Recent Submissions

  • Can occupational therapy address the occupational implications of hoarding?

    Clarke, Cathy (2019-03)
    Hoarding is often described as a medical disorder, defined by a persistent difficulty in discarding possessions and associated high levels of emotional distress when forced to part with these. This article will discuss how having a different view of hoarding, seeing hoarding as a daily occupation which provides value, purpose, and meaning and with a relationship to self-identity and life purpose, could offer alternate interventions to support an individual who hoards. The article will consider the components of hoarding activity and how these relate to health and wellbeing and doing, being, belonging, and becoming as understood by occupational therapists. The article will consider what occupational therapy, a profession which considers a person’s daily occupations, the things that occupy their time and which give meaning to their existence, could offer as an alternative to current hoarding interventions. Proposals for occupational therapy interventions will be suggested which would support occupational choice, support engagement in activities which have more positive outcomes on a person’s health, and seek to address barriers which limit engagement and occupational performance in activities within the person’s home environment.
  • Individual goal-oriented cognitive rehabilitation to improve everyday functioning for people with early-stage dementia: a multi-centre randomised controlled trial (the GREAT trial)

    Clare, L.; Kudlicka, A.; Oyebode, Jan R.; Jones, R.W.; Bayer, A.; Leroi, I.; Kopelman, M.; James, I.A.; Culverwell, A.; Pool, J.; Brand, A.; Henderson, C.; Hoare, Z.; Knapp, M.; Woods, B. (2019)
    Objectives: To determine whether individual goal-oriented cognitive rehabilitation (CR) improves everyday functioning for people with mild-to-moderate dementia. Design and methods: Parallel group multi-centre single-blind randomised controlled trial (RCT) comparing CR added to usual treatment (CR) with usual treatment alone (TAU) for people with an ICD-10 diagnosis of Alzheimer’s, vascular or mixed dementia and mild-to-moderate cognitive impairment (MMSE score ≥ 18), and with a family member willing to contribute. Participants allocated to CR received ten weekly sessions over three months and four maintenance sessions over six months. Participants were followed up three and nine months post-randomisation by blinded researchers. The primary outcome was self-reported goal attainment at three months. Secondary outcomes at three and nine months included informant-reported goal attainment, quality of life, mood, self-efficacy, and cognition, and study partner stress and quality of life. Results: We randomised (1:1) 475 people with dementia; 445 (CR=281) were included in the intention to treat analysis at three months, and 426 (CR=208) at nine months. At three months there were statistically-significant large positive effects for participant-rated goal attainment (d=0.97, 95% CI 0.75 to 1.19), corroborated by informant ratings (d=1.11, 0.89 to 1.34). These effects were maintained at nine months for both participant (d=0.94, 0.71 to 1.17) and informant ratings (d=0.96, 0.73 to 1.2). The observed gains related to goals directly targeted in the therapy. There were no significant differences in secondary outcomes. Conclusions: Cognitive rehabilitation enables people with early-stage dementia to improve their everyday functioning in relation to individual goals targeted in the therapy.
  • Dementia and minority ethnic carers

    Parveen, Sahdia; Oyebode, Jan R. (2018-06)
  • Integrating research and system-wide practice in public health to enhance the evidence-base of interventions: lessons learnt from Better Start Bradford

    Dickerson, J.; Bird, P.K.; Bryant, M.; Dharni, N.; Bridges, S.; Willan, K.; Ahern, S.; Dunn, A.; Nielsen, D.; Uphoff, E.P.; Bywater, T.; Bowyer-Crane, C.; Sahota, P.; Small, Neil A.; Howell, M.; Thornton, G.; Pickett, K.E.; McEachan, R.R.C.; Wright, J. (2018-11)
  • Healthcare practice placements: back to the drawing board?

    Millington, Paul; Hellawell, Michael; Graham, Claire; Edwards, Lisa (Mar 2019)
    Background: Sourcing healthcare practice placements continues to present a challenge for higher education institutions. Equally, the provision of clinical placements by healthcare providers is not at the forefront of their agenda. In view of this, the historic and traditional models of clinical placements is becoming more difficult to provide. In light of this, new models of clinical placements are being explored. Aims: This literature review explores the differing models of clinical placements in use and examines the merits and limitation of each. Methods: A mixed-methods literature review with a pragmatic approach has been used. Findings: Several placement models were described, including the traditional 1:1 model as well as 2:1, 3:1. The hub and spoke, capacity development facilitator, collaborative learning in practice and role emerging placement models were also discussed. Conclusion: There is a considerable paucity of high-quality evidence evaluating differing placement modules. Further research is required to evaluate the differing placement models from a students, clinical educators and service user’s perspective.
  • What do adolescents perceive to be key features of an effective dementia education and awareness initiative?

