Now showing items 21-40 of 10195

    • Nursing Intervention on Discharge Planning for Elderly Patients with Hip Fracture: A Systematic Review

      Yusoff, R.M.; Mulud, Z.A.; Mohammadnezhad, Masoud (2022-10)
      Aim: This literature review aims to conduct an extensive systematic literature review of the nursing interventions on discharge planning among geriatric patients with hip fractures. Design: The review applied multiple research designs, and the literature search was based on PRISMA’s publication standard. Data Sources: The articles were selected from three primary online databases: Scopus, Science Direct and Web of Science and one supporting database, Google Scholar. Review Method: After searching the eligible articles, 15 articles were selected for thematic analysis. Results: The systematic review came out with five central themes 1) assessments of the patient’s and family member’s needs: 2) diagnosis of an individual discharge planning: 3) prescription of the appropriate nursing interventions; 4) implementation of the nursing interventions and 5) follow -up after the patients have been discharged from hospital. Conclusion: The review’s findings explained the nursing intervention implemented and its effectiveness on elderly patients with hip fractures. Apart from that, this review also highlighted the methodology approach and health outcomes measured, which will help the scholars better understand the study area. Impact: The review contributes needed information for future nursing research and practice of the elderly with hip fractures.
    • Perceptions of dental health professionals (DHPs) on job satisfaction in Fiji: a qualitative study

      Kumar, S.; Mohammadnezhad, Masoud (2022-10)
      Reviewing job satisfaction is crucial as it has an impact on a person's physical and mental wellbeing, as well as leading to a better organizational commitment of employees that enhances the organizations succession and progress as well as better staff retention. This study aimed to explore the perceptions of job satisfaction amongst Dental Health Professionals (DHPs) in Fiji and associated factors. This study used a phenomenological qualitative method approach commencing from August to November, 2021. The target group for this study were the DHPs who provide prosthetic services. This study was conducted among DHPs from 4 purposively selected clinics in Fiji. A semi- structured open-ended questionnaire was used to collect data. Thematic analysis was used to transcribe and analyze the audio qualitative data collected from the interviews. Twenty-nine DHPs took part in the in-depth interview and the responses were grouped into three themes. The findings from the study indicate that DHPs are most satisfied with their teamwork and the relationship they have with their colleagues and co-workers, followed by the nature of the work and the supervision they received. The participants indicated that they were less satisfied with professional development opportunities and least satisfied with their pay and organizational support they receive. The results of this study have identified gaps and areas for improvement of job satisfaction for DHPs who provide prosthetic services in Fiji such as need for more career and professional development pathways, improved infrastructure to support prosthetic service delivery in Fiji and improve remuneration for DHPs. Understanding the factors that affect satisfaction levels and being able to act accordingly are likely to lead to positive outcomes both for DHPs and their organization.
    • Numerical study on flexural and bond-slip behaviours of GFRP profiled-concrete composite beams with groove shear connector

      Ge, W.; Zhang, Z.; Guan, Z.; Ashour, Ashraf F.; Ge, Y.; Chen, Y.; Jiang, H.; Sun, C.; Yao, S.; Yan, W.; et al. (Elsevier, 2023-01)
      GFRP profiled-concrete composite beams with groove shear connectors are analyzed using finite the element (FE) analysis. The concrete damaged plasticity (CDP) model was adopted for normal strength concrete (NSC) and reactive powder concrete (RPC). The orthotropic behaviour of GFRP profile was taken into consideration, and the bi-linear traction-separation model was used to investigate the bond-slip behavior between GFRP profile and concrete. Furthermore, parametric studies were conducted to investigate the effects of strength and the cross-sectional dimensions of concrete, strength (orthotropy), and the cross-sectional dimensions (the web height and the thickness of FRP plate). Numerical analysis results correlate well with experimental results. Based on numerical analysis, the composite beam with shear connectors spacing at 100 mm has a deflection-limit load of 21.4 % higher than the specimens with 150 mm spacing. It is possible to improve the bonding behavior of interfaces by using groove shear connectors. The ultimate load and deformation, and pseudo-ductility were significantly improved by using RPC with high strength and toughness (ultimate compressive strain). GFRP profiles with greater orthotropy coefficients provide fully utilized concrete's compressive strength, preventing premature crushing and enhancing composite structure stiffness. Flexural performance of the composite beams can be improved efficiently by choosing the appropriate sectional size during design and construction.
    • How privacy practices affect customer commitment in the sharing economy: A study of Airbnb through an institutional perspective

