Now showing items 21-40 of 7991

    • Understanding automated dose control in dynamic X-ray imaging systems

      Gislason-Lee, Amber J.; Hoornaert, B.; Cowen, A.R.; Davies, A.G. (2013-03)
    • Can image enhancement allow radiation dose to be reduced whilst maintaining the perceived diagnostic image quality required for coronary angiography?

      Joshi, A.; Gislason-Lee, Amber J.; Sivananthan, U.M.; Davies, A.G. (2017-03-03)
      Digital image processing used in modern cardiac interventional x-ray systems may have the potential to enhance image quality such that it allows for lower radiation doses. The aim of this research was to quantify the reduction in radiation dose facilitated by image processing alone for percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) patient angiograms, without reducing the perceived image quality required to confidently make a diagnosis. Incremental amounts of image noise were added to five PCI patient angiograms, simulating the angiogram having been acquired at corresponding lower dose levels (by 10-89% dose reduction). Sixteen observers with relevant background and experience scored the image quality of these angiograms in three states - with no image processing and with two different modern image processing algorithms applied; these algorithms are used on state-of-the-art and previous generation cardiac interventional x-ray systems. Ordinal regression allowing for random effects and the delta method were used to quantify the dose reduction allowed for by the processing algorithms, for equivalent image quality scores. The dose reductions [with 95% confidence interval] from the state-of-the-art and previous generation image processing relative to no processing were 24.9% [18.8- 31.0%] and 15.6% [9.4-21.9%] respectively. The dose reduction enabled by the state-of-the-art image processing relative to previous generation processing was 10.3% [4.4-16.2%]. This demonstrates that statistically significant dose reduction can be facilitated with no loss in perceived image quality using modern image enhancement; the most recent processing algorithm was more effective in preserving image quality at lower doses.
    • Membrane insertion and secretion of the Engrailed-2 (EN2) transcription factor by prostate cancer cells may induce antiviral activity in the stroma

      Punia, N.; Primon, Monika; Simpson, G.R.; Pandha, H.S.; Morgan, Richard (2019-03)
      Engrailed-2 (EN2) is a homeodomain-containing transcription factor that has roles in boundary formation and neural guidance in early development, but which is also expressed in a range of cancers. In addition to transcriptional regulation, it is secreted by cells and taken up by others through a mechanism that is yet to be fully elucidated. In this study, the distribution of EN2 protein in cells was evaluated using immunofluorescence with a set of antibodies raised against overlapping epitopes across the protein, and through the use of an EN2-GFP construct. MX2 expression in primary prostate tumors was evaluated using immunohistochemistry. We showed that EN2 protein is present in the cell membrane and within microvesicles that can be secreted from the cell and taken up by others. When taken up by normal cells from the stroma EN2 induces the expression of MX2 (MxB), a protein that has a key role in the innate immune response to viruses. Our findings indicate that EN2 secretion by tumors may be a means of preventing viral-mediated immune invasion of tissue immediately adjacent to the tumor.
    • Comprehensive assessment of patient image quality and radiation dose in latest generation cardiac x-ray equipment for percutaneous coronary interventions

      Gislason-Lee, Amber J.; Keeble, C.; Egleston, D.; Bexon, J.; Kenyelics, S.M.; Davies, A.G. (2017)
      This study aimed to determine whether a reduction in radiation dose was found for percutaneous coronary interventional (PCI) patients using a cardiac interventional x-ray system with state-of-the-art image enhancement and x-ray optimization, compared to the current generation x-ray system, and to determine the corresponding impact on clinical image quality. Patient procedure dose area product (DAP) and fluoroscopy duration of 131 PCI patient cases from each x-ray system were compared using a Wilcoxon test on median values. Significant reductions in patient dose (p ≪ 0.001) were found for the new system with no significant change in fluoroscopy duration (p ¼ 0.2); procedure DAP reduced by 64%, fluoroscopy DAP by 51%, and “cine” acquisition DAP by 76%. The image quality of 15 patient angiograms from each x-ray system (30 total) was scored by 75 clinical professionals on a continuous scale for the ability to determine the presence and severity of stenotic lesions; image quality scores were analyzed using a two-sample t -test. Image quality was reduced by 9% (p ≪ 0.01) for the new x-ray system. This demonstrates a substantial reduction in patient dose, from acquisition more than fluoroscopy imaging, with slightly reduced image quality, for the new x-ray system compared to the current generation system.
    • The Role of vision and refractive correction changes in dizziness

