Now showing items 21-40 of 8226

    • The Development of Theory of Mind and Social Competence in Young Pakistani Children

      Waters, Gillian M.; Johnson, Sally E.; Sireer, Nafeesa (University of BradfordDivision of Psychology, Faculty of Social Sciences, 2017)
      Theory of mind (ToM) refers to a cognitive ability that enables one to attribute mental states (such as desires, emotions, beliefs) to self and others. In recent years researchers have identified cultural variations in the onset of ToM understanding in collectivist and individualist cultures. However, the findings of cross-cultural studies regarding these variations are inconsistent. The major aim of this innovative research was to investigate differences in the acquisition of ToM in children from a collectivist culture (Pakistan) and an individualist culture (UK). The second aim of the study was to assess the specific association between ToM and social competence in a culturally diverse sample. An additional aim of the study was to investigate the universality of various correlates of ToM such as executive functioning (EF), parenting styles, and maternal mental state talk. The findings of the studies demonstrated a significant delay in the acquisition of ToM in Pakistani children, when compared with Western children from individualist societies. These findings were corroborated by the results of novel cross-cultural study that compared the performance of White British, British Pakistani, and Pakistani children on a ToM scale. White British children outperformed both Pakistani and British Pakistani children on measures of ToM, EF, and social competence. The current findings also provide support for the association of mental state understanding with EF, social competence, parenting styles, and maternal mental state talk. These findings have important implications for the role of general (collectivist vs. individualist cultures) as well as specific cultural practices (such as parenting and education) in the acquisition of mental state understanding.
    • Male eating disorders: experiences of food, body and self

      Delderfield, Russell (2018-12)
      This book takes a novel approach to the study of male eating disorders – an area that is often dominated by clinical discourses. The study of eating disorders in men has purportedly suffered from a lack of dedicated attention to personal and socio-cultural aspects. Delderfield tackles this deficiency by spotlighting a set of personal accounts written by a group of men who have experiences of disordered eating. The text presents critical interpretations that aim to situate these experiences in the social and cultural context in which these disorders occur. This discursive work is underpinned by an eclectic scholarly engagement with social psychology and sociology literature around masculinities, embodiment and fatness, belonging, punishment, stigma, and control; leading to understandings about relationships with food, body and self. This is undertaken with a reflexive element, as the personal intersects with the professional. This text will appeal to students, scholars and clinicians in social sciences, humanities, and healthcare studies, including public health.
    • Reflective practice: writing and professional development

      Bolton, G.; Delderfield, Russell (2018-02)
      Reflecting thoughtfully on your work is vital for improving your own self-awareness, effectiveness and professional development. This newly updated fifth edition of Gillie Bolton’s bestselling book explores reflective writing as a creative and dynamic process for this critical enquiry. New to this edition: An expanded range of exercises and activities A new emphasis on using e-portfolios Further guidance on reflective writing assignments Enhanced discussion of reflection as a key employability skill Additional online resources This popular book has been used worldwide in various disciplines including education, social work, business and management, medicine and healthcare and is essential reading for students and professionals seeking to enhance their reflective writing skills and to examine their own practice in greater critical depth.
    • The person-centred approach in maths skills development: examining a case of good practice

      Delderfield, Russell; McHattie, Helen (2018-04)
      The development of students’ mathematics skills in higher education is often the topic of professional debate in learning development circles. Less prevalent are discussions taking place around the interpersonal dynamics that occur during one-to-one (tutorial) sessions. This case study explores these dynamics. It arose from the continuing professional development activities of an adviser (learning developer) at a UK university. As a result of recording one-to-one mathematics sessions it was found that the adviser was unconsciously competent and that, although she was adept at identifying her areas for development, she struggled to articulate the considerable strengths of her practice. We wanted to find a way of describing, analysing and evaluating her competence, and alighted upon the person-centred approach. The aim of this paper, therefore, is to present the synthesis of maths skills practice with this approach in the hope of stimulating further research and professional conversation in the learning development community. The report offers novel idiographic findings through the application of person-centred theory to one practitioner’s experience of delivering maths skills development. We conclude by suggesting that focusing on the relationship between adviser and student can help to create conditions conducive to successful one-to-one education.
    • Endoplasmic reticulum stress signalling induces casein kinase 1-dependent formation of cytosolic TDP-43 Inclusions in motor neuron-like cells

