Property processing relationship
Single screw extruder
MetadataShow full item record
AbstractMethods of recycling unplasticized polyvinyl chloride (uPVC) window frame waste were investigated. The quality of untreated granular waste was compared to that of waste treated by a range of contaminant removal processes including melt filtration and dissolution. Processability of each recyclate was evaluated by using a highly instrumented single screw extruder that enabled melt viscosity and process variation to be monitored in real time. Product quality measurements such as mechanical properties and surface defects were made on extruded strip, and the nature of the stabilizers present was determined. The mechanical properties of recyclates were found to be comparable to or better than those of virgin material in all cases and conformed to industry standards for window profile. Contaminant removal stages significantly reduced the amount of large surface defects detected in extrudate. Processability was comparable to that of virgin compounds, but melt viscosity varied among different batches of recyclate, depending on the source and composition of the original PVC formulation.
VersionNo full-text available in the repository
CitationKelly, A.L., Coates, P.D., Rose, R.M. and Weston, S. (2007). Recycling of uPVC window profile waste. Journal of Vinyl and Additive Technology.
Link to publisher’s versionhttp://dx.doi.org/10.1002/vnl.20047
Showing items related by title, author, creator and subject.
Electrical and magnetic properties of organic semiconductors: Electrical conductivity and electron spin resonance studies of semiconducting, organic, charge transfer salts.Shields, L.; Ahmad, Muhammad M. (University of BradfordPostgraduate School of Studies in Chemistry., 2009-09-24)Charge transfer salts of Tetracyanoquinodimethane (TCNQ) were synthesised and their electrical and magnetic properties were investigated. These salts show unusual electrical and magnetic behaviour in contrast to conventional organic compounds. These salts have crystal structures which in general consist of TCNQ radical ions stacked in chains, isolated from each other by the diamagnetic cations. They are thus regarded as "one-dimensional" electrical and magnetic systems. The ESR spectra of these salts are attributed to triplet excitons showing that the spin-spin and electronelectron correlation effects are important. In the ESR spectra (Chapter III) of some TCNQ salts dipolar splitting is observed confirming the spin-spin interaction. These triplet excitons are regarded as bound electron-hole pairs. The experimentally determined dipolar splitting tensors are presented in Chapter III and the intensity data in Chapter IV. A large number of fine structure lines are observed in the ESR spectra of Pyridinium-TCNQ and 4-Aminopyridinium-TCNQ apart from regular triplet exciton lines (Chapter III). These lines are attributed to the trapping of excitons on an extended formula finit (TCNQ2 )n. In Chapter IV the temperature dependent magnetic susceptibilities are discussed in terms of Heisenberg antiferromagnetism and Pauli paramagnetism. In Chapter V temperature dependent behaviour of electrical conductivity is discussed in terms of an exciton band model, the lattice structure of the salts and one-dimensional lattice consisting of defects giving rise to high and low conducting segments. Low temperature electrical and magnetic phases are discussed (Chapters IV and VII) in terms of a band and hopping mechanisms.In Chapter VI self consistent field calculations are made with reference to the tight binding one electron band theory using simplified Roothaan equations considering CNDO approximations. Theoretical results are related to experimental band gaps, spinspin interactions and charge alteration.
Properties of nylon-6-based composite reinforced with coconut shell particles and empty fruit bunch fibresSavetlana, S.; Mulvaney-Johnson, Leigh; Gough, Timothy D.; Kelly, Adrian L. (2018)Novel natural fibre composites of nylon-6 reinforced with coconut shell (CS) particles and empty fruit bunch (EFB) fibres have been investigated. Fillers were alkali treated before melt compounding with nylon-6. Mechanical, thermal and rheological properties of composites were measured. Tensile modulus was found to improve with both fillers up to 16% for nylon-6/CS composite and 10% for nylon-6/EFB composite, whereas a moderate increase in tensile strength was observed only with CS composites. Differences in the strengthening mechanisms were explained by the morphology of the two fillers, empty fruit bunch fibres having a weaker cellular internal structure. Observation of composite morphology using SEM showed that both fillers were highly compatible with nylon-6 due to its hydrophilic nature. Both fillers were found to cause a slight drop in crystallinity of the nylon matrix and to lower melt viscosity at typical injection moulding strain rates. Moisture absorption increased with addition of both fillers.
DES Working Paper No 1: A Paler Shade of Litigation: Still more confusion in Musical Property Rights.Cameron, Samuel (Department of Development and Economic Studies, University of Bradford, 2009-01)This paper gives an economic analysis of the judicial decisions in the disputes over authorship of Procol Harum's 'A Whiter Shade of Pale'. The first legal contest took place in 2006, 39 years after the song was written and was found in favour of the plaintiff (Fisher), in the first case he has brought against Brooker-Reid, in terms of his right to authorship. He was deemed to merit 40% of the musical composition rights but only from the date of his application onwards. However the case went to appeal with the result that in April 2008, it was found that although Fisher was still entitled to the authorship status he had been granted that he was not now entitled to any share whatsoever of the composing royalties. This case is partly unusual in that the judge, in the initial case, had formal musical training and saw fit to interpolate this human capital into the proceedings. The defendants made a number of remarks about the nature of the precedent set and its implications which can be usefully discussed in terms of economic models of production. In the appeal hearing one of the reasons given for the decision reached was the argument that the previous cases set an unfortunate precedent detrimental to composers of pop/rock music. The 'rock and pop' music production mode is discussed here with reference to this and other pertinent cases.