      Elliott, David B.; Alderson, Alison J.; Armstrong, Deborah (University of BradfordBradford School of Optometry and Vision Science, 2018)
      Dizziness is a common, multifactorial problem that causes reductions in quality of life and is a major risk factor for falls, but the role of vision is a very under-researched area. This study aimed to investigate any link between dizziness and vision and to establish if changes in spectacle lens correction could elicit dizziness symptoms. A link between dizziness and self-reported poor vision was indicated in the epidemiological literature as shown by a systematic review, provided lightheadedness was not included in the definition of dizziness. Cases of individuals who reported vision-related dizziness were investigated to determine potential areas of research for this thesis and subsequently two studies investigated the effects of refractive correction changes on dizziness status. The first study was limited by logistical problems, although it highlighted limitations in the short form of the Dizziness Handicap Inventory that was used to quantify dizziness. Results of an optometry practice recheck study found that oblique cylindrical changes were significantly more likely to be associated with dizziness symptoms than other spectacle lens changes. It also highlighted that optometrists do not ask/record about dizziness symptoms with only 4% of records including “dizziness” as a problem when 38% of patients reported dizziness symptoms when directly asked. All studies highlighted a need for a patient-reported outcome measure to be designed to assess vision-related dizziness. Literature review, interviews with experts and patients and focus groups led to the development of a pilot questionnaire and subsequently a 25-item Vision-Related Dizziness instrument, the VRD-25. This was validated using responses from 223 respondents, with 79 participants completing the questionnaire a second time to provide test-retest data. Two subscales of VRD-12-frequency (VRD-12f) and VRD-13-severity (VRD-13s) were shown to be unidimensional and had good psychometric properties, convergent validity and test-retest repeatability. The VRD-25 is the only patient-reported outcome measure developed to date to assess vision related dizziness and will hopefully provide the platform to further grow this under-researched area that seems likely to provide important clinical information.
    • IPA: The black swan of qualitative research

      Dennison, Melissa (2019)
      Critics of IPA suggest that it is unscientific, lacking a complex subjectivity and displaying a promiscuous epistemology. This article aims to explore these criticisms, offering a response that is inspired by the language of fertility and ideas adapted from evolutionary science. As the swan is often seen as a symbol of fidelity, this article draws an analogy between the promiscuous behaviour of Australian Black Swans and IPA research. Within this frame, flirtations with other methodologies are described as being advantageous in that they encourage gene flow and a productive cross fertilisation of ideas. An intermingling of genes can open up new avenues of research, enhance reflexive awareness and allow the voice of others to be heard. Finally as IPA is happy to engage in flirtations and dalliances with diverse theoretical frames to enhance its longevity, this article suggests that a good match could be made between IPA and dialogical methods.
    • Noise estimation in cardiac x-ray imaging: a machine vision approach

      Kengyelics, S.M.; Gislason-Lee, Amber J.; Keeble, C.; Magee, D.R.; Davies, A.G. (2016-12-16)
      We propose a method to automatically parameterize noise in cardiac x-ray image sequences. The aim was to provide context-sensitive imaging information for use in regulating dose control feedback systems that relates to the experience of human observers. The algorithm locates and measures noise contained in areas of approximately equal signal level. A single noise metric is derived from the dominant noise components based on their magnitude and spatial location in relation to clinically relevant structures. The output of the algorithm was compared to noise and clinical acceptability ratings from 28 observers viewing 40 different cardiac x-ray imaging sequences. Results show good agreement and that the algorithm has the potential to augment existing control strategies to deliver x-ray dose to the patient on an individual basis.
    • Impact of latest generation cardiac interventional X-ray equipment on patient image quality and radiation dose for trans-catheter aortic valve implantations