      Hicks, D.A.; Cross, Laura L.; Williamson, Ritchie; Rattray, Marcus (2019)
      Motor neuron disease (MND) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease with no effective treatment. One of the principal pathological hallmarks is the deposition of TAR DNA binding protein 43 (TDP-43) in cytoplasmic inclusions. TDP-43 aggregation occurs in both familial and sporadic MND; however, the mechanism of endogenous TDP-43 aggregation in disease is incompletely understood. This study focused on the induction of cytoplasmic accumulation of endogenous TDP-43 in the motor neuronal cell line NSC-34. The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stressor tunicamycin induced casein kinase 1 (CK1)-dependent cytoplasmic accumulation of endogenous TDP-43 in differentiated NSC-34 cells, as seen by immunocytochemistry. Immunoblotting showed that induction of ER stress had no effect on abundance of TDP-43 or phosphorylated TDP-43 in the NP-40/RIPA soluble fraction. However, there were significant increases in abundance of TDP-43 and phosphorylated TDP-43 in the NP-40/RIPA-insoluble, urea-soluble fraction, including high molecular weight species. In all cases, these increases were lowered by CK1 inhibition. Thus ER stress signalling, as induced by tunicamycin, causes CK1-dependent phosphorylation of TDP-43 and its consequent cytosolic accumulation.
    • Magnetic geophysical mapping of prehistoric iron production sites in central Norway

      Stamnes, A.A.; Stenvik, L.F.; Gaffney, Christopher F. (2019-08)
      The slag pit furnace of the Trøndelag tradition for iron production is a very specific cultural-historical tradition in central Norway in the Early Iron Age, but few of these iron production sites have been excavated in their entirety and there is therefore a lack of information about their size, spatial layout and organisation in the landscape. The aim of this paper is therefore to investigate how magnetic geophysical methods can be used as a way of locating, delimiting and characterising activity zones and specific archaeological features associated with this tradition of iron production. The NTNU University Museum in Trondheim performed geophysical surveys of four different iron production sites, combining topsoil volume magnetic susceptibility measurements and detailed fluxgate gradiometer surveys. Analysing and comparing the survey results with sketches and topographic survey results, as well as comparable geophysical survey data from iron production sites elsewhere in Norway, made it possible to gain new and valuable cultural-historical and methodological knowledge. The topsoil volume susceptibility measurements revealed a strong contrast between the main production areas and the natural background measurement values, often in the range of 7–27 times the median background values. The absolute highest measured values were usually in the area closest to the furnaces, and within the slag mounds. Satellites of high readings could be interpreted as roasting sites for iron ore, and even areas with known building remains related to the iron production sites had readings stronger than the median. The fluxgate gradiometer data helped to characterise individual features further, with strong geophysical contrast between features within the iron production sites and the areas surrounding them. Also, by analysing their physical placement, geophysical characteristics such as contrast, magnetic remanence and size, it was possible to gain further insight into the spatial organisation by indicating the potential location of furnaces, the spread of slag and the handling of iron ore. The latter involved both where the roasted iron ore was stored and where it was roasted. The geophysical characteristics of the furnaces were less uniform than situations reported elsewhere in Norway, which can be explained by the reuse of furnaces and slag pits. The spread of highly remanent material in and around the furnaces and elsewhere within the limits of the iron production sites also created a disturbed magnetic picture rendering it difficult to provide an unambiguous archaeological interpretation of all the geophysical anomalies identified. In conclusion, these results showed that the geophysical methods applied made it possible to indicate the physical size, layout and internal spatial organisation of iron production sites of the Trøndelag slag pit furnace tradition.
    • Occupational Pension Schemes and their Relevance for the Employment Relationship in Germany. A Case Study Approach in the German Financial Services Sector

