Can patients report patient safety incidents in a hospital setting? A systematic review
Medical Errors/classification/prevention & control
Quality Indicators, Health Care
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AbstractINTRODUCTION: Patients are increasingly being thought of as central to patient safety. A small but growing body of work suggests that patients may have a role in reporting patient safety problems within a hospital setting. This review considers this disparate body of work, aiming to establish a collective view on hospital-based patient reporting. STUDY OBJECTIVES: This review asks: (a) What can patients report? (b) In what settings can they report? (c) At what times have patients been asked to report? (d) How have patients been asked to report? METHOD: 5 databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, (Kings Fund) HMIC and PsycINFO) were searched for published literature on patient reporting of patient safety 'problems' (a number of search terms were utilised) within a hospital setting. In addition, reference lists of all included papers were checked for relevant literature. RESULTS: 13 papers were included within this review. All included papers were quality assessed using a framework for comparing both qualitative and quantitative designs, and reviewed in line with the study objectives. DISCUSSION: Patients are clearly in a position to report on patient safety, but included papers varied considerably in focus, design and analysis, with all papers lacking a theoretical underpinning. In all papers, reports were actively solicited from patients, with no evidence currently supporting spontaneous reporting. The impact of timing upon accuracy of information has yet to be established, and many vulnerable patients are not currently being included in patient reporting studies, potentially introducing bias and underestimating the scale of patient reporting. The future of patient reporting may well be as part of an 'error detection jigsaw' used alongside other methods as part of a quality improvement toolkit.
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CitationWard JK and Armitage G (2012) Can patients report patient safety incidents in a hospital setting? A systematic review. BMJ Quality & Safety. 21(8): 685-699.
Link to publisher’s versionhttp://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjqs-2011-000213
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Patient involvement in patient safety: Protocol for developing an intervention using patient reports of organisational safety and patient incident reportingWard, J.K.; McEachan, R.R.C.; Lawton, R.; Armitage, Gerry R.; Watt, I.S.; Wright, J.; Yorkshire Quality Safety Research Group (2011)BACKGROUND: Patients have the potential to provide a rich source of information on both organisational aspects of safety and patient safety incidents. This project aims to develop two patient safety interventions to promote organisational learning about safety - a patient measure of organisational safety (PMOS), and a patient incident reporting tool (PIRT) - to help the NHS prevent patient safety incidents by learning more about when and why they occur. METHODS: To develop the PMOS 1) literature will be reviewed to identify similar measures and key contributory factors to error; 2) four patient focus groups will ascertain practicality and feasibility; 3) 25 patient interviews will elicit approximately 60 items across 10 domains; 4) 10 patient and clinician interviews will test acceptability and understanding. Qualitative data will be analysed using thematic content analysis.To develop the PIRT 1) individual and then combined patient and clinician focus groups will provide guidance for the development of three potential reporting tools; 2) nine wards across three hospital directorates will pilot each of the tools for three months. The best performing tool will be identified from the frequency, volume and quality of reports. The validity of both measures will be tested. 300 patients will be asked to complete the PMOS and PIRT during their stay in hospital. A sub-sample (N = 50) will complete the PMOS again one week later. Health professionals in participating wards will also be asked to complete the AHRQ safety culture questionnaire. Case notes for all patients will be reviewed. The psychometric properties of the PMOS will be assessed and a final valid and reliable version developed. Concurrent validity for the PIRT will be assessed by comparing reported incidents with those identified from case note review and the existing staff reporting scheme. In a subsequent study these tools will be used to provide information to wards/units about their priorities for patient safety. A patient panel will provide steering to the research. DISCUSSION: The PMOS and PIRT aim to provide a reliable means of eliciting patient views about patient safety. Both interventions are likely to have relevance and practical utility for all NHS hospital trusts.
Ethnicity and primary care. A comparative study of doctor-patient relationship, perceived health, symptomatology, and use of general practitioner services by Asian and white patients, and the Bradford general practitioners' attitudes towards these patients.Baker, Mark R.; Kernohan, Elizabeth E.M.; Ahmad, Waqar I-U. (University of BradfordPostgraduate School of Studies in Biomedical Sciences, 2009-10-02)Britain's Asians are a young population and their socio-economic status is low, with racial disadvantage in housing, employment, education and health. Research on their health has usually not been conducted in its socio-economic and demographic context and there is little on their use of primary care. Three studies were conducted to investigate their relationship with primary care in Bradford. A study of general practice attenders of white/British, Pakistani and Indian origin confirmed the demographic and socio-economic differences between the groups. The former had higher rates of alcohol and cigarette consumption. For Pakistanis and Indians, fluency and literacy in English was poor. Ethnic and linguistic match between doctor and patient was more important in patients' choice of doctor than the doctor's sex. Differential employment status of Asian and white/British accounted for some of the differences in health. A study of general practice attendance showed similar rates of surgery consultations between Asians and Non-Asians; the latter made greater use of domiciliary services. Both these studies were conducted in an inner Bradford health centre with an Asian male, a white male and a white female doctor. Bradford GPs were found to perceive that Asian patients made greater use of surgery and domiciliary consultations; attended more often for trivial complaints; and had lower compliance rates than Non-Asians. These perceptions were not supported by objective data. Better qualified GPs had a smaller, and Asian doctors had a greater proportion of Asian patients on their lists. Research, and action on Asians' health, needs to take account of their poorer socio-economic status.
Patient-directed therapy during in-patient stroke rehabilitation: stroke survivors' views of feasibility and acceptabilityHorne, Maria; Thomas, N.; McCabe, C.; Selles, R.; Vail, A.; Tyrrell, P.J.; Tyson, S. (2015)Patient-led therapy, in which patients work outside therapy sessions without direct supervision, is a possible way to increase the amount of therapy stroke patients' receive without increasing staff demands. Here, we report patients' views of patient-led mirror therapy and lower limb exercises. 94 stroke survivors with upper and lower limb limitations at least 1-week post-stroke undertook 4 weeks of daily patient-led mirror therapy or lower limb exercise, then completed questionnaires regarding their experience and satisfaction. A convenience random sample of 20 participants also completed a semi-structured telephone interview to consider their experience in more detail and to capture their longer term impressions. Participants were generally positive about patient-led therapy. About 71% found it useful; 68% enjoyed it; 59% felt it "worked" and 88% would recommend it to other patients. Exercise was viewed more positively than the mirror therapy. Difficulties included arranging the equipment and their position, particularly for more severe strokes, loss of motivation and concerns about working unsupervised. Patient-led mirror therapy and lower limb exercises during in-patient rehabilitation is generally feasible and acceptable to patients but "light touch" supervision to deal with any problems, and strategies to maintain focus and motivation are needed. Implications for Rehabilitation Most stroke patients receive insufficient therapy to maximize recovery during rehabilitation. As increases in staffing are unlikely there is an imperative to find ways for patients to increase the amount of exercise and practice of functional tasks they undertake without increasing demands on staff. Patient-led therapy (also known as patient-directed therapy or independent practice), in which patients undertake exercises or functional tasks practice prescribed by a professional outside formal therapy sessions is one way of achieving this. It is widely used in community-based rehabilitation but is uncommon in hospital-based stroke care. We explored the feasibility and acceptability of two types of patient-led therapy during hospital-based stroke care; mirror therapy for the upper limb and exercises (without a mirror) for the lower limb. Here, we report patients' experiences of undertaking patient-led therapy. Patient-led mirror therapy and lower limb exercises during in-patient stroke rehabilitation is generally feasible and acceptable to patients but "light touch" supervision to deal with any problems, and strategies to maintain focus and motivation are needed.