      Gislason-Lee, Amber J.; Keeble, C.; Malkin, C.J.; Egleston, D.; Bexon, J.; Kengyelics, S.M.; Blackman, D.; Davies, A.G. (2016)
      Objectives: This study aimed to determine the impact on radiation dose and image quality of a new cardiac interventional X-ray system for trans-catheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) patients compared to the previously-used cardiac X-ray system. Methods: Patient dose and image data were retrospectively collected from a Philips AlluraClarity (new) and Siemens Axion Artis (reference) X-ray system. Patient dose area product (DAP) and fluoroscopy duration of 41 patient cases from each X-ray system were compared using a Wilcoxon test. Ten patient aortograms from each X-ray system were scored by 32 observers on a continuous scale to assess the clinical image quality at the given phase of the TAVI procedure. Scores were dichotomised by acceptability and analysed using a Chi-squared test. Results: Significant reductions in patient dose (p<<0.001) were found for the new system with no significant change in fluoroscopy duration (p=0.052); procedure DAP reduced by 55%, fluoroscopy DAP by 48% and “cine” acquisition DAP by 61%. There was no significant difference between image quality scores of the two X-ray systems (p=0.06). Conclusions: The new cardiac X-ray system demonstrated a very significant reduction in patient dose with no loss of clinical image quality. Advances in Knowledge: The huge growth of TAVI may impact on the radiation exposure of cardiac patients and particularly on operators including anaesthetists; cumulative exposure of interventional cardiologists performing high volume TAVI over 30-40 years may be harmful. The Phillips Clarity upgrade including improved image enhancement and optimised X-ray settings significantly reduced radiation without reducing clinically acceptable image quality.
    • Eight-Element Dual-Polarized MIMO Slot Antenna System for 5G Smartphone Applications

      Ojaroudi Parchin, Naser; Al-Yasir, Yasir; Ali, Ammar H.; Elfergani, Issa T.; Noras, James M.; Rodriguez, Jonathan; Abd-Alhameed, Raed A. (2019-02)
      In this paper, we propose an eight-port/four-resonator slot antenna array with a dual-polarized function for multiple-input-multiple-output (MIMO) 5G mobile terminals. The design is composed of four dual-polarized square-ring slot radiators fed by pairs of microstrip-line structures. The radiation elements are designed to operate at 3.6 GHz and are located on the corners of the smartphone PCB. The squarering slot radiators provide good dual-polarization characteristic with similar performances in terms of fundamental radiation characteristics. In order to improve the isolation and also reduce the mutual coupling characteristic between the adjunct microstrip-line feeding ports of the dual-polarized radiators, a pair of circular-ring/open-ended parasitic structures is embedded across each square-ring slot radiator. The −10-dB impedance bandwidth of each antenna-element is 3.4–3.8 GHz. However, for −6-dB impedance bandwidth, this value is 600 MHz (3.3–3.9 GHz). The proposed MIMO antenna offers good S-parameters, high-gain radiation patterns, and sufficient total efficiencies, even though it is arranged on a high-loss FR-4 dielectric. The SAR function and the radiation characteristics of the proposed design in the vicinity of user-hand/userhead are studied. A prototype of the proposed smartphone antenna is fabricated, and good measurements are provided. The antenna provides good features with a potential application for use in the 5G mobile terminals.
    • Comparison of two different indentation techniques in studying the in-situ viscoelasticity behavior of liquid crystals

      Soon, C.F.; Tee, K.S.; Youseffi, Mansour; Denyer, Morgan C.T. (2015-09)
      Liquid crystal is a new emerging biomaterial. The physical property of liquid crystal plays a role in supporting the adhesion of cells. Nano and microball indentation techniques were applied to determine the elastic modulus or viscoelasticity of the cholesteryl ester liquid crystals in the culture media. Nano-indentation results (108 ± 19.78 kPa, N = 20) agreed well with the microball indentation (110 ± 19.95 kPa, N = 60) for the liquid crystal samples incubated for 24 hours at 37o C, respectively. However, nanoindentation could not measure the modulus of the liquid crystal (LC) incubated more than 24 hours. This is due to the decreased viscosity of the liquid crystal after immersion in the cell culture media for more than 24 hours. Alternatively, microball indentation was used and the elastic modulus of the LC immersed for 48 hours was found to decrease to 55 ± 9.99 kPa (N = 60). The microball indentation indicated that the LC did not creep after 40 seconds of indentation. However, the elastic modulus of the LC was no longer measurable after 72 hours of incubation due to the lost of elasticity. Microball indentation seemed to be a reliable technique in determining the elastic moduli of the cholesteryl ester liquid crystals.
    • Factors contributing to the strength of national patent protection and enforcement after TRIPS