      Chen, S.; Tamilmani, Kuttimani; Tran, K.T.; Waseem, Donia; Weerakkody, Visanth J.P. (Elsevier Inc., 2022-11)
      Privacy is an emerging issue for home-sharing platforms such as Airbnb. Home-sharing providers (business customers) are subject to both digital privacy risks (e.g., data breaches and unauthorized data access) and physical privacy risks (e.g., property damage and invasion of their personal space). Therefore, platforms need to strengthen their institutions of privacy management to protect the interests of providers and maintain their commitment. By applying the micro-level psychological aspect of institutional theory, our research investigates how providers decide their level of commitment to a platform by evaluating the institutions of the platform’s privacy management. Our survey recruited 380 Airbnb providers from the Prolific panel. Structural equation modeling analysis shows that both physical and digital privacy practices strengthen providers’ legitimacy judgment of the platform’s privacy management and subsequently increase their commitment to the platform. Our theoretical contribution lies in revealing the effects of physical and digital privacy practices on B2B relationships from an institutional perspective. Our research is among the first to provide an integrative framework illustrating providers’ psychological process of legitimacy judgement. It also has practical implications for sharing economy platforms to manage privacy.
    • A dynamic performance evaluation of distress prediction models

      Mousavi, Mohammad M.; Ouenniche, J.; Tone, K. (2022)
      So far, the dominant comparative studies of competing distress prediction models (DPMs) have been restricted to the use of static evaluation frameworks and as such overlooked their performance over time. This study fills this gap by proposing a Malmquist Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA)-based multi-period performance evaluation framework for assessing competing static and dynamic statistical DPMs and using it to address a variety of research questions. Our findings suggest that (1) dynamic models developed under duration-dependent frameworks outperform both dynamic models developed under duration-independent frameworks and static models; (2) models fed with financial accounting (FA), market variables (MV), and macroeconomic information (MI) features outperform those fed with either MVMI or FA, regardless of the frameworks under which they are developed; (3) shorter training horizons seem to enhance the aggregate performance of both static and dynamic models.
    • Modelling and Simulation of Carbon Dioxide Transportation in Pipelines: Effects of Impurities

      Rahmanian, Nejat; Mujtaba, Iqbal M.; Peletiri, Suoton P. (University of BradfordFaculty of Engineering and Informatics, 2020)
      Carbon dioxide capture, transportation, and storage has been identified as the most promising way to reduce anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) released into the atmosphere. Efforts made to achieve this purpose include the Paris (Climate) Accord. This agreement seeks to encourage countries to take the issue of rising global temperatures seriously. With nearly all countries signing this agreement, many CCTS projects are expected. Pipelines are employed in the transportation of CO2. CO2 fluids contain impurities that affect the fluid properties and flow dynamics, but pipelines are mostly designed assuming that the CO2 fluid is pure. CO2 pipeline fluids contain at least 90 % CO2 with the balance made up of impurities. The impurities include nitrogen, methane, oxygen, hydrogen, sulphur dioxide, hydrogen sulphide, carbon monoxide, ammonia, argon, etc. The effects of the impurities are studied using simulation software; Aspen HYSYS, gPROMS and HydraFlash. The results show that all impurities impacted negatively on transportation. At equal concentrations, hydrogen had the greatest effect on fluid properties and hydrogen sulphide the least impact. At the specified allowable concentration, nitrogen had the worst effect on pressure loss (32.1 %) in horizontal pipeline, density, and critical pressure. Carbon monoxide (with only 0.2-mol %) had the smallest effect in pressure drop (0.3 %). Analysis of supercritical and subcritical (or liquid) CO2 fluid transportation shows that subcritical fluids have higher densities (more volume transported) and lower pressure losses than supercritical fluids. Subcritical fluid transportation would therefore have lower pipeline transportation costs than supercritical fluids. Also, soil heat conductivity has greater effect than ambient temperature in buried pipelines. Simple equations that approximate binary CO2 fluid properties from pure CO2 properties were developed and presented.
    • Bond strength of the interface between concrete substrate and overlay concrete containing fly ash exposed to high temperature

