Recent Submissions

  • The experiences of pregnant migrant women in detention: A qualitative study

    Arshad, F.; Haith-Cooper, Melanie; Palloti, P. (2018-09)
    Background: Pregnant migrant women held in detention centres in the UK can be particularly vulnerable. They may have poor physical and mental health, which is exacerbated by their incarceration, and are at a disproportionally increased risk of maternal and perinatal mortality. Unpublished studies have found that pregnant migrant women have poor experiences in detention. Aim: To explore pregnant migrant women's experiences of living in detention. Method: Four migrant women who had been held in detention while pregnant and two volunteer health professionals were interviewed. Findings: Results suggest that migrant women have very poor experiences in detention. Four key themes emerged: ‘challenges to accessing UK healthcare’, ‘exacerbation of mental health conditions, ‘feeling hungry’ and ‘lack of privacy’. Conclusion: These findings could be used to review maternity care in detention and ensure that detention staff understand the experiences of detained pregnant women so that the needs of this vulnerable group can be met.
  • Using text messages to support recovering substance misusers

    McClelland, Gabrielle T.; Duffy, P.; Davda, P. (2018-09)
    Background: The use of digital technology in health and social care is developing rapidly. It is promoted in UK policy and research which suggests varied results surrounding its implementation and outcomes. Introduction: This article aimed to test the implementation and outcomes of a short messaging service sent to a dedicated phone. The target cohort were drug treatment clients in two sites in Northern England. Materials and methods: Through staff focus groups and interviews with a small cohort of clients, the implementation and perceptions of the system were examined. Results: Nineteen participants were recruited to site 1 (15 male, 4 female, average age=37.7 years) and 12 participants were recruited to site 2 (9 male, 3 female, average age=40.3 years). One outcome that was of interest was well-being in treatment which, in this study, was described as an overall sense of feeling better rather than just focusing on the rehabilitation aspect of the programme. Other outcomes included: the successful completion of treatment and any relapse or associated reported drug use. Discussion: The system shows some evidence of its ‘social actor’ role; however, its implementation was hindered by staff citing that it called for increased resources. For future implementation the use of client’s own phones may be considered which may help to embed the system more fully in recovery planning and targeting clients at a different treatment stage. Conclusions: Despite some indications of positive results for clients and a perception that the system may have value as an addition to existing clinical interventions, more evaluation is required to determine whether this system can be implemented in a drug treatment setting.
  • The incompatibility of system and lifeworld understandings of food insecurity and the provision of food aid in an English city

    Power, M.; Small, Neil A.; Doherty, B.; Pickett, K.E. (2018)
    We report qualitative findings from a study in a multi-ethnic, multi-faith city with high levels of deprivation. Primary research over 2 years consisted of three focus groups and 18 semi-structured interviews with food insecurity service providers followed by focus groups with 16 White British and Pakistani women in or at risk of food insecurity. We consider food insecurity using Habermas’s distinction between the system and lifeworld. We examine system definitions of the nature of need, approved food choices, the reification of selected skills associated with household management and the imposition of a construct of virtue. While lifeworld truths about food insecurity include understandings of structural causes and recognition that the potential of social solidarity to respond to them exist, they are not engaged with by the system. The gap between system rationalities and the experiential nature of lay knowledge generates individual and collective disempowerment and a corrosive sense of shame.
  • Reducing emergency hospital admissions: A population health complex intervention of an enhanced model of primary care and compassionate communities

    Abel, J.; Kingston, H.; Scally, Andy J.; Hartnoll, J.; Hannam, G.; Thomson-Moore, A.; Kellehear, Allan (2018)
    Background: Reducing emergency admissions to hospital has been a cornerstone of health care policy. There is little evidence of systematic interventions which achieved this aim across a population. We report the impact on unplanned admissions to hospital through a complex intervention over a 44 month period in Frome, Somerset. Aim: A population health complex intervention of an enhanced model of primary care and compassionate communities to improve population health and reduce emergency admissions to hospital Design: A cohort retrospective study of a complex intervention on all emergency admissions in Frome compared to Somerset from April 2013 to December 2017. Setting: Frome Medical Practice, Somerset Methods: Patients were identified using broad criteria including anyone with cause for concern. Patient centred goal setting and care planning combined with a compassionate community social approach was implemented broadly across the population of Frome. Results: There was a progressive reduction, by 7.9 cases per quarter (95% CI: 2.8, 13.1; p=0.006) in unplanned hospital admissions across the whole population of Frome, over the study period from April 2014 to December 2017. At the same time, there was sharp increase in the number of admissions per quarter, within the Somerset, with an increase in the number of unplanned admissions of 236 per quarter (95% CI: 152, 320; p<0.001). Conclusion: The complex intervention in Frome was associated with highly significant reductions in unplanned admissions to hospital with reduction of healthcare costs across the whole population of Frome
  • A UK survey exploring the assistant practitioner role across diagnostic imaging: current practice, relationships and challenges to progression