      Prowse, Peter J.; Smith, Andrew J.; Lütke Kleimann, Mechthild (University of BradfordFaculty of Management and Law, 2018)
      Due to employees’ reduced entitlements to the German statutory state pension on the one hand, and the challenge to employers of a skilled worker shortage on the other, employers’ contributions towards occupational pension schemes (OPS) might be an effective human-resources management tool. Thus, the overarching research question is: What is the relevance of OPS for the employment relationship in Germany? Five sub-research questions address the role of OPS in recruitment and retention management, organisational commitment, the potential differences between women and men and between young and old employees and the employees’ psychological contract. The empirical study is a single case study in the financial-services sector. Key findings: OPS are of more relevance for retaining employees than for recruiting them. Their role differs significantly between employees with different generations of the OPS and, therefore, different pension entitlements. Only minor differences can be found between women and men and between younger and older employees. Satisfaction with the occupational pension scheme has no significant impact on organisational commitment. The majority of employees perceived psychological contract fulfilment with respect to the OPS. The contribution to theory is the closure of five research gaps. As far as is known, this is the first study in Germany that analyses the role of OPS in a specified context and from multifaceted viewpoints (recruitment/retention, quantitative/qualitative, men/women, age groups). The contribution to practice comprises the provision of a transferable analysis blueprint of the role of OPS in the employment relationship and the provision of recommendations that relate, among others, to communication and information aspects, cost-benefit calculations and the usage of additional employer contributions as a possible selective reward element.
    • Monte Carlo analysis of methods for extracting risk-neutral densities with affine jump diffusions

      Lu, Shan (2019)
      This paper compares several widely-used and recently-developed methods to extract risk-neutral densities (RND) from option prices in terms of estimation accuracy. It shows that positive convolution approximation method consistently yields the most accurate RND estimates, and is insensitive to the discreteness of option prices. RND methods are less likely to produce accurate RND estimates when the underlying process incorporates jumps and when estimations are performed on sparse data, especially for short time-to-maturities, though sensitivity to the discreteness of the data differs across different methods.
    • Therapeutic Targeting of BMP and TGF-β Signalling Pathways for the Resolution of Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension

      Nasim, Md. Talat; Graham, Anne M.; Sharmin, Nahid (University of BradfordSchool of Pharmacy and Medical Sciences, 2018)
      Vascular remodelling due to excessive proliferation and apoptosis resistance of pulmonary arterial smooth muscle (PASMCs) and endothelial cells (ECs) has been attributed to the pathogenesis of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). It is an incurable cardiovascular disorder, which leads to right heart failure and death, if left untreated. Heterozygous germline mutations in the bone morphogenetic protein receptor type II (BMPR2) have been linked with the majority (~75%) of the familial form of the disease (HPAH). Mutations in the BMPR2 gene impinge upon the BMP signalling which perturbs the balance between BMP and TGF-β pathways leading to the clinical course of the disease. Current therapies were discovered prior to the knowledge that PAH has substantial genetic components. Hence, this study aims to identify novel therapeutic intervention and provide novel insights into how the dysfunctional BMPRII signalling contributes to the pathogenesis of PAH. This work demonstrates that cryptolepines and FDA approved drugs (doxorubicin, taxol, digitoxin and podophyllotoxin) inhibit the excessive proliferation and induce apoptosis in BMPR2 mutant PASMCs by modulating the BMP and TGF-β pathways. Moreover, established drug PTC124 has also been tested but has failed to promote translational readthrough. I have also shown that dysregulated apoptosis of PASMCs and HPAECs is mediated through the BMPRII-ALK1-BclxL axis. Finally, the siRNA screen targeting approximately 1000 genes has identified novel proteins including PPP1CA, IGF-1R, MPP1, MCM5 and SRC each capable of modulating the BMPRII signalling. Taken together, this study for the very first time has identified novel compounds with pro-BMP and anti-TGFβ activities which may provide therapeutic intervention prior to or after the onset of PAH.
    • Performance evaluation of metamodelling methods for engineering problems: towards a practitioner guide