      Behforouz, B.; Tavakoli, D.; Gharghani, M.; Ahsraf, Ashour F. (2023)
      Bond between substrate and overlay concretes is a key factor for the success of the repair method and significantly influences the structural performance of the repaired element. This study investigated the effect of fly ash and the surface preparation method on the bond strength of repaired concrete after exposure to high temperatures, that has not been comprehensively studied in the literature. For this purpose, overlay concretes containing 0, 5, 10, 15, and 20% fly ash as a replacement by weight of cement were cast on the original concrete surface prepared by four methods namely, as-cast, wire brushed, grooved and grooved-wire brushed. The bond strength of the interface between concrete substrate and overlay concrete was evaluated after exposure to 23, 200, 400, and 600oC temperatures for 1 hour. The results showed that partial replacement of cement by fly ash in the overlay concrete increased the bond strength of repaired concrete by up to 71%, depending on the amount of fly ash used, surface preparation method, and the temperature to which the sample was exposed. The maximum increase of bond strength was recorded for concrete containing 20% fly ash when the wire brushed preparation method was adopted at temperature of 200oC. However, surface preparation was the most influential parameter, achieving a bond strength gradual increase in order from as-cast, wire brushed, grooved to grooved-wire brushed methods. The results also showed that for most of the samples having similar surface preparation and the same percentage of fly ash, bond strength decreased with the increase of exposure to temperature; for example, for overlay concretes without fly ash, in as-cast and wire brushed surface preparation methods at temperatures of 400 and 600 oC, the bond strength has reached zero. On the other hand, for grooved and grooved-wire brushed surface preparation methods, the bond strength reduction was about 63%, when temperature increased from 23 to 600oC.
    • The Impact of Subjective Factors on Performance Evaluation: The Applied Case of Outsourced Call Centres in Egypt Based on Neural Networks Approach

      Sivarajah, Uthayasankar; Mahroof, Kamran; Perrett, Robert A.; German, Hayley; Ahmed, Abdelrahman M. (University of BradfordFaculty of Management, Law and Social Sciences, 2020)
      The operations efficiency, service quality and resources productivity, are the core aspects of the call centres competitive advantage in massive market competition. Thus, subjective evaluation is the leniency, perception and bias in performance evaluation which impact the efficiency of the operations and leads to frustrated customers. The study aims to determine the subjective performance evaluation in call centres to get a more objective measurement. It can be achieved by identifying factors affecting resources performance evaluation through the development of a conceptual model to reduce or eliminate the effect of subjective factors contained in the performance evaluation. The research approach is based on quantitative methodology through cross-sectional self-reports for 224 participants’ work in eight outsource call centres located in Egypt. The research aims to determine the subjective evaluation factors biases the true performance. It is followed by a machine learning practical application using neural networks for auto-detection the subjective context in the recorded calls to be considered through the evaluation process. The key findings of the study are nine subjective factors out of fifteen that have a direct influence on subjective performance evaluation. The actual performance is the performance evaluation after eliminating the subjective performance. Two different methods have concluded the actual performance. The first method excludes the subjective factors from the resulting evaluation to determine the actual performance. The second method is a prediction model defining subjectivity percent as a call centre baseline for future performance evaluation. Furthermore, the study highlights the potential subjective variables and the degree of influence for each variable. The theoretical contribution is determining the subjective factor and proposing the model to measure and predict the subjectivity in the call centre. The study recommended a restatement for the resource-based theory considering the subjective evaluation effect on performance evaluation. The practical application contribution is based on automating the detection and prediction of subjectivity using a machine learning approach through cascaded Convolutional Neural Networks, which achieved 75% accuracy in classifying the subjectivity for two study constructs: agents and customer behaviour.
    • Understanding The Lived Experiences of Being a Woman Leader in a Technology Organization