    Snaith, Beverly; Harris, Martine A.; Palmer, D. (2018)
    Objective: Skill mix has been established as one method of maintaining imaging service delivery, with vertical and horizontal substitution of roles and tasks. Assistant practitioners (APs) have been undertaking limited imaging practice for almost two decades, but there remains a paucity of evidence related to the impact of their roles. Methods: This article reports on an electronic survey of individual APs within the NHS in the UK to explore utilisation, role scope and aspirations. Results: Responses were analysed from APs (n = 193) employed in 97 different organisations across the UK. The majority work in general radiography or mammography, with very few responses from other imaging modalities. Training routes varied across modalities, with most achieving Band 4 under Agenda for Change on completion of education. Limitations on practice vary between organisations and modalities, with many reporting blurring of the radiographer-AP boundary. Many aspire to continue their training to achieve registrant radiographer status, although there were clear frustrations from respondents over the lack of overt career prospects. Conclusion: Integration of the role into imaging department practice does not appear to be universal or consistent and further research is required to examine the optimal skill mix composition. Advances in knowledge: Skill mix implementation is inconsistent across modalities and geography in the UK. Opportunities for further workforce utilisation and expansion are evident.
  • Exercise and physical activity in asylum seekers in Northern England; using the theoretical domains framework to identify barriers and facilitators

    Haith-Cooper, Melanie; Waskett, Catherine; Montague, Jane; Horne, M. (2018)
    Background: Many asylum seekers have complex mental health needs which can be exacerbated by the challenging circumstances in which they live and difficulties accessing health services. Regular moderate physical activity can improve mental health and would be a useful strategy to achieve this. Evidence suggests there are barriers to engaging black and minority ethnic groups in physical activity, but there is little research around asylum seekers to address the key barriers and facilitators in this group. Methods: A two stage qualitative study used semi-structured interviews underpinned by the Theoretical Domains Framework. The interviews were conducted in voluntary sector groups in four towns/ cities in Northern England. Purposive sampling recruited 36 asylum seekers from 18 different countries. Interviews were audio recorded, transcribed verbatim and subject to framework analysis. Stage two involved a nominal group technique with five key stakeholders including asylum seekers and those that work with them. They followed a four stage process to rank and reach consensus on the key barrier to undertaking physical activity/ exercise that could be addressed locally through a future intervention. Results: A number of barriers and facilitators were identified including a lack of understanding of the term physical activity and recommended levels but knowledge of the health benefits of physical activity/ exercise and the motivation to increase levels having engaged with activities back home. Living as an asylum seeker was considered a barrier due to the stress, poverty and temporary nature of living in an unfamiliar place. The outcome of the nominal group technique was that a lack of knowledge of facilities in the local area was the prevailing barrier that could be addressed. Conclusions: Public health practitioners could develop interventions which capitalise on the motivation and knowledge of asylum seekers to encourage an increase in physical activity which may in turn reduce the breadth and depth of mental health needs of this group.
  • Embedding consultant radiographer roles within radiology departments: A framework for success