      Kianifar, Mohammed R.; Campean, I. Felician (Springer, 2019-07)
      Metamodelling or surrogate modelling techniques are frequently used across the engineering disciplines in conjunction with expensive simulation models or physical experiments. With the proliferation of metamodeling techniques developed to provide enhanced performance for specific problems, and the wide availability of a diverse choice of tools in engineering software packages, the engineering task of selecting a robust metamodeling technique for practical problems is still a challenge. This research introduces a framework for describing the typology of engineering problems, in terms of dimensionality and complexity, and the modelling conditions, reflecting the noisiness of the signals and the affordability of sample sizes, and on this basis presents a systematic evaluation of the performance of frequently used metamodeling techniques. A set of metamodeling techniques, selected based on their reported use for engineering problems (i.e. Polynomial, Radial Basis Function, and Kriging), were systematically evaluated in terms of accuracy and robustness against a carefully assembled set of 18 test functions covering different types of problems, sampling conditions and noise conditions. A set of four real-world engineering case studies covering both computer simulation and physical experiments were also analysed as validation tests for the proposed guidelines. The main conclusions drawn from the study are that Kriging model with Matérn 5/2 correlation function performs consistently well across different problem types with smooth (i.e. not noisy) data, while Kriging model with Matérn 3/2 correlation function provides robust performance under noisy conditions, except for the very high noise conditions, where the Kriging model with nugget appears to provide better models. These results provide engineering practitioners with a guide for the choice of a metamodeling technique for problem types and modelling conditions represented in the study, whereas the evaluation framework and benchmarking problems set will be useful for researchers conducting similar studies.
    • Automatic modulation classification using interacting multiple model - Kalman filter for channel estimation

      Abdul Salam, Ahmed O.; Sheriff, Ray E.; Hu, Yim Fun; Al-Araji, S.R.; Mezher, K. (Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers, 2019)
      A rigorous model for automatic modulation classification (AMC) in cognitive radio (CR) systems is proposed in this paper. This is achieved by exploiting the Kalman filter (KF) integrated with an adaptive interacting multiple model (IMM) for resilient estimation of the channel state information (CSI). A novel approach is proposed, in adding up the squareroot singular values (SRSV) of the decomposed channel using the singular value decompositions (SVD) algorithm. This new scheme, termed Frobenius eigenmode transmission (FET), is chiefly intended to maintain the total power of all individual effective eigenmodes, as opposed to keeping only the dominant one. The analysis is applied over multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) antennas in combination with a Rayleigh fading channel using a quasi likelihood ratio test (QLRT) algorithm for AMC. The expectation-maximization (EM) is employed for recursive computation of the underlying estimation and classification algorithms. Novel simulations demonstrate the advantages of the combined IMM-KF structure when compared to the perfectly known channel and maximum likelihood estimate (MLE), in terms of achieving the targeted optimal performance with the desirable benefit of less computational complexity loads.
    • India and Pakistan: An Analysis of the Conventional Military Strategic Relationship

      Bluth, Christoph; Lee, U.R. (International Conference on Economics and Security 2019, 2019-06-27)
    • A comparison of flare forecasting methods. II. Benchmarks, metrics and performance results for operational solar flare forecasting systems

      Leka, K.D.; Park, S-H.; Kusano, K.; Andries, J.; Barnes, G.; Bingham, S.; Bloomfield, D.S.; McCloskey, A.E.; Delouille, V.; Falconer, D.; et al. (2019)
      Solar flares are extremely energetic phenomena in our Solar System. Their impulsive, often drastic radiative increases, in particular at short wavelengths, bring immediate impacts that motivate solar physics and space weather research to understand solar flares to the point of being able to forecast them. As data and algorithms improve dramatically, questions must be asked concerning how well the forecasting performs; crucially, we must ask how to rigorously measure performance in order to critically gauge any improvements. Building upon earlier-developed methodology (Barnes et al. 2016, Paper I), international representatives of regional warning centers and research facilities assembled in 2017 at the Institute for Space-Earth Environmental Research, Nagoya University, Japan to – for the first time – directly compare the performance of operational solar flare forecasting methods. Multiple quantitative evaluation metrics are employed, with focus and discussion on evaluation methodologies given the restrictions of operational forecasting. Numerous methods performed consistently above the “no skill” level, although which method scored top marks is decisively a function of flare event definition and the metric used; there was no single winner. Following in this paper series we ask why the performances differ by examining implementation details (Leka et al. 2019, Paper III), and then we present a novel analysis method to evaluate temporal patterns of forecasting errors in (Park et al. 2019, Paper IV). With these works, this team presents a well-defined and robust methodology for evaluating solar flare forecasting methods in both research and operational frameworks, and today’s performance benchmarks against which improvements and new methods may be compared.
    • A comparison of flare forecasting methods. III. Systematic behaviors of operational solar flare forecasting systems