      Branney, Peter; Rifet, Saima; Odoh, Anne N. (University of BradfordFaculty of Management, Law and Social Sciences, 2020)
      Purpose: The aim of this study was to explore the experiences of female senior managers in technology organizations and understand how they feel about themselves, their roles and their technology organizations. The study highlights the issues faced by women working in a gendered role, a masculine industry and a non-western, strong patriarchal society. Methodology/Design: A qualitative research methodology was adopted for this study. Eleven semi-structured interviews were used to collect empirical data from women senior managers in Nigerian technology organizations, which was thematically analyzed. Findings: The findings from this study indicate that women in technology are no longer reluctant to progress in this gendered career. Women technology leaders are ambitious and driven to scale the semantic barriers to top management roles. They experience workplace discrimination, insecurities and work-family conflicts, but do not punish themselves for sometimes dropping the ball. Rather, they show up to take on daunting assignments that prove their competence and choose to lead assertively in order to align their core values with the expectations of their role. Research Implications: This thesis makes a contribution to the wider literature on women leaders in technology by providing new insights on the role of patriarchal institutions in technology leadership, from a developing country in Africa. Practical Implications: Practical contributions are to support aspiring women in technology to fine-tune their leadership strategies in order to succeed in this gendered career and become beneficiaries of the vast opportunities in this dynamic industry. For technology organizations, to understand the issues faced by women leaders so that they can support women’s career aspirations by implementing and managing policies that support skilled and high-potential women employees to fulfill their career aspirations, and become change agents at the top management level. These efforts will disrupt stereotypes, change the narrative of inequalities in this industry and improve firm performance. Originality: This study is the first of its kind to focus on the role of patriarchal structures on women leaders’ careers in the technology industry within the context of an African society, which is rare in the literature on women leaders in technology.
    • Experimental investigations on the structural behaviour of reinforced geopolymer beams produced from recycled construction materials

      Akduman, S.; Kocaer, O.; Aldemir, A.; Sahmaran, M.; Yildirim, G.; Almahmood, Hanady A.A.; Ashour, Ashraf F. (Elsevier, 2021-09)
      Concrete requires a vast amount of aggregate and cement production. Although there are some efforts in the literature to reduce the amount of Portland cement in the concrete mixture to lessen the greenhouse gas release, a limited number of studies were conducted to investigate the possibility of using this geopolymer mixtures to serve as a structural component. Therefore, this study firstly aimed to produce geopolymer concrete from construction and demolition waste-based precursors, including masonry units (red clay brick, roof tile, hollow brick, etc.) and glass. In addition, recycled aggregates produced from the concrete waste portion of the CDW were used to obtain 100% recycled construction material on the scale of the binder and aggregate phase. Then, this study investigated the possible use of this proposed geopolymer concrete to produce structural components that perform similar to conventional concrete. Therefore, the structural properties of reinforced geopolymer concrete beams produced from the recycled construction demolition wastes were evaluated in this study by conducting laboratory experiments. To this end, bending tests were performed on reinforced conventional concrete beam specimens and reinforced geopolymer concrete beam specimens. The test observations clearly showed that construction demolition waste could be recycled to produce new constructional components, considering its advantage of promoted sustainability.
    • Experimental Test of Two Span Continuous Concrete Beams Reinforced with Hybrid GFRP-Steel Bars

