Now showing items 21-40 of 9300

    • Multi-modal Aggression Identification Using Convolutional Neural Network and Binary Particle Swarm Optimization

      Kumari, K.; Singh, J.P.; Dwivedi, Y.K.; Rana, Nripendra P. (2021)
      Aggressive posts containing symbolic and offensive images, inappropriate gestures along with provocative textual comments are growing exponentially in social media with the availability of inexpensive data services. These posts have numerous negative impacts on the reader and need an immediate technical solution to filter out aggressive comments. This paper presents a model based on a Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) and Binary Particle Swarm Optimization (BPSO) to classify the social media posts containing images with associated textual comments into non-aggressive, medium-aggressive and high-aggressive classes. A dataset containing symbolic images and the corresponding textual comments was created to validate the proposed model. The framework employs a pre-trained VGG-16 to extract the image features and a three-layered CNN to extract the textual features in parallel. The hybrid feature set obtained by concatenating the image and the text features were optimized using the BPSO algorithm to extract the more relevant features. The proposed model with optimized features and Random Forest classifier achieves a weighted F1-Score of 0.74, an improvement of around 3% over unoptimized features.
    • Understanding metal concentration and speciation in motorway runoff

      Zakharova, J.; Pouran, H.; Bridgeman, John; Wheatley, A.; Arif, M. (Taylor & Francis Group, 2021)
      Although highway runoff has historically been extensively studied, the increasing complexity of stormwater management means that there are still significant gaps regarding the reduction of soluble metals. The work reported in this paper addresses these challenges by analysing the presence and behaviour of iron, copper and zinc in runoff from junction 24 of the M1 motorway in the UK (peak traffic flow: 30,000 vehicles per hour) and comparing it with other urban sources of metals found in the same catchment (a local brook and sewage treatment works). The sampling site included an interceptor and a treatment lagoon and the event monitoring indicated a trend by which the metals did not change their concentration or particulate soluble proportion immediately, hence showing that pre- and post-storm conditions are important factors when analysing the solubility of metals and their behaviour. The data provided further evidence of the important influence of storm characteristics on metal concentrations in highway runoff, in particular the effects of an antecedent dry weather period (ADWP). In addition, this study also helped us to better understand how the release of sodium the application of de-icer for road maintenance in winter affects the availability of zinc.
    • Characterisation and Performance of three Kenaf coagulation products under different operating conditions

      Okoro, B.U.; Sharifi, S.; Jesson, M.; Bridgeman, John; Moruzzi, R. (Elsevier, 2021-01-01)
      The Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) 6.1, established by the United Nations General Assembly in 2015, targets universal and equitable access to safe and affordable drinking water for all by 2030. An essential factor in achieving this goal is the harnessing of “green” coagulants – naturally occurring, environmentally friendly materials which are effective coagulants for use in water treatment, with good availability in developing countries, inherent renewable properties and ease of biodegradation. In order to gain from these benefits, it is essential to fully understand how such coagulants may best be utilised, particularly concerning their practical application in developing countries. In this study, three different plant-based coagulation products (PCPs), namely Hexane (HxKP), saline (StKP) and crude (CrKP) extracts of Kenaf plant seed (Hibiscus cannabinus, a species of the Hibiscus plant), were applied to high (HTW), medium (MTW) and low (LTW) turbidity water in order to determine their performance and coagulation ability. The ability of the three Kenaf coagulant products (KCPs) to remove hydrophobic fractions of natural organic matter (NOM) was measured. The impact of KCPs on the treated water organic matter content (a known disinfection by-product (DBP) precursor) was examined using known surrogates of natural organic matter (NOM) i.e. the dissolved organic carbon (DOC), ultraviolet absorbance at 254 (UV254) and specific ultraviolet absorbance (SUVA254). Results obtained quantify the implications of using these coagulants during the water disinfection process. A parametric study, measuring the effect of different operating parameters, such as untreated water turbidity, pH, dosages, retention time, and KCP storage time, was completed. Turbidity removal performance for HxKP and StKP was very good with > 90% removal recorded for HTW and MTW, respectively, at pH seven within 2 hours retention time. Images obtained from scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis revealed a high likelihood of the coagulation mechanism of KCPs to be adsorption-interparticle bridging brought about by their flake-like structures and surfaces charges. Varying pH had no measurable influence on the coagulation performance of the KCPs. Comparing their efficiency with Moringa Oleifera (MO, a previously researched PCP) and alum showed that HxKP had a negligibly different particle removal as MO. StKP turbidity removal performance was below HxKP by 1% for HTW and LTW and 2% for MTW but performed higher than the CrKP by 5% and 7% in HTW and MTW, respectively. The optimum dosage of HxKP and StKP reduced DBP surrogate values, indicating that its precursor is also minimized, although a slight shift from this optimum dosage showed a significant rise in their concentration thus signifying a potential increase in DBPs during disinfection.
    • Servitization implementation in the manufacturing organisations: classification of strategies, definitions, benefits and challenges