      Leka, K.D.; Park, S-H.; Kusano, K.; Andries, J.; Barnes, G.; Bingham, S.; Bloomfield, D.S.; McCloskey, A.E.; Delouille, V.; Falcomer, D.; et al. (2019)
      A workshop was recently held at Nagoya University (31 October – 02 November 2017), sponsored by the Center for International Collaborative Research, at the Institute for Space-Earth Environmental Research, Nagoya University, Japan, to quantitatively compare the performance of today’s operational solar flare forecasting facilities. Building upon Paper I of this series (Barnes et al. 2016), in Paper II (Leka et al. 2019) we described the participating methods for this latest comparison effort, the evaluation methodology, and presented quantitative comparisons. In this paper we focus on the behavior and performance of the methods when evaluated in the context of broad implementation differences. Acknowledging the short testing interval available and the small number of methods available, we do find that forecast performance: 1) appears to improve by including persistence or prior flare activity, region evolution, and a human “forecaster in the loop”; 2) is hurt by restricting data to disk-center observations; 3) may benefit from long-term statistics, but mostly when then combined with modern data sources and statistical approaches. These trends are arguably weak and must be viewed with numerous caveats, as discussed both here and in Paper II. Following this present work, we present in Paper IV a novel analysis method to evaluate temporal patterns of forecasting errors of both types (i.e., misses and false alarms; Park et al. 2019). Hence, most importantly, with this series of papers we demonstrate the techniques for facilitating comparisons in the interest of establishing performance-positive methodologies.
    • Towards an integrated approach to the assessment and management of children with reading difficulties

      Gilchrist, James A.; Barrett, Brendan T.; Chambers, Caroline A. (University of BradfordSchool of Optometry and Vision Science, 2017)
      Learning to read is a complex and demanding skill which is vital in order for children to be able to access a broad curriculum of learning within the school environment. Reading requires the integration of many different processes, it is possible that difficulties with one or more of these processes has the possibility to interfere with reading ability. The research aimed to investigate the presence and co-occurrence of difficulties across many factors thought to be involved in the reading process. Data were collected from 126 schoolchildren, aged 8-10 years on performance measures associated with reading; reading ability, visual sensory and oculomotor function, visual perception, attention, memory, phonological awareness and rapid naming. Differences in mean performance between different reading ability groups (ANOVA), and correlations between the variables studied, were used to investigate the presence and magnitude of any relationships. Many of the variables studied were found to be significantly different between reading ability groups and significantly correlated with reading ability to varying degrees. The analysis of multiple single-case studies determined that each child has a unique pattern of strengths and weaknesses and that many children including ‘average/above average’ readers, show below average performance on several measures included in the study, with affected skills rarely existing in isolation. Thus, it is recommended that an individualised multi-factorial approach is taken to the assessment of children struggling to read. This will require communication by a multi-professional team to ensure all possible contributing factors are explored to enable each child to achieve their potential.
    • Conceptualizing of value offerings from a customer perspective. Understanding the elements of value and their relationship with customer satisfaction

      Wright, Gillian H.; Mehraramolan, Amirreza (University of BradfordSchool of Management, 2016)
      The initial idea for this research is based on the gap that I found in my company performance and specifically in the process of value offering and the relationship with customers. The company has recently faced the challenges of a loss of market share and competitive advantage. The aim of this study is to provide a validated value offering constructs for the company. That is, knowing the customers’ needs, value and preferences better; identifying what kind of value the customers are looking for and improving the value offerings of the company in order to raise customers´ satisfaction. Understanding the priority of value offering elements from customers’ perspective, the nature of customer satisfaction and the relationship between the elements of value offering and customers´ satisfaction are the main objectives. The relevant literature and research related to value offering including its elements, value, perceived value and customer satisfaction are reviewed comprehensively. The methodology used is a case study. Both quantitative and qualitative methods are used for collecting and analysing the data. In qualitative phase, 16 customers were selected for in-depth interviews and for quantitative phase 268 customers who all are dentists responded a survey made up of 24 scales. The result showed that the highest significant element is Price value and also it was revealed in which important parts related to value offering and customer satisfaction the company is performing poorly.
    • Saliency-weighted graphs for efficient visual content description and their applications in real-time image retrieval systems