      Araba, A.M.; Zinkaah, O.H.; Alhawat, Musab; Ashour, Ashraf F. (Elsevier, 2023)
      The current paper aimed at investigating the flexural performance of five large-scale continuous concrete beams reinforced by both steel bars and glass fibre reinforced polymer (GFRP). All the studied specimens had the same geometrical dimensions, with 200mm width, 300mm depth, and two identical spans of 2600mm. The quantity of longitudinal steel reinforcement, GFRP reinforcement, and hybrid reinforcement ratio at the top and bottom layers of beams were the key parameters explored in this study. The experimental findings indicated that using the hybrid reinforcement of steel and GFRP in multi-span continuous concrete beams exhibited a ductile behaviour. However, the hybrid ratio of steel bars/GFRP is critical for restricting the extent of moment redistribution ratios. Moreover, using the same hybrid reinforcement ratios at sagging and hogging regions led to a limited moment redistribution. On the other hand, the hybrid beams strengthened by various hybrid ratios in the critical sections of the tested beams demonstrated a remarkable moment redistribution up to 43%. The test results were compared with the available theoretical model and equations for predicting the beams’ moment capacity. It was found that the ACI.440.2R-08 reasonably predicted the flexural capacity of tested beams whereas the Yinghao and Yong equation underestimated the flexural capacity in the hogging sections. It was also shown that using the collapse mechanism with plastic hinges at sagging and hogging sections yielded good predictions for the loading capacity of hybrid reinforced concrete continuous beams.
    • Shear behaviour of reinforced construction and demolition waste-based geopolymer concrete beams

      Aldemir, A.; Akduman, S.; Ucak, S.; Rafet, A.; Sahmaran, M.; Yildirim, G.; Almahmood, Hanady A.A.; Ashour, Ashraf F. (Elsevier, 2022-04)
      Geopolymer concrete is a promising candidate to replace conventional concrete as geopolymer concrete depends on alkali-activated binders instead of Portland cement. The elimination of cement from the mixture results in the reduction of the greenhouse gas release. From the literature, it is known that the micro-scale characteristics of the geopolymer concrete are similar to its counterparts. However, the structural performance of geopolymer elements should be investigated in detail. Therefore, in this study, the structural performance of reinforced geopolymer concrete beams is compared by conducting bending tests to determine the shear behavior of new generation geopolymer concrete produced from entirely construction and demolition wastes (CDW). In these tests, geopolymer concrete with recycled aggregates, geopolymer concrete with natural aggregates, conventional concrete with recycled aggregates, and conventional concrete with natural aggregates are used in order to study the possibility of reaching fully-recycled construction materials. Three different shear-span-to-depth ratios (a/d) are utilized to investigate the different modes of failure. Therefore, the structural performance of beams was, firstly, compared for mixtures without recycled aggregates to control the possible side effects of 100% recycled concrete construction. Load-deflection curves, moment-curvature curves, and crack patterns were utilized to conclude the performance of geopolymer concrete. Test results revealed that geopolymer concrete beams exhibited similar performance to the conventional concrete beams of the same grade. However, the inclusion of recycled aggregates caused a shift in the failure mechanism from shear-dominated to flexure-dominated, especially in specimens with larger a/d ratios. Finally, the capacity prediction performance of current codes, i.e., TS500 and ACI318, are also examined, and the calculations resulted that the current code equations have a percentage error of approximately 55% on average, although TS500 equations performed slightly better.
    • Seismic response of prestressed precast reinforced concrete beam-column joints assembled by steel sleeves

