A service orientated architecture and wireless sensor network approach applied to the measurement and visualisation of a micro injection moulding process. Design, development and testing of an ESB based micro injection moulding platform using Google Gadgets and business processes for the integration of disparate hardware systems on the factory shop floor
SupervisorWhiteside, Benjamin R.
Hu, Yim Fun
KeywordMicro injection moulding; Wireless sensor networks (WSN); Service orientated architecture (SOA); Business processes; Business process execution language (BPEL); Process monitoring; Web services; Enterprise service bus (ESB); Google Gadgets
The University of Bradford theses are licenced under a Creative Commons Licence.
InstitutionUniversity of Bradford
DepartmentSchool of Engineering and Informatics
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AbstractFactory shop floors of the future will see a significant increase in interconnected devices for monitoring and control. However, if a Service Orientated Architecture (SOA) is implemented on all such devices then this will result in a large number of permutations of services and composite services. These services combined with other business level components can pose a huge challenge to manage as it is often difficult to keep an overview of all the devices, equipment and services. This thesis proposes an SOA based novel assimilation architecture for integrating disparate industrial hardware based processes and business processes of an enterprise in particular the plastics machinery environment. The key benefits of the proposed architecture are the reduction of complexity when integrating disparate hardware platforms; managing the associated services as well as allowing the Micro Injection Moulding (µIM) process to be monitored on the web through service and data integration. An Enterprise Service Bus (ESB) based middleware layer integrates the Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) based environmental and simulated machine process systems with frontend Google Gadgets (GGs) based web visualisation applications. A business process framework is proposed to manage and orchestrate the resulting services from the architecture. Results from the analysis of the WSN kits in terms of their usability and reliability showed that the Jennic WSN was easy to setup and had a reliable communication link in the polymer industrial environment with the PER being below 0.5%. The prototype Jennic WSN based µIM process monitoring system had limitations when monitoring high-resolution machine data, therefore a novel hybrid integration architecture was proposed. The assimilation architecture was implemented on a distributed server based test bed. Results from test scenarios showed that the architecture was highly scalable and could potentially allow a large number of disparate sensor based hardware systems and services to be hosted, managed, visualised and linked to form a cohesive business process.
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Modelling and optimisation of oxidative desulphurization process for model sulphur compounds and heavy gas oil. Determination of Rate of Reaction and Partition Coefficient via Pilot Plant Experiment; Modelling of Oxidation and Solvent Extraction Processes; Heat Integration of Oxidation Process; Economic Evaluation of the Total Process.Mujtaba, Iqbal M.; Khalfalla, Hamza Abdulmagid (University of BradfordSchool of Engineering, Design and Technology, 2010-02-26)Heightened concerns for cleaner air and increasingly more stringent regulations on sulphur content in transportation fuels will make desulphurization more and more important. The sulphur problem is becoming more serious in general, particularly for diesel fuels as the regulated sulphur content is getting an order of magnitude lower, while the sulphur contents of crude oils are becoming higher. This thesis aimed to develop a desulphurisation process (based on oxidation followed by extraction) with high efficiency, selectivity and minimum energy consumption leading to minimum environmental impact via laboratory batch experiments, mathematical modelling and optimisation. Deep desulphurization of model sulphur compounds (di-n-butyl sulphide, dimethyl sulfoxide and dibenzothiophene) and heavy gas oils (HGO) derived from Libyan crude oil were conducted. A series of batch experiments were carried out using a small reactor operating at various temperatures (40 ¿ 100 0C) with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) as oxidant and formic acid (HCOOH) as catalyst. Kinetic models for the oxidation process are then developed based on `total sulphur approach¿. Extraction of unoxidised and oxidised gas oils was also investigated using methanol, dimethylformamide (DMF) and N-methyl pyrolidone (NMP) as solvents. For each solvent, the `measures¿ such as: the partition coefficient (KP), effectiveness factor (Kf) and extractor factor (Ef) are used to select the best/effective solvent and to find the effective heavy gas oil/solvent ratios. A CSTR model is then developed for the process for evaluating viability of the large scale operation. It is noted that while the energy consumption and recovery issues could be ignored for batch experiments these could not be ignored for large scale operation. Large amount of heating is necessary even to carry out the reaction at 30-40 0C, the recovery of which is very important for maximising the profitability of operation and also to minimise environmental impact by reducing net CO2 release. Here the heat integration of the oxidation process is considered to recover most of the external energy input. However, this leads to putting a number of heat exchangers in the oxidation process requiring capital investment. Optimisation problem is formulated using gPROMS modelling tool to optimise some of the design and operating parameters (such as reaction temperature, residence time and splitter ratio) of integrated process while minimising an objective function which is a coupled function of capital and operating costs involving design and operating parameters. Two cases are studied: where (i) HGO and catalyst are fed as one feed stream and (ii) HGO and catalyst are treated as two feed streams. A liquid-liquid extraction model is then developed for the extraction of sulphur compounds from the oxidised heavy gas oil. With the experimentally determined KP multi stage liquid-liquid extraction process is modelled using gPROMS software and the process is simulated for three different solvents at different oil/solvent ratios to select the best solvent, and to obtain the best heavy gas oil to solvent ratio and number of extraction stages to reduce the sulphur content to less than 10 ppm. Finally, an integrated oxidation and extraction steps of ODS process is developed based on the batch experiments and modelling. The recovery of oxidant, catalyst and solvent are considered and preliminary economic analysis for the integrated ODS process is presented.