    Parveen, Sahdia; Farina, N.; Shafiq, Saba; Hughes, L.J.; Griffiths, Alys W. (2018)
    The development of dementia friendly communities is a current global and national priority for the UK. As a response to policy, there have been a number of dementia awareness initiatives disseminated with the aim of reducing the stigma associated with a diagnosis of dementia. The inclusion of adolescents in such initiatives is imperative in order to sustain dementia friendly communities. With this in mind, the aim of this study was to establish the dementia education needs of adolescents and effective dissemination strategies to convey key messages. A total of 42 adolescents aged 12 to 18 years participated in eight focus group discussions. Key themes to emerge from discussions included: the importance of dementia awareness, topics of interest within dementia, preferred methods of learning, the inclusion of the person living with dementia and the use of social media. The findings of the study will enable the development of appropriate dementia awareness initiatives for adolescents and thus facilitate the sustainability of dementia friendly communities.
  • Validation of the Primary Care Patient Measure of Safety (PC PMOS) questionnaire

    Giles, S.J.; Parveen, Sahdia; Hernan, A.L. (2018)
    Background The Primary Care Patient Measure of Safety (PC PMOS) is designed to capture patient feedback about the contributing factors to patient safety incidents in primary care. It required further reliability and validity testing to produce a robust tool intended to improve safety in practice. Method 490 adult patients in nine primary care practices in Greater Manchester, UK, completed the PC PMOS. Practice staff (n = 81) completed a survey on patient safety culture to assess convergent validity. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) assessed the construct validity and internal reliability of the PC PMOS domains and items. A multivariate analysis of variance was conducted to assess discriminant validity, and Spearman correlation was conducted to establish test–retest reliability. Results Initial CFA results showed data did not fit the model well (a chi-square to df ratio (CMIN/DF) = 5.68; goodness-of-fit index (GFI) = 0.61, CFI = 0.57, SRMR = 0.13  and root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA) = 0.10). On the basis of large modification indices (>10), standardised residuals >± 2.58 and assessment of item content; 22 items were removed. This revised nine-factor model (28 items) was found to fit the data satisfactorily (CMIN/DF = 2.51; GFI = 0.87, CFI = 0.91, SRMR = 0.04  and RMSEA = 0.05). New factors demonstrated good internal reliability with average inter-item correlations ranging from 0.20 to 0.70. The PC PMOS demonstrated good discriminant validity between primary care practices (F = 2.64, df = 72, p < 0.001) and showed some association with practice staff safety score (convergent validity) but failed to reach statistical significance (r = −0.64, k = 9, p = 0.06). Conclusion This study led to a reliable and valid 28-item PC PMOS. It could enhance or complement current data collection methods used in primary care to identify and prevent error.
  • Involving minority ethnic communities and diverse experts by experience in dementia research: the Caregiving HOPE study

    Parveen, Sahdia; Barker, S.; Kaur, R.; Kerry, F.; Mitchell, W.; Happs, A.; Fry, Gary; Morrison, V.; Fortinsky, R.; Oyebode, Jan R. (2018-11)
    Patient and public involvement is imperative to ensure relevance of research. There is a growing literature on the theoretical underpinning on patient and public involvement including level and processes of involvement. The aim of this paper is to describe a person-centred and culturally sensitive approach to working with minority ethnic communities, involving carers, people living with dementia, members of the public and carer support workers, as used in the Caregiving HOPE study; and the influence of the approach on the study’s research processes and outcomes. Patient and public involvement members were considered experts by experience and involved with study conception, design, conduct and dissemination. The perspective of the experts by experience is also presented in this article. The level and nature of involvement was influenced by each individual’s needs and desires which changed over the course of the study. The approach had a significant impact on study outcomes as evidenced by successful recruitment and engagement at a national level, but was not without challenges with greater flexibility required and fuller consideration of financial and time costs required. Benefits of the approach included strong engagement, improved outcomes (successful recruitment of seldom heard groups) and meaningful relationships between researchers and experts by experience. A person-centred and culturally sensitive approach is required with patient and public involvement to ensure involvement is not detrimental to those involved, is meaningful and enjoyable and has a positive impact on the research.
  • Components of impactful dementia training for general hospital staff: a collective case study