      Xue, H.; Ashour, Ashraf F.; Ge, W.; Cao, D.; Sun, C.; Cao, S. (Elsevier, 2022)
      A novel prestressed precast reinforced concrete (RC) beam-column joint, composed of prestressed tendons, stiffened steel sleeves, and high-strength bolts, having improved self-centring ability and assembly efficiency is proposed in this paper. Four prestressed precast RC joints assembled by steel sleeves and one cast-in-place RC joint were tested under cyclic loading to investigate the seismic response of the proposed joint. The main parameters studied are the axial compression ratio of columns, stirrup ratio in the core area of the proposed joint and effective prestress of tendons. The energy dissipation capacity, bearing capacity, and self-centring ability of the prestressed precast RC beam-column joints assembled by steel sleeves are higher than those measured for the cast-in-place RC joint. For the prestressed precast RC joints assembled by steel sleeves, both yield and ultimate displacements increase with the increase of the axial compression ratio, stirrup ratio and effective prestress, but the ductility decreases with the increase of the axial compression ratio and effective prestress. The increasing of axial compression ratio can lead to an increase in the energy dissipation capacity, shear capacity and residual displacement. Finally, formulae to predict the shear capacity of prestressed precast RC joint assembled by steel sleeves are proposed, being in good agreement with the experimental results.
    • Tests of demountable reinforced concrete slabs

      Almahmood, Hanady A.A.; Ashour, Ashraf F.; Figueira, Diogo; Yildirim, G.; Aldemir, A.; Sahmaran, M. (Elsevier, 2022-12)
      This paper presents an experimental investigation of demountable reinforced concrete slabs using dry connections between reinforced concrete slab elements. The test specimens comprised six full-scale reinforced concrete slabs; one control slab monolithically cast, while the other five slabs were produced with mid-span demountable dry connections. The slab elements were cast separately and assembled using top and bottom steel plates joined to each side of the slab element by high tensile steel bolts with or without a shear key and embedded steel block. Theoretical analysis of the behaviour of the demountable slabs tested in comparison with the control specimen was also conducted. The test results showed that using a dry connection consisting of a shear key at the assembled section is the most effective technique in terms of moment resistance, deflection, and flexural stiffness. On the other hand, the dry connection with embedded steel blocks failed prematurely because of stress concentration at the block edges. The moment capacity and deflection predictions of demountable slabs have reasonably correlated with the experimental results but required additional calibrated data from experiments.
    • Sensory-processing sensitivity predicts fatigue from listening, but not perceived effort, in young and older adults

      McGarrigle, Ronan; Mattys, S. (2022)
      Purpose: Listening-related fatigue is a potential negative consequence of challenges experienced during everyday listening, and may disproportionately affect older adults. Contrary to expectation, we recently found that increased reports of listening-related fatigue were associated with better performance on a dichotic listening task (McGarrigle et al., 2021a). However, this link was found only in individuals who reported heightened sensitivity to a variety of physical, social, and emotional stimuli (i.e., increased ‘sensory-processing sensitivity’; SPS). The current study examined whether perceived effort may underlie the link between performance and fatigue. Methods: 206 young adults, aged 18-30 years (Experiment 1) and 122 older adults, aged 60-80 years (Experiment 2) performed a dichotic listening task and were administered a series of questionnaires including: the NASA task load index of perceived effort, the Vanderbilt Fatigue Scale (measuring daily life listening-related fatigue) and the Highly Sensitive Person Scale (measuring SPS). Both experiments were completed online. Results: SPS predicted listening-related fatigue but perceived effort during the listening task was not associated with SPS or listening-related fatigue in either age group. We were also unable to replicate the interaction between dichotic listening performance and SPS in either group. Exploratory analyses revealed contrasting effects of age; older adults found the dichotic listening task more effortful, but indicated lower overall fatigue. Conclusions: These findings suggest that SPS is a better predictor of listening-related fatigue than performance or effort ratings on a dichotic listening task. SPS may be an important factor in determining an individual’s likelihood of experiencing listening-related fatigue irrespective of hearing or cognitive ability.
    • Design of a graphene oxide-BODIPY conjugate for glutathione depletion and photodynamic therapy