      Kamal, M.M.; Sivarajah, Uthayasankar; Bigdeli, A.Z.; Missi, F.; Koliousis, Y. (Elsevier, 2020-12)
      The integration of products and services into a bundled product/service offering by manufacturing organisations is seen as a global trend in today’s competitive business environment. The shift of product-based manufacturers towards offering business solutions and value-added services to consumers is termed as ‘Servitization’. Contrary to the potential benefits expected by adding service activities to the offerings, advocates voice their concerns towards experiential problems and challenges in employing the servitization strategy – termed as ‘Servitization Paradox’. Nevertheless, the shift from product-based delivery to a service-based provision has the potential to significantly impact on developing sustainable and eco-friendly environment. To provide greater insights to the servitization phenomenon, this paper presents a comprehensive analysis of the servitization implementation in manufacturing organisations. In order to respond to the latter, we propose the following three research questions “Q1 – what are the different types of servitization strategies”, “Q2 – what are the different servitization definitions”, “Q3 – what are the potential benefits in selecting a servitization strategy?”, “Q4 – what are the challenges in transitioning towards servitization?”. A systematic literature review is carried out to understand the past trends and extant patterns/themes in the servitization strategy research area, evaluate contributions, summarise knowledge, thereby identifying limitations, implications and potential further research avenues. The key findings confirm servitization studies have contributed both conceptually and empirically to the development and accumulation of intellectual wealth to the manufacturing operations and supply chain discipline. Moreover, the findings clearly indicate the potential of servitization in transitioning manufacturing organisations (e.g. benefits) and utilising innovative technologies to generate business value. Nevertheless, some voices are backing further research/development in the area of servitization due to the several existing challenges.
    • AOA localization for vehicle-tracking systems using a dual-band sensor array

      Al-Sadoon, Mohammed A.G.; Asif, Rameez; Al-Yasir, Yasir I.A.; Abd-Alhameed, Raed A.; Excell, Peter S. (2020-08)
      The issue of asset tracking in dense environments where the performance of the global positioning system (GPS) becomes unavailable or unreliable is addressed. The proposed solution uses a low-profile array of antenna elements (sensors) mounted on a finite conducting ground. A compact-size sensor array of six electrically small dual-band omnidirectional spiral antenna elements was designed as a front end of a tracker to operate in the 402 and 837 MHz spectrum bands. For the lower band, a three-element superposition method is applied to support estimation of the angle of arrival (AOA), whereas all six sensors are employed for the higher band. A low complexity and accurate AOA determination algorithm is proposed, the projection vector (PV), and this is combined with the array mentioned. Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) is integrated with the PV technique to increase the estimation resolution. The system was found to be suitable for installation on the roof of vehicles to localize the position of assets. The proposed system was tested for the tracking of nonstationary sources, and then two scenarios were investigated using propagation modeling software: outdoor to outdoor and outdoor to indoor. The results confirm that the proposed tracking system works efficiently with a single snapshot.
    • Assessing consumers’ co-production and future participation on value co-creation and business benefit: An F-P-C-B model perspective