    Surr, C.A.; Sass, C.; Burnley, N.; Drury, Michelle; Smith, S.J.; Parveen, Sahdia; Burden, S.; Oyebode, Jan R. (2018)
    Background and objectives: People with dementia occupy around one quarter of general hospital beds, with concerns consistently raised about care quality. Improving workforce knowledge, skills and attitudes is a mechanism for addressing this. However little is known about effective ways of training healthcare staff about dementia. This study aimed to understand models of dementia training most likely to lead to improved practice and better care experiences for people with dementia, and to understand barriers and facilitators to implementation. Method: A collective case study was conducted in three National Health Service Acute Hospital Trusts in England. Multiple data sources were used including interviews with training leads/facilitators, ward managers and staff who had attended training; satisfaction surveys with patients with dementia and/or carers; and observations of care using Dementia Care Mapping. Results: Interactive face-to-face training designed for general hospital staff was valued. Simulation and experiential learning methods were felt to be beneficial by some staff and stressful and distressing by others. Skilled delivery by an experienced and enthusiastic facilitator was identified as important. Staff identified learning and practice changes made following their training. However, observations revealed not all staff had the knowledge, attitudes and skills needed to deliver good care. Patient and carer satisfaction with care was mixed. A major barrier to training implementation was lack of resources. Supportive managers, organisational culture and strong leadership were key facilitators. Conclusion: Dementia training can lead to improved care practices. There are a range of key barriers and facilitators to implementation that must be considered.
  • Remote health care provision in care homes in England: an exploratory mixed methods study of Yorkshire and the Humber

    Newbould, L.; Mountain, Gail; Ariss, S.; Hawley, M.S. (2019-02-15)
    An increasing demand for care homes in the UK, has necessitated the evaluation of innovative methods for delivering more effective health care. Videoconferencing may be one way to meet this demand. However, there is a lack of literature on the provision of videoconferencing in England. This mixed-methods study aimed to map current attitudes, knowledge and provision of videoconferencing in the Yorkshire and Humber region of England. Qualitative interviews with care home managers, a scoping review and field notes from a Special Interest Group (SIG) informed the development of a descriptive convenience survey which was sent out to care home managers in the Yorkshire and Humber region of England. The survey had a 14% (n = 124) response rate. Of those who responded, 10% (n = 12) reported using videoconferencing for health care; with over 78% (n = 97) of respondents’ care homes being based in urban areas. Approximately 62% (n = 77) of the 124 respondents had heard of videoconferencing for health care provision. Of those who reported not using videoconferencing (n = 112), 39% (n = 48) said they would consider it but would need to know more. The top ranked reason for not introducing videoconferencing was the belief that residents would not be comfortable using videoconferencing to consult with a healthcare professional. The main reason for implementation was the need for speedier access to services. Those already using videoconferencing rated videoconferencing overall as being very good (50%) (n = 6) or good (42%) (n = 5). Those who were not using it in practice appeared sceptical before implementing videoconferencing. The main driver of uptake was the home’s current access to and satisfaction with traditionally delivered health care services.
  • Not a level playing field: a qualitative study exploring structural, community and individual determinants of greenspace use amongst low-income multi-ethnic families

    Cronin de Chavez, A.; Islam, Shahid; McEachan, R.R.C. (2019-03)
    Greenspace is important for physical and mental health. Low-income, multi-ethnic populations in deprived urban areas experience several barriers to using greenspace. This may exacerbate health inequalities. The current study explored structural and individual determinants of greenspace use amongst parents of young children in an urban, deprived, multi-cultural area situated in the North of England, UK. Semi-structured in-depth interviews and focus group discussions were conducted with 30 parents of children aged 0–3 between December 2016 and May 2017 from a range of ethnic groups. Thematic analyses were informed by the Human Health Habitat Map and the Theoretical Domains Framework. The results show that whilst all families recognised the benefits of greenspaces, use was bounded by a variety of structural, community, and individual determinants. Individual determinants preventing use included lack of knowledge about where to go, or how to get there and confidence in managing young children whilst outdoors. Fear of crime, antisocial behaviour and accidents were the overriding barriers to use, even in high quality spaces. Social and community influences both positively encouraged use (for example, positive social interactions, and practical support by others) and prevented use (antisocial or inappropriate behaviours experienced in greenspace). The built environment was a key barrier to use. Problems related to unsuitable or unsafe playgrounds, no gardens or safe areas for children's play, poor accessibility, and lack of toilets were identified. However, the value that parents and children placed on natural blue and green features was an enabler to use. Contextual influences included external time pressures, difficulties of transporting and caring for young children and poor weather. Multi-sectoral efforts are needed to tackle the uneven playing field experienced by multi-ethnic, urban, deprived communities. Initiatives to increase use should tackle structural quality issues, addressing fears about safety, whilst simultaneously encouraging communities to reclaim their local greenspaces.
  • Influence of positive aspects of dementia caregiving on caregivers' well-being: a systematic review