In-process monitoring of micromoulding - assessment of process variation.Whiteside, Benjamin R.; Coates, Philip D.; Martyn, Michael T. (2005)Advances in micromoulding technology are leading to complex,net-shape products having sub-milligramme masses with micro-scale surface features in a range of polymer and nano-composite materials.For such small components subjected to the extreme stress,strain-rate and temperature gradients encountered in the micromoulding process,detailed process monitoring is desirable to highlight variations in moulding conditions and assist in creating a viable manufacturing process with acceptable quality products.This paper covers the implementation of a suite of sensors on a commercial micromoulding machine and detailed computer monitoring during processing of a polyacetal component over a range of processing conditions.The results determined that cavity pressure curve integral data provides the most sensitive factor for characterisation of a moulding process of a 0.34 mm~3(0.49 mg)product.The repeatability of the process is directly compared with that of a 15.6mm~3(22.2 mg)product and shown to beinferior.DSC measurements of the whole products indicated little variation in average crystallinity of the products manufactured over a mould temperature range of 30 to 130deg C.
Thermal homogeneity and energy efficiency in single screw extrusion of polymers. The use of in-process metrology to quantify the effects of process conditions, polymer rheology, screw geometry and extruder scale on melt temperature and specific energy consumptionKelly, Adrian L.; Brown, Elaine C.; Coates, Philip D.; Vera-Sorroche, Javier (University of BradfordFaculty of Engineering and Informatics, 2014)Polymer extrusion is an energy intensive process whereby the simultaneous action of viscous shear and thermal conduction are used to convert solid polymer to a melt which can be formed into a shape. To optimise efficiency, a homogeneous melt is required with minimum consumption of process energy. In this work, in-process monitoring techniques have been used to characterise the thermal dynamics of the single screw extrusion process with real-time quantification of energy consumption. Thermocouple grid sensors were used to measure radial melt temperatures across the melt flow at the entrance to the extruder die. Moreover, an infrared sensor flush mounted at the end of the extruder barrel was used to measure non-invasive melt temperature profiles across the width of the screw channel in the metering section of the extruder screw. Both techniques were found to provide useful information concerning the thermal dynamics of the extrusion process; in particular this application of infrared thermometry could prove useful for industrial extrusion process monitoring applications. Extruder screw geometry and extrusion variables should ideally be tailored to suit the properties of individual polymers but in practise this is rarely achieved due the lack of understanding. Here, LDPE, LLDPE, three grades of HDPE, PS, PP and PET were extruded using three geometries of extruder screws at several set temperatures and screw rotation speeds. Extrusion data showed that polymer rheology had a significant effect on the thermal efficiency on the extrusion process. In particular, melt viscosity was found to have a significant effect on specific energy consumption and thermal homogeneity of the melt. Extruder screw geometry, set extrusion temperature and screw rotation speed were also found to have a direct effect on energy consumption and melt consistency. Single flighted extruder screws exhibited poorer temperature homogeneity and larger fluctuations than a barrier flighted screw with a spiral mixer. These results highlighted the importance of careful selection of processing conditions and extruder screw geometry on melt homogeneity and process efficiency. Extruder scale was found to have a significant influence on thermal characteristics due to changes in surface area of the screw, barrel and heaters which consequently affect the effectiveness of the melting process and extrusion process energy demand. In this thesis, the thermal and energy characteristics of two single screw extruders were compared to examine the effect of extruder scale and processing conditions on measured melt temperature and energy consumption. Extrusion thermal dynamics were shown to be highly dependent upon extruder scale whilst specific energy consumption compared more favourably, enabling prediction of a process window from lab to industrial scale within which energy efficiency can be optimised. Overall, this detailed experimental study has helped to improve understanding of the single screw extrusion process, in terms of thermal stability and energy consumption. It is hoped that the findings will allow those working in this field to make more informed decisions regarding set conditions, screw geometry and extruder scale, in order to improve the efficiency of the extrusion process.