prediction of brake pedal force and displacement based on the system components and their design characteristics.
AuthorHo, Hon Ping
SupervisorDay, Andrew J.
KeywordBrake, Hydraulic, Feel, Seal, Friction, Servo, Deformation, Automotive, Simulation, Prediction, Braking system performance, Design, Simulation modelling
The University of Bradford theses are licenced under a Creative Commons Licence.
InstitutionUniversity of Bradford
DepartmentSchool of Engineering, Design and Technology
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AbstractThis thesis presents an investigation of braking system characteristics, brake system performance and brake system component design parameters that influence brake pedal force / displacement characteristics as ‘felt’ by the driver in a passenger car. It includes detailed studies of individual brake system component design parameters, operation, and the linear and nonlinear characteristics of internal components through experimental study and simulation modelling. The prediction of brake pedal ‘feel’ in brake system simulation has been achieved using the simulation modelling package AMESim. Each individual brake system component was modelled individually before combining them into the whole brake system in order to identify the parameters and the internal components characteristics that influence the brake pedal ‘feel’. The simulation predictions were validated by experimentally measured data and demonstrated the accuracy of simulation modelling. Axisymmetric Finite Element Analysis (using the ABAQUS software) was used to predict the behaviour of nonlinear elastomeric internal components such as the piston seal and the booster reaction disc which was then included in the AMESim simulation model. The seal model FEA highlighted the effects of master cylinder and caliper seal deformation on the brake pedal ‘feel’. The characteristics of the brake booster reaction disc were predicted by the FEA and AMESim simulation modelling and these results highlighted the importance of the nonlinear material characteristics, and their potential contribution to brake pedal ‘feel’ improvement. A full brake system simulation model was designed, prepared, and used to predict brake system performance and to design a system with better brake pedal ‘feel’. Each of the brake system component design parameters was validated to ensure that the braking system performance was accurately predicted. The critical parameter of brake booster air valve spring stiffness was identified to improve the brake ‘pedal ‘feel’. This research has contributed to the advancement of automotive engineering by providing a method for brake system engineers to design a braking system with improved pedal ‘feel’. The simulation model can be used in the future to provide an accurate prediction of brake system performance at the design stage thereby saving time and cost.
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Lightweight friction brakes for a road vehicle with regenerative braking. Design analysis and experimental investigation of the potential for mass reduction of friction brakes on a passenger car with regenerative braking.Day, Andrew J.; Olley, Peter; Qi, Hong Sheng; Sarip, S. Bin (University of BradfordSchool of Engineering, Design and Technology, 2012-11-02)One of the benefits of electric vehicles (EVs) and hybrid vehicles (HVs) is their potential to recuperate braking energy. Regenerative braking (RB) will minimize duty levels on the brakes, giving advantages including extended brake rotor and friction material life and, more significantly, reduced brake mass and minimised brake pad wear. In this thesis, a mathematical analysis (MATLAB) has been used to analyse the accessibility of regenerative braking energy during a single-stop braking event. The results have indicated that a friction brake could be downsized while maintaining the same functional requirements of the vehicle braking in the standard brakes, including thermomechanical performance (heat transfer coefficient estimation, temperature distribution, cooling and stress deformation). This would allow lighter brakes to be designed and fitted with confidence in a normal passenger car alongside a hybrid electric drive. An approach has been established and a lightweight brake disc design analysed FEA and experimentally verified is presented in this research. Thermal performance was a key factor which was studied using the 3D model in FEA simulations. Ultimately, a design approach for lightweight brake discs suitable for use in any car-sized hybrid vehicle has been developed and tested. The results from experiments on a prototype lightweight brake disc were shown to illustrate the effects of RBS/friction combination in terms of weight reduction. The design requirement, including reducing the thickness, would affect the temperature distribution and increase stress at the critical area. Based on the relationship obtained between rotor weight, thickness and each performance requirement, criteria have been established for designing lightweight brake discs in a vehicle with regenerative braking.
Brake Judder - An Investigation of the Thermo-elastic and Thermo-plastic Effects during BrakingBryant, David; Fieldhouse, J.D.; Talbot, C.J. (2011)This paper considers a study of the thermo-elastic behaviour of a disc brake during heavy braking. The work is concerned with working towards developing design advice that provides uniform heating of the disc, and equally important, even dissipation of heat from the disc blade. The material presented emanates from a combination of modeling, on-vehicle testing but mainly laboratory observations and subsequent investigations. The experimental work makes use of a purpose built high speed brake dynamometer which incorporates the full vehicle suspension for controlled simulation of the brake and vehicle operating conditions. Advanced instrumentation allows dynamic measurement of brake pressure fluctuations, disc surface temperature and discrete vibration measurements. Disc run-out measurements using non-contacting displacement transducers show the disc taking up varying orders of deformation ranging from first to third order during high speed testing. This surface interrogation during braking identifies disc deformation including disc warping, 'ripple' and the effects of 'hot spotting'. The mechanical measurements are complemented by thermal imaging of the brake, these images showing the vane and vent patterns on the surface of the disc. The results also include static surface scanning, or geometry analysis, of the disc which is carried out at appropriate stages during testing. The work includes stress relieving of finished discs and subsequent dynamometer testing. This identifies that in-service stress relieving, due to high heat input during braking, is a strong possibility for the cause of disc 'warping'. It is also seen that an elastic wave is established during a braking event, the wave disappearing on release of the brake.
Modelling and simulation of themo-mechanical phenomena at the friction interface of a disc brake.An empirically-based finite element model for the fundamental investigation of factors that influence the interface thermal resistance at the friction interface of a high energy sliding pair in a disc brake.Qi, Hong Sheng; Day, Andrew J.; Loizou, Andreas (University of BradfordSchool of Engineering, Design & Technology, 2012-11-07)The fundamental theories of heat generation and transfer at the friction interface of a brake assume either matching or not matching surface temperatures by having a varying or uniform heat partition ratio respectively. In the research presented the behaviour of heat partition has been investigated in a fundamental study based on experimental measurements of temperature and the associated modelling and simulation of heat transfer in a brake friction pair. For a disc brake, an important parameter that was identified from the literature study is the interface tribo-layer (ITL), which has been modelled as an equivalent thermal resistance value based on its thickness and thermal conductivity. The interface real contact area was also an important parameter in this investigation, and it has been found to affect heat partitioning by adding its own thermal resistance. A 2-dimensional (2D) coupled-temperature displacement Finite Element (FE) model is presented, based on which a novel relationship which characterises the total thermal resistance (or conductance) at the friction interface has been characterised based on the ITL thermal properties, the contact area, and the contact pressure at the interface. Using the model the effect of friction material wear on the total thermal resistance (or conductance) at the friction interface was predicted and a comparison of the Archard and Arrhenius wear laws in predicting the wear of a resin bonded composite friction material operating against a cast iron mating surface is presented. A 3-dimensional (3D) model is also presented. This model has represented a small scale disc brake test rig which has been used in parallel with the simulation for validation in a drag braking scenario. Two simulation conditions with different pad surface states were investigated, the first having a nominally flat surface, and the second an adjusted (worn) pad surface based on bedding-in data. The Arrhenius wear model was applied to significance of including wear on the total thermal resistance at the friction interface over a short brake application. A sensitivity analysis on the interface thermal conductance, the location of heat generation, and the magnitude of contact pressure has identified the importance of each factor in determining the total thermal resistance (or conductance) at the friction interface during any friction brake application. It is concluded that the heat partitioning is insensitive on the location of heat generation, and that the most sensitive parameter is the contact pressure.