    Quinn, Catherine; Toms, G. (2018)
    Background and Objectives: There is a growing evidence base that informal caregivers can identify positive aspects of providing care and that this may have a beneficial influence on their well-being. The aim of this systematic review was to explore how positive aspects of caregiving (PAC) affects the well-being of caregivers of people with dementia. Research Design and Methods: We searched electronic databases for quantitative studies exploring the association between PAC and caregiver well-being. Studies were included if they involved informal (unpaid) caregivers of people with dementia, at least 75% of whom had to be residing in the community. A narrative synthesis was used to explore patterns within the data. Results: Fifty-three studies were included in the narrative synthesis. Most studies utilized a cross-sectional design. The majority of samples consisted primarily of spouses and female caregivers. Twenty different PAC measures were employed and studies referred to a variety of constructs, such as satisfactions, gains, meaning, and rewards. PAC was associated with lower depressive symptoms and burden. Conversely, PAC was associated with better mental health, quality of life, satisfaction with life, and competence/self-efficacy. PAC was not associated with self-rated health or personal strain/stress. Discussion and Implications: The findings suggest that identifying PAC is associated with better caregiver well-being, although further longitudinal studies are required to explore how this relationship changes over time. Interventions that enable caregivers to gain a more positive experience of caregiving could be beneficial for their well-being.
  • A comprehensive model of factors associated with subjective perceptions of "living well" with dementia: findings from the IDEAL study

    Clare, L.; Wu, Y-T.; Jones, I.R.; Victor, C.R.; Nelis, S.M.; Martyr, A.; Quinn, Catherine; Litherland, R.; Pickett, J.A.; Hindle, J.V.; Jones, R.W.; Knapp, M.; Kopelman, M.D.; Morris, R.G.; Rusted, J.M.; Thom, J.M.; Lamont, R.A.; Henderson, C.; Rippon, I.; Hillman, A.; Matthews, F.E. (2019-01)
    Introduction: We aimed to better understand what predicts the capability to “live well” with dementia by identifying the relative contribution of life domains associated with the subjective experience of living well. Methods: We analyzed data from 1547 individuals with mild-to-moderate dementia in the IDEAL cohort. We generated a “living well” latent factor from measures of quality of life, satisfaction with life, and well-being. We used multivariate modeling to identify variables related to living well measures and structural equation modeling to derive latent variables for 5 life domains and to examine the associations of these domains with living well. Results: All 5 domains were individually associated with living well. When modeled together, the psychological characteristics and psychological health domain was the only independent predictor of living well [effect size, 3.55; 95% confidence interval (CI): 2.93-4.17], and effect sizes were smaller for physical fitness and physical health (1.23, 95% CI: −0.10 to 2.58), social capitals, assets and resources (0.67; 95% CI: −0.04 to 1.38), managing everyday life with dementia (0.33; 95% CI: −0.06 to 0.71), and social location (0.08; 95% CI: −2.10 to 2.26). Discussion: Psychological resources, and the social, environmental, and physical factors that underpin positive psychological states, are potentially important targets for interventions and initiatives that aim to improve the experience of living with dementia.
  • Psychosocial interventions for community dwelling people following diagnosis of mild to moderate dementia. Findings of a systematic scoping review