    Nightingale, J.; Hardy, Maryann L.; Snaith, Beverly (2018)
    Objectives: Many organisations struggle to clearly differentiate the radiographer consultant role from advanced or specialist practice, with newly appointed consultant practitioners often illprepared for working at this level. This article discusses the design, implementation and validation of an outcomes framework for benchmarking competencies for trainee or new-in-post consultant radiographers. Methods: Five experienced radiographers from different clinical specialisms were seconded to a twelve month consultant trainee post, guided by a locally-devised outcomes framework. A longitudinal qualitative study explored, from the radiographers' perspective, the impact of the outcomes framework on the transition to consultant practice and beyond. Data collection included semi-structured interviews (months 1, 6 and 12), validation via a focus group (month 18) and a group interview (5 years). Results: Early interactions with framework objectives were mechanistic, but as participants better understood the role more creative approaches emerged. Despite diverse clinical expertise, the framework facilitated parity between participants, promoting transparency and credibility which was important in how the consultant role was perceived. All participants achieved all framework outcomes and were subsequently appointed to substantive consultant radiographer positions. Conclusion This outcomes framework facilitates experienced radiographers to successfully transition into consultant radiographers, enabling them to meet multiple non-clinical targets while continuing to work effectively within a changing clinical environment. It is the first validated benchmarking tool designed to support the transition to radiographer consultant practice. Adoption of the tool will provide a standardised measure of consultant radiographer outcomes that will promote inter-organisational transferability hitherto unseen in the UK.
  • An Evaluation of Image Acquisition Techniques, Radiographic Practice, and Technical Quality in Neonatal Chest Radiography

    Pedersen, C.C.E.; Hardy, Maryann L.; Blankholm, A.D. (2018)
    Background Neonatal chest radiography is a frequently performed diagnostic examination, particularly in preterm infants where anatomical and/or biochemical immaturity impacts on respiratory function. However, the quality of neonatal radiographic images has been criticized internationally and a prevailing concern has been that radiographers (radiologic technologists) fail to appreciate the unique nature of neonatal and infant anatomical proportions. The aim of this study was to undertake a retrospective evaluation of neonatal chest radiography image acquisition techniques against key technical criteria. Methods Hundred neonatal chest radiographs, randomly selected from all those acquired in 2014, were retrospectively evaluated. Inclusion criteria for radiographs acquisition were as follows: anterior-posterior supine; within 30 days of birth; and with all preprocessed collimation boundaries visible. Image evaluation was systematically undertaken using an image assessment tool. To test for statistical significance, Student's t-test, χ2 test, and logistic regression were undertaken. Results Only 47% of the radiographs were considered straight in both upper and lower thoraces. The cranial collimation border extended beyond the upper border of the third cervical vertebra in 30% of cases, and the caudal border extended below the lower border of the first lumbar vertebra in 20% of cases, suggesting high possibility of neonatal overirradiation. Upper thorax rotation was significantly associated with head position (χ2 = 10.907; P < .001) as has been stated in many published textbooks internationally, but arm position had no apparent influence on rotation of the upper thorax (χ2 = 5.1260; P = .275). Birth weight was associated with accurate midline centering of central ray (logistic regression; OR = 1.0005; P = .009; CI, 1.00139–1.000957) with greater accuracy observed in images of neonates with higher birth weight. Conclusion This study has highlighted areas for neonatal chest radiography improvement. Importantly, the findings bring into question commonly advocated radiographic techniques relating to arm positioning and assessment of rotation while confirming the importance of other technical factors. These findings begin the work toward developing the evidence base to underpin neonatal chest radiograph acquisition, but further prospective work and multicenter/multinational data comparison are required to confirm the findings.
  • Effects of water and land based exercise programmes on women experiencing pregnancy-related pelvic girdle pain: a randomized controlled feasibility study

    Scott, K.L.; Hellawell, Michael (2018-06)
    This study aimed to address whether a water exercise programme improves pain and quality of life in pregnant patients with Pelvic Girdle Pain (PGP) compared to a land-based exercise programme and the feasibility of undertaking a large-scale research programme. Twenty-three participants with diagnosed PGP, recruited at St George’s Hospital London, were randomised into two groups (water or land exercise). Each group received, four, once-weekly exercise sessions on land or water. Exercise effects on PGP were measured using the Pelvic Girdle Pain Questionnaire (PGPQ) (primary outcome), Visual Analogue Scale (VAS), Patient Specific Functional Score (PSFS) and Active Straight Leg Raise (ASLR). Quality of life was measured using the Subjective Exercise Experience Scale (SEES). Outcomes were assessed at baseline and post four weeks exercise. Results showed there was a clinically significant improvement shown in all outcome measures in the water group, compared to the land group. A statistical difference between groups was shown for ASLR (p=0.036), Positive Well-Being (p=0.000) and Fatigue levels (p=0.011). No statistical difference was shown for PGPQ (p=0.056), PSFS (p=0.530) and Psychological Distress (p=0.712) scores. Exercise in water appears to offer a clinical benefit for patients experiencing PGP compared to a land exercise, particularly with Fatigue, Positive Well-Being and ASLR scores. Statistical differences between groups are limited by small sample size and that no power calculation was used in this study. Methodology and results provide support for a larger study on this topic to provide more definitive conclusions to support the use of water-based therapy for PGP.
  • Impact of a specialist mental health pharmacy team on medicines optimisation in primary care for patients on a severe mental illness register: a pilot study

