Radio-Location Techniques for Localization and Monitoring Applications. A study of localisation techniques, using OFDM system under adverse channel conditions and radio frequency identification for object identification and movement tracking
AuthorShuaieb, Wafa S.A.
SupervisorAbd-Alhameed, Raed A.
Jones, Steven M.R.
KeywordReceived signal strength (RSS)
Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM)
Angle of arrival (AOA)
Signal to noise ratio (SNR)
Frequency offset estimation
Wide-band AoA estimation
Radio frequency identification (RFID)
The University of Bradford theses are licenced under a Creative Commons Licence.
InstitutionUniversity of Bradford
DepartmentFaculty of Engineering and Informatics
MetadataShow full item record
AbstractA wide range of services and applications become possible when accurate position information for a radio terminal is available. These include: location-based services; navigation; safety and security applications. The commercial, industrial and military value of radio-location is such that considerable research effort has been directed towards developing related technologies, using satellite, cellular or local area network infrastructures or stand-alone equipment. This work studies and investigates two location techniques. The first one presents an implementation scheme for a wideband transmission and direction finding system using OFDM multi-carrier communications systems. This approach takes advantage of delay discrimination to improve angle-of-arrival estimation in a multipath channel with high levels of additive white Gaussian noise. A new methodology is interpreted over the multi carrier modulation scheme in which the simulation results of the estimated channel improves the performance of OFDM signal by mitigating the effect of frequency offset synchronization to give error-free data at the receiver, good angle of arrival accuracy and improved SNR performance. The full system simulation to explore optimum values such as channel estimation and AoA including the antenna array model and prove the operational performance of the OFDM system as implemented in MATLAB. The second technique proposes a low cost-effective method of tracking and monitoring objects (examples: patient, device, medicine, document) by employing passive radio frequency identification (RFID) systems. A multi-tag, (totalling fifty-six tags) with known ID values are attached to the whole patient’s body to achieve better tracking and monitoring precision and higher accuracy. Several tests with different positions and movements are implemented on six patients. The aim is to be able to track the patient if he/she is walking or sitting; therefore, the tests considered six possible movements for the patient including walking, standing, sitting, resting, laying on the floor and laying on the bed, these placements are important to monitor the status of the patient like if he collapsed and fall on the ground so that the help will be quick. The collected data from the RFID Reader in terms of Time Stamp, RSS, Tag ID, and a number of channels are processed using the MATLAB code.
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Design and implementation of adaptive baseband predistorter for OFDM nonlinear transmitter. Simulation and measurement of OFDM transmitter in presence of RF high power amplifier nonlinear distortion and the development of adaptive digital predistorters based on Hammerstein approach.Abd-Alhameed, Raed A.; Excell, Peter S.; Ghazaany, Tahereh S. (University of BradfordSchool of Engineering, Design and Technology, 2013-11-20)The objective of this research work is to investigate, design and measurement of a digital predistortion linearizer that is able to compensate the dynamic nonlinear distortion of a High Power Amplifier (PA). The effectiveness of the proposed baseband predistorter (PD) on the performance of a WLAN OFDM transmitter utilizing a nonlinear PA with memory effect is observed and discussed. For this purpose, a 10W Class-A/B power amplifier with a gain of 22 dB, operated over the 3.5 GHz frequency band was designed and implemented. The proposed baseband PD is independent of the operating RF frequency and can be used in multiband applications. Its operation is based on the Hammerstein system, taking into account PA memory effect compensation, and demonstrates a noticeable improvement compared to memoryless predistorters. Different types of modelling procedures and linearizers were introduced and investigated, in which accurate behavioural models of Radio Frequency (RF) PAs exhibiting linear and nonlinear memory effects were presented and considered, based on the Wiener approach employing a linear parametric estimation technique. Three new linear methods of parameter estimation were investigated, with the aim of reducing the complexity of the required filtering process in linear memory compensation. Moreover, an improved wiener model is represented to include the nonlinear memory effect in the system. The validity of the PA modelling approaches and predistortion techniques for compensation of nonlinearities of a PA were verified by several tests and measurements. The approaches presented, based on the Wiener system, have the capacity to deal with the existing trade-off between accuracy and convergence speed compared to more computationally complex behavioural modelling algorithms considering memory effects, such as those based on Volterra series and Neural Networks. In addition, nonlinear and linear crosstalks introduced by the power amplifier nonlinear behaviour and antennas mutual coupling due to the compact size of a MIMO OFDM transmitter have been investigated.
An Indoor Path Loss Prediction Model using Wall Correction Factors for WLAN and 5G Indoor NetworksObeidat, Huthaifa A.N.; Asif, Rameez; Ali, N.T.; Obeidat, O.A.; Ali, N.T.; Jones, Steven M.R.; Shuaieb, Wafa S.A.; Al-Sadoon, Mohammed A.; Hameed, Khalid W.H.; Alabdullah, A.A.; et al. (2018)A modified indoor path loss prediction model is presented, namely Effective Wall Loss Model (EWLM). The modified model is compared to other indoor path loss prediction models using simulation data and real-time measurements. Different operating frequencies and antenna polarizations are considered to verify the observations. In the simulation part, EWLM shows the best performance among other models as it outperforms two times the dual slope model which is the second-best performance. Similar observations were recorded from the experimental results. Linear attenuation and one slope models have similar behaviour, the two models parameters show dependency on operating frequency and antenna polarization.
Energy efficient radio frequency system design for mobile WiMax applications. Modelling, optimisation and measurement of radio frequency power amplifier covering WiMax bandwidth based on the combination of class AB, class B, and C operations.Abd-Alhameed, Raed A.; Rodriguez, Jonathan; McEwan, Neil J.; Hussaini, Abubakar S. (University of BradfordSchool of Engineering, Design and Technology, 2013-12-05)In today´s digital world, information and communication technology accounts for 3% and 2% of the global power consumption and CO2 emissions respectively. This alarming figure is on an upward trend, as future telecommunications systems and handsets will become even more power hungry since new services with higher bandwidth requirements emerge as part of the so called ¿future internet¿ paradigm. In addition, the mobile handset industry is tightly coupled to the consumer need for more sophisticated handsets with greater battery lifetime. If we cannot make any significant step to reducing the energy gap between the power hungry requirements of future handsets, and what battery technology can deliver, then market penetration for 4G handsets can be at risk. Therefore, energy conservation must be a design objective at the forefront of any system design from the network layer, to the physical and the microelectronic counterparts. In fact, the energy distribution of a handset device is dominated by the energy consumption of the RF hardware, and in particular the power amplifier design. Power amplifier design is a traditional topic that addresses the design challenge of how to obtain a trade-off between linearity and efficiency in order to avoid the introduction of signal distortion, whilst making best use of the available power resources for amplification. However, the present work goes beyond this by investigating a new line of amplifiers that address the green initiatives, namely green power amplifiers. This research work explores how to use the Doherty technique to promote efficiency enhancement and thus energy saving. Five different topologies of RF power amplifiers have been designed with custom-made signal splitters. The design core of the Doherty technique is based on the combination of a class B, class AB and a class C power amplifier working in synergy; which includes 90-degree 2-way power splitter at the input, quarter wavelength transformer at the output, and a new output power combiner. The frequency range for the amplifiers was designed to operate in the 3.4 - 3.6 GHz frequency band of Europe mobile WiMAX. The experimental results show that 30dBm output power can be achieved with 67% power added efficiency (PAE) for the user terminal, and 45dBm with 66% power added efficiency (PAE) for base stations which marks a 14% and 11% respective improvement over current stateof- the-art, while meeting the power output requirements for mobile WiMAX applications.