    Keogh, F.; Mountain, Gail; Joddrell, P.; Lord, Kathryn (2018)
    National policies and evidence reviews recommend psychosocial interventions (PIs) as an essential support, particularly in the period following dementia diagnosis. However, the availability and uptake of these interventions is comparatively low. One of the reasons for this is that clinicians lack information about what might be provided and the potential benefits of different interventions. This paper identifies and describes psychosocial interventions for community dwelling people following diagnosis of mild to moderate dementia and presents the available evidence to inform practice decisions. A systematic scoping review was employed to map the evidence relating to PIs for this group. This identified 63 relevant studies, testing 69 interventions, which could be grouped into six categories; 20 cognition-oriented interventions; 11 behaviour-oriented; 11 stimulation-oriented; 13 emotion-oriented, 5 social-oriented and 9 multi-modal. There were three targets for outcome measurement of these PIs; the person with dementia, the family carer and the person-carer dyad. Over 154 outcome measures were identified in the studies with outcomes measured across 11 main domains. The lack of a classification framework for PIs means it is difficult to create a meaningful synthesis of the breadth of relevant evidence to guide clinical practice. Possible dimensions of a classification framework are proposed to begin to address this gap.
  • Preference of non-pharmaceutical preoperative anxiety reduction intervention in patients undergoing elective surgery

    Dagona, S.; Archibong, Uduak E.; McClelland, Gabrielle T. (2018-12)
    For patients to be treated, decisions about their care must be made before treatment begins. In case of pre-operative anxiety, it is currently unknown how clinicians and patients discuss information about the issue, and it is also not known whether clinicians consider (or are ready to consider) their patients’ preferences of non-pharmaceutical pre-operative anxiety reduction interventions. At present no study has been conducted to find information on surgical patients’ preferences of, and their involvement in decisions about non-pharmaceutical interventions for reducing their pre-operative anxiety. This paper investigates elective surgical patients’ involvement in treatment decisions with the aim of finding out their preferred non-pharmaceutical pre-operative anxiety reduction interventions before they undergo elective surgery. Method: A survey method was used to collect data on patients’ preference of non-pharmaceutical preoperative anxiety reduction interventions at a tertiary health facility in Nigeria. Participants: A sample of 30 participants-17 male and 13 female, schedule to undergo surgical operations was selected using a convenient sampling method. Their ages range between 17 to 70 years (mean age = 41.03 and standard deviation = 16.09). Study design/procedure: To elicit preference of interventions, the study participants were presented with cards that contain picture of surgical patient receiving one of the non-pharmaceutical interventions used in reducing pre-operative anxiety. The pictures were presented one at a time for 30-40 seconds. The researcher then gives the participants a sheet of paper with the different interventions boldly written for the participants to rank order them according to the degree of their preferences. Through this process, data was collected from all the 30 participants. Results: The results obtained were entered into SPSS for analysis. Descriptive statistics, at 95 % confidence was calculated to estimate the percentage, mean, standard deviation and confidence intervals based on the participants’ preference of the interventions. Discussions: The findings were discussed alongside the existing literature and recommendations were offered for clinical practice and further research.
  • How do consultant radiographers contribute to imaging service delivery and leadership?

    Snaith, Beverly; Clarke, R.; Coates, A.; Field, L.; McGuinness, A.; Yunis, S. (2019-01-02)
    Background: Consultant radiographer numbers remain low despite the ongoing capacity challenges in diagnostic imaging. This is compounded by the limited evidence of how such roles can positively impact on service delivery, particularly in relation to their leadership expectations. Aims: To examine the activities undertaken by consultant radiographers; evidence the impact of the roles, and consider whether the roles encompass the four domains of consultant practice. Method: Six consultant radiographers employed in a single NHS Trust completed an activity diary over a period of 7 days. Interval sampling every 15 minutes enabled the collection of a large volume of complex data. Findings: All consultants worked beyond their contacted hours. The documented activities demonstrate the breadth of the roles and confirmed that the participants were undertaking all four core functions of consultant practice. Conclusion: The impact of the roles stretched beyond the local department and organisation to the health system and wider profession.
  • Point of care creatinine testing in diagnostic imaging: a feasibility study within the outpatient computed tomography setting