    Raynsford, Justine; Dada, C.; Stansfield, D.; Cullen, T. (2018)
    Objective Medication arrangements for patients with severe mental illness (SMI), including schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, can be complex. Some have shared care between primary and secondary services while others have little specialist input. This study investigated the contribution a specialist mental health clinical pharmacy team could make to medicines optimisation for patients on the SMI register in primary care. Research shows that specialist mental health pharmacists improve care in inpatient settings. However, little is known about their potential impact in primary care. Method Five general practice surgeries were allocated half a day per week of a specialist pharmacist and technician for 12 months. The technician reviewed primary and secondary care records for discrepancies. Records were audited for high-dose or multiple antipsychotics, physical health monitoring and adherence. Issues were referred to the pharmacist for review. Surgery staff were encouraged to refer psychotropic medication queries to the team. Interventions were recorded and graded. Results 316/472 patients on the SMI register were prescribed antipsychotics or mood stabilisers. 23 (7%) records were updated with missing clozapine and depot information. Interventions by the pharmacist included clarifying discharge information (12/104), reviewing high-dose and multiple antipsychotic prescribing (18/104), correcting errors (10/104), investigating adherence issues (16/104), following up missing health checks (22/104) and answering queries from surgery staff (23/104). Five out of six interventions possibly preventing hospital admission were for referral of non-adherent patients. Conclusion The pharmacy team found a variety of issues including incomplete medicines reconciliation, adherence issues, poor communication, drug errors and the need for specialist advice. The expertise of the team enabled timely resolution of issues and bridges were built between primary and secondary care.
  • Cardiology patients' medicines management networks after hospital discharge: A mixed methods analysis of a complex adaptive system

    Fylan, Beth; Tranmer, M.; Armitage, Gerry R.; Blenkinsopp, Alison (2018)
    Introduction: The complex healthcare system that provides patients with medicines places them at risk when care is transferred between healthcare organisations, for example discharge from hospital. Consequently, under-standing and improving medicines management, particularly at care transfers, is a priority.Objectives: This study aimed to explore the medicines management system as patients experience it and determine differences in the patient-perceived importance of people in the system.Methods: We used a Social Network Analysis framework, collecting ego-net data about the importance of people patients had contact with concerning their medicines after hospital discharge. Single- and multi-level logistic regression models of patients' networks were constructed, and model residuals were explored at the patient level.This enabled us to identify patients' networks with support tie patterns different from the general patterns suggested by the model results. Qualitative data for those patients were then analysed to understand their differing experiences.Results: Networks comprised clinical and administrative healthcare staff and friends and family members.Networks were highly individual and the perceived importance of alters varied both within and between patients. Ties to spouses were significantly more likely to be rated as highly important and ties to community pharmacy staff (other than pharmacists) and to GP receptionists were less likely to be highly rated. Patients with low-value medicines management networks described having limited information about their medicines and alack of understanding or help. Patients with high-value networks described appreciating support and having confidence in staff.Conclusions: Patients experienced medicines management as individual systems within which they interacted with healthcare staff and informal support to manage their treatment. Multilevel models indicated that there are unexplained variables impacting on patients' assessments of their medicines management networks. Qualitative exploration of the model residuals can offer an understanding of networks that do not have the typical range of support ties.
  • Gait termination on a declined surface in trans-femoral amputees: Impact of using microprocessor-controlled limb system