      Papageorgiadis, Nikolaos; Wang, Chengang; Magkonis, Georgios (2019)
      In this paper we study the determinants of the strength of patent enforcement in 43 member countries of the World Trade Organization (WTO) between 1998 and 2011, a period after the signing of the Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) agreement. We do so by building on and expanding the seminal work of Ginarte and Park (1997) on the pre-TRIPS determinants of patent rights in the years 1960-1990. We find that in the years after TRIPS was signed, the strength of patent enforcement of a country is positively determined by two variables that signify the usage of the patent and intellectual property system, and the number of patent and trademark applications. We also find that the level of research and development expenditure, the quality of human capital, and the level of development of a country have positive effects on the strength of the enforcement of patent law in practice. Intellectual property rights enforcement is one of the key investment-related policies included in the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) Investment Policy Framework for Sustainable Development. Identifying the determinants of strong patent systems will help policymakers at the national and supranational levels to design and implement effective policies that strengthen national patent systems, thereby enhancing economic benefits such as greater levels of commercialization of intangible assets and greater levels of international trade and investment.
    • A novel algorithm for human fall detection using height, velocity and position of the subject from depth maps

      Nizam, Y.; Abdul Jamil, M.M.; Mohd, M.N.H.; Youseffi, Mansour; Denyer, Morgan C.T. (2018-07)
      Human fall detection systems play an important role in our daily life, because falls are the main obstacle for elderly people to live independently and it is also a major health concern due to aging population. Different approaches are used to develop human fall detection systems for elderly and people with special needs. The three basic approaches include some sort of wearable devices, ambient based devices or non-invasive vision-based devices using live cameras. Most of such systems are either based on wearable or ambient sensor which is very often rejected by users due to the high false alarm and difficulties in carrying them during their daily life activities. This paper proposes a fall detection system based on the height, velocity and position of the subject using depth information from Microsoft Kinect sensor. Classification of human fall from other activities of daily life is accomplished using height and velocity of the subject extracted from the depth information. Finally position of the subject is identified for fall confirmation. From the experimental results, the proposed system was able to achieve an average accuracy of 94.81% with sensitivity of 100% and specificity of 93.33%.
    • Enhanced dielectric properties of immiscible poly (vinylidene fluoride)/low density polyethylene blends by inducing multilayered and orientated structures

      Lin, X.; Fan, L.; Ren, D.; Jiao, Z.; Yang, W.; Coates, Philip D. (2017-04-01)
      In order to improve the frequency-dependent dielectric properties of the immiscible polymeric blends which were melt-compounded by composing poly (vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) and low density polyethylene (LDPE), the layer multiplication and the solid phase orientation technologies were respectively adopted as two effective strategies to optimize the dispersion state and the orientation of internal microstructure, aiming at reducing physical porosity and improving the barrier performance as well as crystal phase of the polymer extrudates. Results comparison showed the dielectric properties were greatly dependent on the crystal type and the physical porosity density which were also emphasized as the interfacial effect in the previous work [ref. 29: Lin X et al, J Appl Polym Sci 2015; 132(36), 42507]. It was found that the multilayer-structure manipulation could substantially improve the dispersion state between the two immiscible components, enhance the mechanical performance and reduce the internal defects and increase the dielectric constant while keeping the dielectric loss stable. By uniaxial stretching the sample sheets at a rubber state temperature of ca. 10-20˚C below the melting point, crystal transformation was induced by increasing molecular chains orientation degree which was also contributed to the enhancement of the dielectric properties. These techniques implied the potential as a promising way for inducing functional structures of polymeric blends.
    • Comparison of biophysical properties characterized for microtissues cultured using microencapsulation and liquid crystal based 3D cell culture techniques