      Chatterjee, S.; Rana, Nripendra P.; Dwivedi, Y.K. (2021)
      Co-production and active participation of the consumers are considered to have enhanced the value co-creation activities that would ensure business benefits of a firm. The marketing literature available does not explicitly explain the philosophy that would motivate the consumers to help to increase values for co-creation activities. In this context, attempts have been made to identify the factors that would impact on co-production and consumers’ participation to co-create values. By studying literature and theories such as theory of co-creation, theory of value creation, information processing theory, marketing theory and expectancy value theory, a conceptual model called F-P-C-B (Future Participation (F) - Co-production (P) - Co-creation (C) - Business Benefit (B)) has been developed along with nine hypotheses. The data was from 362 respondents in India and the model was tested using PLS based analysis. The study shows that it is important for the firms to shift from product-oriented activities to customer-related strategies. It is also found that for obtaining more profitability and better business results, customers should be involved in business activities by way of involving in co-design, idea generation, and other relevant activities of the firms. Moreover, the study highlights that knowledge sharing between the customers and the firm authorities ensures better business values.
    • Challenges of common service centers (CSCs) in delivering e-government services to citizens in rural India

      Sharma, S.K.; Metri, B.; Dwivedi, Y.K.; Rana, Nripendra P. (2021)
      Many developing countries across the world are allocating a significant share of their budgets for e-government initiatives. Common service centers (CSCs) are e-government initiatives that aim to increase access to public services and promote easy and direct interaction with the government. These e-government initiatives are largely underutilised, especially in rural areas in developing countries. This study attempts to identify the key challenges facing CSCs and determine their hierarchical relationships in the context of rural India. A set of 15 challenges was identified through a rigorous literature review and by surveying experts and CSC owners. Data were collected on the identified challenges and were analysed using interpretive structural modeling (ISM)-MICMAC-fuzzy MICMAC analysis. Subsequently, we developed a hierarchical model of challenges. The findings revealed that “longer travel time and transaction cost”, “low digital literacy”, and “low awareness” of e-government services are among the key challenges CSCs face in rural India. This study suggests several recommendations to all the stakeholders involved in the management of CSCs to improve the delivery of e-government services in rural India.
    • On the Intellectual Structure and Influence of Tourism Social Science Research

      Sharma, A.; Nunkoo, R.; Rana, Nripendra P.; Dwivedi, Y.K. (Elsevier, 2021)
    • Social media adoption, usage and impact in business-to-business (B2B) context: A state-of-the-art literature review

      Dwivedi, Y.K.; Ismagilova, Elvira; Rana, Nripendra P.; Raman, R. (2021-01)
      Social media plays an important part in the digital transformation of businesses. This research provides a comprehensive analysis of the use of social media by business-to-business (B2B) companies. The current study focuses on the number of aspects of social media such as the effect of social media, social media tools, social media use, adoption of social media use and its barriers, social media strategies, and measuring the effectiveness of use of social media. This research provides a valuable synthesis of the relevant literature on social media in B2B context by analysing, performing weight analysis and discussing the key findings from existing research on social media. The findings of this study can be used as an informative framework on social media for both, academic and practitioners.
    • Point-of-care lactate measurement for suspected sepsis in the prehospital environment: are we missing the point at the sharp end?

      Lightowler, Bryan (Mark Allen Group, 2020-04-02)
      Expecting ambulance clinicians to dependably differentiate the life-threatening organ dysfunction caused by sepsis from an inflammatory response to a non-infectious aetiology, relying upon vital signs and a physical examination of the patient alone, must be considered unrealistic. Although lactate measurement has been integrated into numerous prehospital sepsis screening tools, it is not yet measured routinely within UK ambulance services. Research has generally focused on whether handheld point-of-care lactate measurement devices are as accurate as laboratory analysis of venous or arterial samples. The weight of literature has concluded negatively in relation to this. However, there is potential for handheld devices to be used independently to monitor trends in lactate elimination or accumulation to inform decisions on the efficacy of prehospital interventions, or simply to report categorical data in terms of whether lactate levels are elevated or not. This offers UK paramedics the opportunity to improve sepsis care through the enhanced assessment of risk and acuity, the identification of patients with cryptic shock, more aggressive fluid resuscitation and advanced notification to receiving units.
    • Tranquillity mapping in New Zealand national parks - a pilot study