    Snaith, Beverly; Harris, M.A.; Shinkins, B.; Messenger, M.; Lewington, A.; Jordaan, M.; Spencer, N. (2019-03)
    Introduction: Although the risks associated with iodinated contrast administration are acknowledged to be very low, screening of kidney function prior to administration is still standard practice in many hospitals. This study has evaluated the feasibility of implementing a screening form in conjunction with point of care (PoC) creatinine testing as a method to manage the risks of post contrast acute kidney injury (PC-AKI) within the CT imaging pathway. Method: Over an eight-week period 300 adult outpatients attending a UK CT department for contrast-enhanced scans were approached. Participants completed a screening questionnaire for co-morbidities linked to kidney dysfunction and consented to have a PoC and laboratory creatinine tests. Comparison was made against with previous baseline blood tests obtained within the preceding 3 months, as required by the study site. Participants were also invited to attend for follow up PoC and laboratory bloods tests at 48–72 h. Results: 14 patients (4.7%) had a scan-day eGFR below 45mL/min/1.73m2, all identified through screening. The majority of patients (n=281/300; 93.7%) fell in the same risk category based on previous and scan-day blood results. Six PoC test failures were recorded on the scan day. The constant error between the Abbott i-STAT PoC scan-day measurements and the laboratory scan-day measurements was -3.71 (95% CI: -6.41 to -0.50). Five patients had an elevated creatinine (≥25% from baseline) post contrast administration, but no instances of PC-AKI (≥50% from baseline) were identified. Conclusion: PoC creatinine testing is a practical method of ensuring renal function and is feasible in the radiology environment.
  • Standardising the Capture and Processing of Custody Images

    Jilani, Shelina K.; Ugail, Hassan; Cole, S.; Logan, Andrew J. (2018)
    Custody images are a standard feature of everyday Policing and are commonly used during investigative work to establish whether the perpetrator and the suspect are the same. The process of identification relies heavily on the quality of a custody image because a low-quality image may mask identifying features. With an increased demand for high quality facial images and the requirement to integrate biometrics and machine vision technology to the field of face identification, this research presents an innovative image capture and biometric recording system called the Halo. Halo is a pioneering system which (1) uses machine vision cameras to capture high quality facial images from 8 planes of view (including CCTV simulated), (2) uses high quality video technology to record identification parades and, (3) records biometric data from the face by using a Convolutional Neural Networks (CNN) based algorithm, which is a supervised machine learning technique. Results based on our preliminary experiments have concluded a 100% facial recognition rate for layer 34 within the VGG-Face model. These results are significant for the sector of forensic science, especially digital image capture and facial identification as they highlight the importance of image quality and demonstrates the complementing nature a robust machine learning algorithm has on an everyday Policing process.
  • A Comprehensive Model of Factors Associated with Capability to "live Well" for Family Caregivers of People Living with Mild-to-Moderate Dementia: Findings from the IDEAL Study

    Clare, L.; Wu, Y.-T.; Quinn, Catherine; Jones, I.R.; Victor, C.R.; Nelis, S.M.; Martyr, A.; Litherland, R.; Pickett, J.A.; Hindle, J.V.; Jones, R.W.; Knapp, M.; Kopelman, M.D.; Morris, R.G.; Rusted, J.M.; Thom, J.M.; Lamont, R.A.; Henderson, C.; Rippon, I.; Hillman, A.; Matthews, F.E. (2019)
    Understanding key influences on outcomes for caregivers of people with dementia is hampered by inconsistent conceptualization and measurement of outcomes and limited evidence about the relative impact of different variables. We aimed to address these issues. We analyzed data from 1283 caregivers of community-dwelling individuals with mild-to-moderate dementia in the Improving the experience of Dementia and Enhancing Active Life cohort study. We generated a “living well” latent factor from measures of quality of life, satisfaction with life, and well-being. We used structural equation modelling to derive latent variables for 7 domains reflecting caregivers’ perceptions of their personal resources and experiences, and to examine the associations with caregivers’ perceptions of their capability to “live well.” The domain of psychological characteristics and psychological health was most strongly related to living well [2.53; 95% confidence interval (CI), 2.08-2.97], followed by physical fitness and physical health (1.48; 95% CI, 1.04-1.91) and experiencing caregiving (1.34; 95% CI, 0.99-1.70). Social capitals, assets and resources (0.68; 95% CI, 0.35-1.00) and relationship with the person with dementia (−0.22; 95% CI, −0.41 to −0.03) had smaller, significant associations. Social location (0.28; 95% CI, −0.33 to 0.89) and managing everyday life with dementia (0.06; 95% CI, −0.15 to 0.28) were not significantly associated with living well. These findings demonstrate the importance of supporting caregivers’ psychological and physical health and their ability to develop and maintain positive coping strategies, as well as enabling them to maintain vital social capitals, assets and resources.

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