      Soon, C.F.; Tee, K.S.; Wong, S.C.; Nayan, N.; Sundra, S.; Ahmad, M.K.; Sefat, Farshid; Sultana, N.; Youseffi, Mansour (2018-02)
      Growing three dimensional (3D) cells is an emerging research in tissue engineering. Biophysical properties of the 3D cells regulate the cells growth, drug diffusion dynamics and gene expressions. Scaffold based or scaffoldless techniques for 3D cell cultures are rarely being compared in terms of the physical features of the microtissues produced. The biophysical properties of the microtissues cultured using scaffold based microencapsulation by flicking and scaffoldless liquid crystal (LC) based techniques were characterized. Flicking technique produced high yield and highly reproducible microtissues of keratinocyte cell lines in alginate microcapsules at approximately 350 ± 12 pieces per culture. However, microtissues grown on the LC substrates yielded at lower quantity of 58 ± 21 pieces per culture. The sizes of the microtissues produced using alginate microcapsules and LC substrates were 250 ± 25 μm and 141 ± 70 μm, respectively. In both techniques, cells remodeled into microtissues via different growth phases and showed good integrity of cells in field-emission scanning microscopy (FE-SEM). Microencapsulation packed the cells in alginate scaffolds of polysaccharides with limited spaces for motility. Whereas, LC substrates allowed the cells to migrate and self-stacking into multilayered structures as revealed by the nuclei stainings. The cells cultured using both techniques were found viable based on the live and dead cell stainings. Stained histological sections showed that both techniques produced cell models that closely replicate the intrinsic physiological conditions. Alginate microcapsulation and LC based techniques produced microtissues containing similar bio-macromolecules but they did not alter the main absorption bands of microtissues as revealed by the Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Cell growth, structural organization, morphology and surface structures for 3D microtissues cultured using both techniques appeared to be different and might be suitable for different applications.
    • Improved dielectric performance of polypropylene/multiwalled carbon nanotube nanocomposites by solid-phase orientation

      Lin, X.; Tian, J.-W.; Hu, P.-H.; Ambardekar, Rohan; Thompson, Glen; Dang, Z.-M.; Coates, Philip D. (2016-01-15)
      By means of die drawing technique at rubber-state, effect of the orientation of microstructure on dielectric properties of polypropylene/multi-walled carbon nanotubes nanocomposites (PP/MWCNTs) was emphasized in this work. Viscoelasticity behavior of PP/MWCNTs with MWCNTs weight loadings from 0.25 to 5 wt% and dielectric performance of the stretched PP/MWCNTs under different drawing speeds and drawing ratios were studied for seeking an insight of the influences of dispersion and orientation state of MWCNTs and matrix molecular chains. A viscosity decrease (ca. 30%) of the PP/MWCNTs-0.25wt% melt was obviously observed owing to the free volume effect. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and wide angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD) were adopted to detect the orientation structure and the variation of crystal morphology of PP/MWCNTs. Melting plateau regions, which indicated the mixed crystallization morphology for the stretched samples, were found in the DSC patterns instead of a single-peak for the unstretched samples. It was found that the uniaxial stretching process broke the conductive MWCNTs networks and consequently increased the orientation of MWCNTs as well as molecular chains along the tensile force direction, leading to an improvement of the dielectric performance.
    • Electrocardiograph (ECG) circuit design and software-based processing using LabVIEW

      Abdul Jamil, M.M.; Soon, C.F.; Achilleos, A.; Youseffi, Mansour; Javid, F. (2017)
      The efficiency and acquisition of a clean (diagnosable) ECG signal dependent upon the proper selection of electronic components and the techniques used for noise elimination. Given that the human body and the lead cables act as antennas, hence picking up noises from the surroundings, thus a major part in the design of an ECG device is to apply various techniques for noise reduction at the early stage of the transmission and processing of the signal. This paper, therefore, covers the design and development of a Single Chanel 3-Lead Electrocardiograph and a Software-based processing environment. Main design characteristics include reduction of common mode voltages, good protection for the patient, use of the ECG device for both monitoring and automatic extraction (measurements) of the ECG components by the software. The hardware consisted of a lead selection stage for the user to select the bipolar lead for recording, a pre-amplification stage for amplifying the differential potentials while rejecting common mode voltages, an electrical isolation stage from three filtering stages with different bandwidths for noise attenuation, a power line interference reduction stage and a final amplification stage. A program in LabVIEW was developed to further improve the quality of the ECG signal, extract all its features and automatically calculate the main ECG output waveforms. The program had two main sections: The filtering section for removing power line interference, wideband noises and baseline wandering, and the analysis section for automatically extracting and measuring all the features of the ECG in real time. A Front Panel Environment was, therefore, developed for the user interface. The present system produced ECG tracings without the influence of noise/artefacts and provided accurate detection and measurement of all the components of the ECG signal.
    • In vitro growth of human keratinocytes and oral cancer cells into microtissues: an aerosol-based microencapsulation technique