    Abdulhasan, Z.M.; Scally, Andy J.; Buckley, John G. (2018-08)
    Background: Walking down ramps is a demanding task for transfemoral-amputees and terminating gait on ramps is even more challenging because of the requirement to maintain a stable limb so that it can do the necessary negative mechanical work on the centre-of-mass in order to arrest (dissipate) forward/downward velocity. We determined how the use of a microprocessor-controlled limb system (simultaneous control over hydraulic resistances at ankle and knee) affected the negative mechanical work done by each limb when transfemoral-amputees terminated gait during ramp descent. Methods: Eight transfemoral-amputees completed planned gait terminations (stopping on prosthesis) on a 5-degree ramp from slow and customary walking speeds, with the limb's microprocessor active or inactive. When active the limb operated in its ‘ramp-descent’ mode and when inactive the knee and ankle devices functioned at constant default levels. Negative limb work, determined as the integral of the negative mechanical (external) limb power during the braking phase, was compared across speeds and microprocessor conditions. Findings: Negative work done by each limb increased with speed (p < 0.001), and on the prosthetic limb it was greater when the microprocessor was active compared to inactive (p = 0.004). There was no change in work done across microprocessor conditions on the intact limb (p = 0.35). Interpretation: Greater involvement of the prosthetic limb when the limb system was active indicates its ramp-descent mode effectively altered the hydraulic resistances at the ankle and knee. Findings highlight participants became more assured using their prosthetic limb to arrest centre-of-mass velocity.
  • Palliative curriculum re-imagined: A critical evaluation of the UK Palliative Medicine Syllabus

    Abel, J.; Kellehear, Allan (2018-05)
    The UK Palliative Medicine Syllabus is critically evaluated to assess its relationship and relevance to contemporary palliative care policy and direction. Three criteria are employed for this review: (1) relevance to non-cancer dying, ageing, caregivers, and bereaved populations; (2) uptake and adoption of well-being models of public health alongside traditional illness and disease models of clinical understanding; and (3) uptake and integration of public health insights and methodologies for social support. We conclude that the current syllabus falls dramatically short on all 3 criteria. Suggestions are made for future consultation and revision.
  • Initial evaluation of a university dementia awareness initiative

    Parveen, Sahdia; Haunch, K.; Kerry, F.; Oyebode, Jan R. (2018-09)
    Purpose: This paper describes a study which explored the knowledge and attitudes of university students towards people living with dementia, and developed and tested a dementia awareness workshop, Dementia Detectives: University edition, designed to improve knowledge and foster positive attitudes to dementia in students. Design/methodology/approach: Dementia Detectives: University edition was launched during Dementia Awareness Week and five workshops were delivered to university students. Forty-two participants attended and completed a knowledge and attitude measure before and after the workshop, as well as rating the workshop with regards to satisfaction, relevance, understanding and whether they would recommend the workshop to friends. Findings: Students perceived living with dementia to be a negative and stigmatised experience. The workshop scored highly in terms of satisfaction, relevance and understanding and all students stated they would recommend the workshop to others. Paired t-tests found significant improvements in self-assessed dementia knowledge. Research Limitations: This was a pilot evaluation and further testing with larger samples is required. Practical implications: The workshop meets the requirements for tier 1 dementia education and training as outlined in the Dementia Core Skills and Knowledge Framework published by the Department of Health. Social implications: The workshop has the potential to increase knowledge, change attitudes, improve empathy and contribute to the development of a dementia aware workforce through undergraduate education. Originality/value: Dementia Detectives: University edition is a novel interactive method of dementia education and training.
  • Optimum positioning for anteroposterior pelvis radiography: A literature review

    Alzyoud, K.; Hogg, P.; Snaith, Beverly; Flintham, K.; England, A. (2018)
    Aim: Pelvic radiography is used for the identification of hip joint changes, including pathologies such as osteoarthritis. Several studies have recommended that the position for this radiological procedure should be standing, not supine, to reflect the functional appearances of the hip joint. The aim of this review was to evaluate pelvis radiography positioning with respect to the image appearances and information provided for clinical decision-making. Aside from this, potential recommendations to the radiographic technique for an erect pelvis projection will be considered. Method: A literature search was performed using databases/abstract systems (ScienceDirect, Web of Science, PubMed, and MEDLINE). Only articles written in English were included. Results: Twenty-five articles were identified. Findings from the review describe the effect of repositioning from supine to erect on a series of specific hip measurements. These include pelvic tilt, joint space width, and the acetabular component. Conclusion: Evidence within the literature illustrates that in several studies, there were differences when repositioning from supine to standing for a number of pelvic metrics. Standing positioning is promoted by some authors since this may facilitate the early diagnosis of hip joint pathology and assist in the planning of surgical interventions. Literature is very limited on how to optimally perform erect pelvis radiography, and this should be an area for future research.
  • Is a nurse consultant impact toolkit relevant and transferrable to the radiography profession? An evaluation project