      Watts, Gregory R.; Pearse, J.; Delikostidis, I.; Kissick, J.; Donohue, B.; Dalley, J. (De Gruyter, 2020-12)
      The tranquillity in national parks worldwide is currently under threat from intrusion of anthropogenic noise of a growing tourism industry and activity related to park management. This was addressed by creating informative tranquillity maps, where perceived tranquillity can be considered a key indicator of soundscape quality in natural areas. Tranquillity of an area can be assessed using TRAPT (Tranquillity Rating Prediction Tool), that has been developed and refined for assessing urban green spaces, national parks and wilderness areas in the United Kingdom. The subjective response to helicopter noise levels of a sample group of 35 people representing the general New Zealand population was obtained, based on visual and audio stimuli that were collected in Aoraki/Mt Cook National Park. These results were used to produce a revised TRAPT equation. It was discovered that levels under 32 dBA correspond to an excellent level of tranquillity. This thresholdwas used to produce a noise level exposure calculation for two national parks using noise prediction model AEDT (Aviation Environmental Development Tool). Contours representing tranquillity duration were then calculated and plotted, to serve as a planning tool for use by the Department of Conservation. A similar approach could be used for other national parks worldwide
    • Role of Smart Cities in Creating Sustainable Cities and Communities: A Systematic Literature Review

      Ismagilova, Elvira; Hughes, Laurie; Rana, Nripendra P.; Dwivedi, Y.K. (2019-01)
      Smart cities can help in achieving UN SDG. This research carries out a comprehensive analysis of the role of smart cities on creating sustainable cities and communities, which is one of 17 UN sustainable goals. Current research focuses on number of aspect of sustainable environment such as renewable and green energy, energy efficiency, environmental monitoring, air quality, and water quality. This study provides a valuable synthesis of the relevant literature on smart cities by analysing and discussing the key findings from existing research on issues of smart cities in creating sustainable cities and communities. The findings of this study can provide an informative framework for research on smart cities for academics and practitioners.
    • Disruptive Technologies in Agricultural Operations: A Systematic Review of AI-driven AgriTech Research

      Spanaki, K.; Sivarajah, Uthayasankar; Fakhimi, M.; Despoudi, S.; Irani, Zahir (2021-01)
      The evolving field of disruptive technologies has recently gained significant interest in various industries, including agriculture. The fourth industrial revolution has reshaped the context of Agricultural Technology (AgriTech) with applications of Artificial Intelligence (AI) and a strong focus on data-driven analytical techniques. Motivated by the advances in AgriTech for agrarian operations, the study presents a state-of-the-art review of the research advances which are, evolving in a fast pace over the last decades (due to the disruptive potential of the technological context). Following a systematic literature approach, we develop a categorisation of the various types of AgriTech, as well as the associated AI-driven techniques which form the continuously shifting definition of AgriTech. The contribution primarily draws on the conceptualisation and awareness about AI-driven AgriTech context relevant to the agricultural operations for smart, efficient, and sustainable farming. The study provides a single normative reference for the definition, context and future directions of the field for further research towards the operational context of AgriTech. Our findings indicate that AgriTech research and the disruptive potential of AI in the agricultural sector are still in infancy in Operations Research. Through the systematic review, we also intend to inform a wide range of agricultural stakeholders (farmers, agripreneurs, scholars and practitioners) and to provide research agenda for a growing field with multiple potentialities for the future of the agricultural operations.
    • Environmental Proactivity, Competitive Strategy and Market Performance: The mediating Role of Environmental Reputation

      Nguyen, P.N.; Adomako, Samuel (Wiley, 2021)
      This article examines the impact of small and medium-sized enterprises’ (SMEs’) proactive environmental strategy on market performance through the mediating mechanism of environmental reputation. In addition, we investigate the potential moderating role of competitive strategies on the environmental reputation-market performance nexus. Data were collected from 223 SMEs. Using the hierarchical multiple regression analysis, the results show that a proactive environmental strategy positively enhances environmental reputation. Also, the influence of proactively environmental strategy on market performance is mediated by environmental reputation. In addition, our findings show the relationship between environmental reputation and market performance is greater for firms that adopt the differentiation strategy but not significant for firms adopting the low-cost and integrated strategies. Our study offers several theoretical and practical implications.
    • An integrated artificial intelligence framework for knowledge creation and B2B marketing rational decision making for improving firm performance