      Leong, W.Y.; Soon, C.F.; Wong, S.C.; Tee, K.S.; Cheong, S.C.; Gan, S.H.; Youseffi, Mansour (2017-05)
      Cells encapsulation is a micro-technology widely applied in cell and tissue research, tissue transplantation, and regenerative medicine. In this paper, we proposed a growth of microtissue model for the human keratinocytes (HaCaT) cell line and an oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) cell line (ORL-48) based on a simple aerosol microencapsulation technique. At an extrusion rate of 20 μL/min and air flow rate of 0.3 L/min programmed in the aerosol system, HaCaT and ORL-48 cells in alginate microcapsules were encapsulated in microcapsules with a diameter ranging from 200 to 300 μm. Both cell lines were successfully grown into microtissues in the microcapsules of alginate within 16 days of culture. The microtissues were characterized by using a live/dead cell viability assay, field emission-scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), fluorescence staining, and cell re-plating experiments. The microtissues of both cell types were viable after being extracted from the alginate membrane using alginate lyase. However, the microtissues of HaCaT and ORL-48 demonstrated differences in both nucleus size and morphology. The microtissues with re-associated cells in spheroids are potentially useful as a cell model for pharmacological studies.
    • Understanding the mother-infant bond

      Milne, Elizabeth; Johnson, Sally E.; Waters, Gillian M.; Small, Neil A. (2018-09)
    • A novel split-reflux policy in batch reactive distillation for the optimum synthesis of a number of methyl esters

      Aqar, D.Y.; Rahmanian, Nejat; Mujtaba, Iqbal M. (2019)
      The production of a number of methyl esters such as methyl decanoate (MeDC), methyl salicylate (MeSC), and methyl benzoate (MeBZ) by esterification reactions of several carboxylic acids such as decanoic acid (DeC), salicylic acid (ScA), and benzoic acid (BeZ) with methanol, respectively, through a reactive distillation system (batch or continuous) is cost-intensive and operationally challenging operation. It is difficult to keep the reaction species together in the reaction section due to wide boiling point differences between the reactants. Methanol (in those esterification processes) having the lowest boiling temperature in the reaction mixture can separate easily from carboxylic acid as the distillation progresses, resulting in a severe drop in the reaction conversion ratio of the acid employing batch/continuous distillation system. In order to overcome this type of challenge and to increase the overall reaction conversion, a novel split-reflux conventional batch reactive distillation configuration (sr-BRD) is proposed/studied in detail in this investigation. The optimal performance of BRD/ sr-BRD column is determined in terms of maximum achievable conversion of acids, and highest concentration of the esters produced for each chemical reaction scheme. The results for given separation tasks are compared with those obtained using conventional batch distillation (BRD) process. The optimization results clearly show that the sr-BRD process significantly improves the process efficiency, the conversion ratio of acid, and the product purity of methyl esters compared to that obtained via the BRD process.
    • Thermal prediction of convective-radiative porous fin heatsink of functionally graded material using adomian decomposition method

      Oguntala, G.A.; Sobamowo, G.; Ahmed, Y.; Abd-Alhameed, Raed A. (2019-03)
      In recent times, the subject of effective cooling have become an interesting research topic for electronic and mechanical engineers due to the increased miniaturization trend in modern electronic systems. However, fins are useful for cooling various low and high power electronic systems. For improved thermal management of electronic systems, porous fins of functionally graded materials (FGM) have been identified as a viable candidate to enhance cooling. The present study presents an analysis of a convective–radiative porous fin of FGM. For theoretical investigations, the thermal property of the functionally graded material is assumed to follow linear and power-law functions. In this study, we investigated the effects of inhomogeneity index of FGM, convective and radiative variables on the thermal performance of the porous heatsink. The results of the present study show that an increase in the inhomogeneity index of FGM, convective and radiative parameter improves fin efficiency. Moreover, the rate of heat transfer in longitudinal FGM fin increases as b increases. The temperature prediction using the Adomian decomposition method is in excellent agreement with other analytical and method.