Design and analysis of energy-efficient media access control protocols in wireless sensor networks. Design and analysis of MAC layer protocols using low duty cycle technique to improve energy efficient and enhance communication performance in wireless sensor networks.
SupervisorAwan, Irfan U.
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KeywordsEnergy-efficiency, Clustering, Medium access control, Synchronisation, Schedules, Wireless sensor networks, Control protocols
The University of Bradford theses are licenced under a Creative Commons Licence.
InstitutionUniversity of Bradford
DepartmentSchool of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science
Wireless sensor network (WSN) technology has gained significant importance due to its potential support for a wide range of applications. Most of the WSN applications consist of a large numbers of distributed nodes that work together to achieve common objects. Running a large number of nodes requires an efficient mechanism to bring them all together in order to form a multi-hop wireless network that can accomplish some specific tasks. Even with recent developments made in WSN technology, numbers of important challenges still stand as vulnerabilities for WSNs, including energy waste sources, synchronisation leaks, low network capacity and self-configuration difficulties. However, energy efficiency remains the priority challenging problem due to the scarce energy resources available in sensor nodes. These concerns are managed by medium access control (MAC) layer protocols. MAC protocols designed specifically for WSN have an additional responsibility of managing radio activity to conserve energy in addition to the traditional functions. This thesis presents advanced research work carried out in the context of saving energy whilst achieving the desired network performance. Firstly the thesis contributes by proposing Overlapped Schedules for MAC layer, in which the schedules of the neighbour clusters are overlapped by introducing a small shift time between them, aiming to compensate the synchronisation errors. Secondly, this thesis proposed a modified architecture derived from S-MAC protocol which significantly supports higher traffic levels whilst achieving better energy efficiency. This is achieved by applying a parallel transmission concept on the communicating nodes. As a result, the overall efficiency of the channel contention mechanism increases and leads to higher throughput with lower energy consumption. Finally, this thesis proposed the use of the Adaptive scheme on Border Nodes to increase the power efficiency of the system under light traffic load conditions. The scheme focuses on saving energy by forcing the network border nodes to go off when not needed. These three contributions minimise the contention window period whilst maximising the capacity of the available channel, which as a result increase network performance in terms of energy efficiency, throughput and latency. The proposed system is shown to be backwards compatible and able to satisfy both traditional and advanced applications. The new MAC protocol has been implemented and evaluated using NS-2 simulator, under different traffic loads and varying duty cycle values. Results have shown that the proposed solutions are able to significantly enhance the performance of WSNs by improving the energy efficiency, increasing the system throughput and reducing the communication delay.