      Bag, S.; Gupta, S.; Kumar, A.; Sivarajah, Uthayasankar (2021-01)
      This study examines the effect of big data powered artificial intelligence on customer knowledge creation, user knowledge creation and external market knowledge creation to better understand its impact on B2B marketing rational decision making to influence firm performance. The theoretical model is grounded in Knowledge Management Theory (KMT) and the primary data was collected from B2B companies functioning in the South African mining industry. Findings point out that big data powered artificial intelligence and the path customer knowledge creation is significant. Secondly, big data powered artificial intelligence and the path user knowledge creation is significant. Thirdly, big data powered artificial intelligence and the path external market knowledge creation is significant. It was observed that customer knowledge creation, user knowledge creation and external market knowledge creation have significant effect on the B2B marketing-rational decision making. Finally, the path B2B marketing rational decision making has a significant effect on firm performance.
    • When is refraction stable following routine cataract surgery? A systematic review and meta-analysis

      Charlesworth, Emily; Alderson, Alison J.; de Juan, V.; Elliott, David B. (2020-09)
      Purpose: We systematically reviewed the literature to investigate when refraction is stable following routine cataract surgery implanting monofocal intraocular lenses. Current advice recommends obtaining new spectacles 4–6 weeks following surgery. Due to advancements in surgical techniques, we hypothesised that refractive stability would be achieved earlier, which could have major short-term improvements in quality of life for patients. Methods: Medline, CINAHL, AMED, Embase, Web of Science and the Cochrane Library were searched with key words chosen to find articles, which assessed refraction following uncomplicated cataract surgery. Citation chains and the reference lists of all included papers were searched. Unpublished literature was identified using OpenGrey ( The review considered studies that measured refraction at regular intervals following surgery until stability was achieved. Results: The search identified 6,680 papers. Two reviewers independently screened the abstracts and nine papers were found to fit the criteria, of which five were included in the meta-analysis. The quality of the papers was evaluated using the Methodological Index for Non-Randomised Studies (MINORS) instrument. Meta-analysis of 301 patients’ data of spherical, cylindrical and spherical equivalent correction were performed using Review Manager 5 (RevMan 5.3) ( Refraction at 1-week versus the gold standard of 4-weeks showed no significant difference for sphere data (effect size and 95% confidence interval of; ES = 0.00, 95% CI: −0.17, 0.17; p = 1.00), cylindrical data (ES = +0.06; 95% CI: −0.05, 0.17; p = 0.31), and spherical equivalent (ES = −0.01; 95% CI: −0.12, 0.10; p = 0.90). Heterogeneity was non-significant (I2 
    • Experiences following cataract surgery – patient perspectives

      Webber, Kathryn J.; Fylan, F.; Wood, J.M.; Elliott, David B. (2020-09)
      Purpose: Most patients report being highly satisfied with the outcome of cataract surgery but there are variable reports regarding the impact of cataract surgery on some real-world activities, such as fall rates. We hypothesised that adaptations to changed refractive correction and visual function may cause difficulties in undertaking everyday activities for some patients and used a series of focus groups to explore this issue. Method: Qualitative methods were used to explore patients’ experiences of their vision following cataract surgery, including adaptation to vision changes and their post-surgical spectacle prescription. Twenty-six participants took part in five focus groups (Mean age = 68.2 ± 11.4 years), and the data were analysed using thematic analysis. Results: We identified three themes. ‘Changes to Vision’ explores participants’ adaptation following cataract surgery. While several had problems with tasks relying on binocular vision, few found them bothersome and they resolved following second eye surgery. Participants described a trial and error approach to solving these problems rather than applying solutions suggested by their eyecare professionals. ‘Prescription Restrictions’ describes the long-term vision problems that pre-surgery myopic patients experienced as a consequence of becoming emmetropic following surgery and thus needing spectacles for reading and other close work activities, which they did not need before surgery. Very few reported that they had the information or time to make a decision regarding their post-operative correction. ‘Information Needs’ describes participant’s responses to the post-surgical information they were given, and the unmet information need regarding when they can drive following surgery. Conclusion: The findings highlight the need for clinicians to provide information on adaptation effects, assist patients to select the refractive outcome that best suits their lifestyle, and provide clear advice about when patients can start driving again. Patients need to be provided with better guidance from clinicians and prescribing guidelines for clinicians would be beneficial, particularly for the period between first- and second-eye surgery.
    • Clinical procedures in primary eye care