      Ahmad, J.; Sajjad, M.; Mehmood, Irfan; Rho, S.; Baik, S.W. (2017-09)
      The exponential growth in the volume of digital image databases is making it increasingly difficult to retrieve relevant information from them. Efficient retrieval systems require distinctive features extracted from visually rich contents, represented semantically in a human perception-oriented manner. This paper presents an efficient framework to model image contents as an undirected attributed relational graph, exploiting color, texture, layout, and saliency information. The proposed method encodes salient features into this rich representative model without requiring any segmentation or clustering procedures, reducing the computational complexity. In addition, an efficient graph-matching procedure implemented on specialized hardware makes it more suitable for real-time retrieval applications. The proposed framework has been tested on three publicly available datasets, and the results prove its superiority in terms of both effectiveness and efficiency in comparison with other state-of-the-art schemes.
    • UAV based wilt detection system via convolutional neural networks

      Dang, L.M.; Hassan, S.I.; Suhyeon, I.; Sangaiah, A.K.; Mehmood, Irfan; Rho, S.; Seo, S.; Moon, H. (2019)
      The significant role of plants can be observed through the dependency of animals and humans on them. Oxygen, materials, food and the beauty of the world are contributed by plants. Climate change, the decrease in pollinators, and plant diseases are causing a significant decline in both quality and coverage ratio of the plants and crops on a global scale. In developed countries, above 80 percent of rural production is produced by sharecropping. However, due to widespread diseases in plants, yields are reported to have declined by more than a half. These diseases are identified and diagnosed by the agricultural and forestry department. Manual inspection on a large area of fields requires a huge amount of time and effort, thereby reduces the effectiveness significantly. To counter this problem, we propose an automatic disease detection and classification method in radish fields by using a camera attached to an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) to capture high quality images from the fields and analyze them by extracting both color and texture features, then we used K-means clustering to filter radish regions and feeds them into a fine-tuned GoogleNet to detect Fusarium wilt of radish efficiently at early stage and allow the authorities to take timely action which ensures the food safety for current and future generations.
    • Divide-and-conquer based summarization framework for extracting affective video content

      Mehmood, Irfan; Sajjad, M.; Rho, S.; Baik, S.W. (2016-01)
      Recent advances in multimedia technology have led to tremendous increases in the available volume of video data, thereby creating a major requirement for efficient systems to manage such huge data volumes. Video summarization is one of the key techniques for accessing and managing large video libraries. Video summarization can be used to extract the affective contents of a video sequence to generate a concise representation of its content. Human attention models are an efficient means of affective content extraction. Existing visual attention driven summarization frameworks have high computational cost and memory requirements, as well as a lack of efficiency in accurately perceiving human attention. To cope with these issues, we propose a divide-and-conquer based framework for an efficient summarization of big video data. We divide the original video data into shots, where an attention model is computed from each shot in parallel. Viewer's attention is based on multiple sensory perceptions, i.e., aural and visual, as well as the viewer's neuronal signals. The aural attention model is based on the Teager energy, instant amplitude, and instant frequency, whereas the visual attention model employs multi-scale contrast and motion intensity. Moreover, the neuronal attention is computed using the beta-band frequencies of neuronal signals. Next, an aggregated attention curve is generated using an intra- and inter-modality fusion mechanism. Finally, the affective content in each video shot is extracted. The fusion of multimedia and neuronal signals provides a bridge that links the digital representation of multimedia with the viewer’s perceptions. Our experimental results indicate that the proposed shot-detection based divide-and-conquer strategy mitigates the time and computational complexity. Moreover, the proposed attention model provides an accurate reflection of the user preferences and facilitates the extraction of highly affective and personalized summaries.