      Reina, G.; Ruiz Estrada, Amalia; Richichi, B.; Biagiotti, G.; Giacomazzo, G.E.; Jacquemin, L.; Nishina, Y.; Ménard-Moyon, C.; Al-Jamal, W.T.; Bianco, A. (2022-01)
      Boron dipyrromethene derivates (BODIPYs) are promising photosensitisers (PSs) for cancer treatment using photodynamic therapy (PDT). This study investigates the functionalisation of graphene oxide (GO) with a BODIPY derivate for glutathione (GSH) depletion and PDT. The functionalisation of GO with a 3,5-dichloro-8-(4-boronophenyl) BODIPY via a diol derivatisation with the phenyl boronic acid moiety at the meso position of the BODIPY core, allowed to preserve the intrinsic properties of GO. We demonstrated that both chlorine atoms were substituted by GSH in the presence of glutathione transferase (GST), inducing a relevant bathochromic shift in the absorption/emission features and thus generating the active PS. Ex vitro assessment using cell lysates containing cytoplasmatic GST revealed the intracellular catalytic mechanism for the nucleophilic substitution of the GO-BODIPY adduct with GSH. Confocal microscopy studies showed important differences in the cellular uptake of free BODIPY and GO-BODIPY and revealed the coexistence of GO-BODIPY, GO-BODIPY-GS, and GO-BODIPY-GS2 species inside vesicles and in the cytoplasm of the cells after 24 h of incubation. In vitro biocompatibility and safety of GO and GO-BODIPY were evaluated in 2D and 3D models of prostate adenocarcinoma cells (PC-3), where no toxicity was observed up to 100 µg ml−1 of GO/GO-BODIPY in all treated groups 24 h post-treatment (cell viability > 90%). Only a slight decrease to 80% at 100 µg ml−1 was observed after 48 h of incubation. We demonstrated the efficacy of a GO adduct containing an α-chlorine-substituted BODIPY for the simultaneous depletion of intracellular GSH and the photogeneration of reactive oxygen species using a halogen white light source (5.4 mW cm−2) with a maximum in the range of 500–800 nm, which significantly reduced cell viability (<50%) after irradiation. Our study provides a new vision on how to apply BODIPY derivates and potentiate the toxicity of PDT in prostate and other types of cancer.
    • When stuff gets old: material surface characteristics and the visual perception of material change over time

      De Korte, Ellen E.M.; Logan, A.J.; Bloj, Marina (2022-11)
      Materials’ surfaces change over time due to chemical and physical processes. These processes can significantly alter a material’s visual appearance, yet we can recognise the material as the same. The present study examined the extent of changes the human visual system can detect in specific materials over time. Participants (N = 5) were shown images of different materials (Banana, Copper, Leaf) from an existing calibrated set of photographs. Participants indicated which image pair (of the 2 pairs shown) displayed the largest difference. Estimated perceptual scales showed that observers were able to rank the images of aged materials systematically. Next, we examined the role that global and local changes in material surface colour play in the perception of material change. We altered the information about colour and geometrical distribution in the images used in the first experiment, and participants repeated the task with the altered images. Our results showed significant differences between individual observers. Most importantly, participants’ ability to rank the images varied with material type. The leaf images were particularly affected by our alteration of the geometrical distribution. Together, our findings show the factors contributing to the perception of material change over time.
    • Using routine healthcare data to evaluate the impact of the Medicines at Transitions Intervention (MaTI) on clinical outcomes of patients hospitalised with heart failure: protocol for the Improving the Safety and Continuity Of Medicines management at Transitions of care (ISCOMAT) cluster randomised controlled trial with embedded process evaluation, health economics evaluation and internal pilot