      Elliott, David B. (Elsevier, 2020)
      From the publisher - Well organized and easy to read, Clinical Procedures in Primary Eye Care, 5th Edition, takes an accessible, step-by-step approach to describing the commonly used primary care procedures that facilitate accurate diagnosis and effective patient management. This practical, clinically-focused text offers succinct descriptions of today's most frequently encountered optometric techniques supported by research-based evidence. You’ll find essential instructions for mastering the procedures you need to know, including recent technical advances in the field.
    • Environmental sustainability practices and offshoring activities of multinational corporations across emerging and developed markets

      Lartey, T.A.; Amankwah-Amoah, J.; Danso, A.; Adomako, Samuel; Khan, Z.; Tarba, S.Y. (Elsevier, 2021)
      Using panel data of 1,080 multinational corporations (MNCs) from the United States, we examine the effects of environmental sustainability practices on the degree of firms’ offshoring activities. In addition, we disaggregate offshoring activities into their core components depending on whether or not the firm buys (inputs) or sells (outputs) and/or owns assets in a given country and examine the extent to which sustainability practices influence the different components of offshoring decisions. The results indicate that sustainability practices significantly affect offshoring activities of MNCs. In particular, we found that sustainable business practices matter when the firm sells goods or owns assets in the given host nation. Additionally, the results show that the sustainability–degree of the internationalization relationship is crucial for MNCs that have offshoring activities in advanced economies relative to those firms that have activities in emerging markets. Our results are robust to alternative explanations.
    • Archaeology and contemporary death: Using the past to provoke, challenge and engage

      Croucher, Karina T.; Büster, L.; Dayes, J.; Green, L.; Raynsford, J.; Comerford Boyes, Louise; Faull, C.; The project ‘Continuing Bonds: Exploring the meaning and legacy of death through past and contemporary practice’ was funded by the Arts and Humanities Research Council, Grant Number AH/M008266/1. (2020-12-29)
      While death is universal, reactions to death and ways of dealing with the dead body are hugely diverse, and archaeological research reveals numerous ways of dealing with the dead through time and across the world. In this paper, findings are presented which not only demonstrate the power of archaeology to promote and aid discussion around this difficult and challenging topic, but also how our approach resulted in personal growth and professional development impacts for participants. In this interdisciplinary pilot study, archaeological case studies were used in 31 structured workshops with 187 participants from health and social care backgrounds in the UK, to explore their reactions to a diverse range of materials which documented wide and varied approaches to death and the dead. Our study supports the hypothesis that the past is a powerful instigator of conversation around challenging aspects of death, and after death care and practices: 93% of participants agreed with this. That exposure to archaeological case studies and artefacts stimulates multifaceted discourse, some of it difficult, is a theme that also emerges in our data from pre, post and follow-up questionnaires, and semi-structured interviews. The material prompted participants to reflect on their biases, expectations and norms around both treatment of the dead, and of bereavement, impacting on their values, attitudes and beliefs. Moreover, 87% of participants believed the workshop would have a personal effect through thinking differently about death and bereavement, and 57% thought it would impact on how they approached death and bereavement in their professional practice. This has huge implications today, where talk of death remains troublesome, and for some, has a near-taboo status – ‘taboo’ being a theme evident in some participants’ own words. The findings have an important role to play in facilitating and normalising discussions around dying and bereavement and in equipping professionals in their work with people with advanced illness.