    Snaith, Beverly; Williams, S.; Taylor, K.; Tsang, Y.; Kelly, J.; Woznitza, N. (2018-08)
    Introduction: Consultant posts were developed to strengthen strategic leadership whilst maintaining front line service responsibilities and clinical expertise. The nursing profession has attempted to develop tools to enable individuals to evaluate their own practice and consider relevant measurable outcomes. This study evaluated the feasibility of transferring such a nursing ‘toolkit’ to another health profession. Method: This evaluation was structured around a one-day workshop where a nurse consultant impact toolkit was appraised and tested within the context of consultant radiographic practice. The adapted toolkit was subsequently validated using a larger sample at a national meeting of consultant radiographers. Results: There was broad agreement that the tools could be adopted for use by radiographers although several themes emerged in relation to perceived gaps within the nursing template, confirming the initial exercise. This resulted in amendments to the original scope and a proposed new evaluation tool. Conclusion: The impact toolkit could help assess individual and collaborat ive role impact at a local and national level. The framework provides consultant radiographers with an opportunity to understand and highlight the contribution their roles have on patients, staff, their organisation and the wider profession.
  • Using birth cohort data to assess the impact of the UK 2008-2010 economic recession on smoking during pregnancy

    Uphoff, E.P.; Small, Neil A.; Pickett, K.E. (2018)
    Introduction Despite the well-known link between stress and smoking, evidence for associations between economic recession, financial stress and smoking is contradictory. In this study we assess whether women were more likely to continue smoking during pregnancy if they were exposed to the UK 2008-2010 economic recession during pregnancy than those who were unexposed, and whether this relationship is mediated by financial stress. Methods We used cross-sectional data on 2775 pregnant women who were regular smokers before pregnancy and who were enrolled in the UK Born in Bradford cohort study between March 2007 and December 2010. The cut-off date for exposure to recession was set at August 1, 2008, based on local and national economic data. Multivariable logistic regression analysis included potential confounders: maternal age, parity, cohabitation, ethnicity and maternal age. The mediating role of financial stress was analysed using ‘worse off financially’ and a ‘difficult financial situation’ as indicators of financial stress in Sobel-Goodman mediation tests with bootstrap resampling. Results After taking into account potential confounders, exposure to recession was associated with continued smoking during pregnancy (OR 1.19, 95% CI 1.01; 1.41, p=0.03). A worse financial situation and difficult financial situation were identified as mediators, explaining 8.4% and 17.6%, respectively, of the relationship between exposure to recession and smoking during pregnancy. Conclusions Smoking during pregnancy is associated with exposure to the UK 2008-2010 economic recession during pregnancy, and this relationship is partly mediated by financial stress.
  • What sources of bereavement support are perceived helpful by bereaved people and why? Empirical evidence for the compassionate communities approach

    Aoun, S.M.; Breen, L.J.; White, I.; Rumbold, B.; Kellehear, Allan (2018-09)
    Aims: To determine who provides bereavement support in the community, what sources are perceived to be the most or least helpful and for what reason, and to identify the empirical elements for optimal support in developing any future compassionate communities approach in palliative care. Design: A population-based cross-sectional investigation of bereavement experiences. Sources of support (informal, community and professional) were categorised according to the Public Health Model of Bereavement Support; most helpful reasons were categorised using the Social Provisions Scale, and least helpful were analysed using inductive content analysis. Setting and participants: Bereaved people were recruited from databases of funeral providers in Australia via an anonymous postal survey (2013–2014). Results: In total, 678 bereaved people responded to the survey. The most frequently used sources of support were in the informal category such as family, friends and funeral providers. While the professional category sources were the least used, they had the highest proportions of perceived unhelpfulness whereas the lowest proportions of unhelpfulness were in the informal category. The functional types of helpful support were Attachment, Reliable Alliance, Social Integration and Guidance. The five themes for least helpful support were: Insensitivity, Absence of Anticipated Support, Poor Advice, Lack of Empathy and Systemic Hindrance. Conclusion: A public health approach, as exemplified by compassionate communities policies and practices, should be adopted to support the majority of bereaved people as much of this support is already provided in informal and other community settings by a range of people already involved in the everyday lives of those recently bereaved. This study has provided further support for the need to strengthen the compassionate communities approach, not only for end of life care for dying patients but also along the continuum of bereavement support.

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