      Moreau, L.A.; Holloway, I.; Fylan, Beth; Hartley, S.; Cundill, B.; Fergusson, A.; Alderson, S.; Alldred, David P.; Bojke, C.; Breen, Liz; et al. (2022-04)
      Introduction Heart failure affects 26 million people globally, approximately 900 thousand people in the UK, and is increasing in incidence. Appropriate management of medicines for heart failure at the time of hospital discharge reduces readmissions, improves quality of life and increases survival. The Improving the Safety and Continuity Of Medicines management at Transitions (ISCOMAT) trial tests the effectiveness of the Medicines at Transition Intervention (MaTI), which aims to enhance self-care and increase community pharmacy involvement in the medicines management of heart failure patients. Methods and analysis ISCOMAT is a parallel-group cluster randomised controlled trial, randomising 42 National Health Service trusts with cardiology wards in England on a 1:1 basis to implement the MaTI or treatment as usual. Around 2100 patients over the age of 18 admitted to hospital with heart failure with at least moderate left ventricular systolic dysfunction within the last 5 years, and planned discharge to the geographical area of the cluster will be recruited. The MaTI consists of training for staff, a toolkit for participants, transfer of discharge information to community pharmacies and a medicines reconciliation/review. Treatment as usual is determined by local policy and practices. The primary outcome is a composite of all-cause mortality and heart failure-related hospitalisation at 12 months postregistration obtained from national electronic health records. The key secondary outcome is continued prescription of guideline-indicated therapies at 12 months measured via patient-reported data and Hospital Episode Statistics. The trial contains a parallel mixed-methods process evaluation and an embedded health economics study.
    • Optimisation of design and operating parameters of reverse osmosis process for the removal of phenol from wastewater

      Khan, Shamraze; Al-Obaidi, Mudhar A.A.R.; Kara-Zaitri, Chakib; Mujtaba, Iqbal M. (2022)
      Reverse Osmosis (RO) is widely used for separating organic and inorganic pollutants in wastewater. In this research, the one-dimensional steady state model of a spiral wound RO for the removal of phenol from wastewater, was simulated using gPROMS software to identify optimal design and operating parameters. The design parameters included the membrane length, width and feed spacer channel and operating conditions included temperature and pressure of the RO process. The optimal design parameters were able to maximise the removal of phenol from wastewater. The simulation results showed that the removal of phenol from wastewater was significantly influenced by the combination of membrane width, operating pressure, and feed temperature. The four main parameters (permeate concentration, solute flow, solute rejection, and water flux) that govern the performance of a reverse osmosis membrane were found to be influenced by the design and operating conditions.
    • The Bioarchaeology of Disability: A population-scale approach to investigating disability, physical impairment, and care in archaeological communities

      Bohling, Solange N.; Croucher, Karina T.; Buckberry, Jo (2022-09)
      Objective: This research introduces ‘The Bioarchaeology of Disability’ (BoD), a population-scale approach which allows for a comprehensive understanding of disability in past communities through a combination of palaeopathological, funerary, and documentary analyses. Methods: The BoD consists of three phases: 1) Contextualisation includes period-specific literature review; 2) Data collection consists of palaeopathological re-analysis of individuals with physical impairment and collation of mortuary treatment data; and 3) Analysis incorporates qualitative and quantitative comparison of the funerary treatment of individuals with and without physical impairment to explore contemporary perceptions of disability. Materials: The BoD is demonstrated through a case study investigation of disability in later Anglo-Saxon England (c.8th-11th centuries AD) which included four burial populations (Ntotal=1,543; Nimpaired=28). Results: Individuals with disability could be buried with normative or non-normative treatment (e.g., stone/clay inclusions, non-normative body positioning), and in marginal, non-marginal, and central locations. Conclusions: The overall funerary variation for individuals with disability was relatively slight, which may suggest that political and religious factors were influencing normative funerary treatment of disabled individuals. The funerary variability that was observed in disabled individuals was probably influenced by individual and community-specific beliefs. Significance: This research describes a population-scale approach to archaeological disability studies that can be replicated in other archaeological contexts. Limitations: Individuals with non-skeletal physical impairment (e.g., soft tissue, mental) cannot be analysed osteologically and are not considered by the BoD. Suggestions for further research: The BoD should be applied to different archaeological communities around the world to better understand disability in the past.