Now showing items 21-40 of 9046

    • Mechanical and microstructural characterization of geopolymers from assorted construction and demolition waste-based masonry and glass

      Ulugöl, H.; Kul, A.; Yildirim, G.; Şahmaran, M.; Aldemir, A.; Figueira, D.; Ashour, Ashraf F. (2020)
      Geopolymers are mostly produced with main-stream precursors such as fly ash and slag. These precursors are successfully used and competitively demanded by the cement industry. Development of geopolymers from alternative precursors is appealing. The main aim of this work is the development of geopolymers with construction and demolition waste-based precursors including masonry units (red clay brick, roof tile, hollow brick) and glass. Different curing temperatures (50, 65, 75, 85, 95, 105, 115, 125 oC), curing periods (24, 48, 72 h), and Na concentrations (10, 12, 15%) of alkaline activator (NaOH) were employed. Compressive strength testing and microstructural investigations were performed including X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetry and scanning electron microscopy with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Results showed that depending on the type of precursor (hollow brick), curing temperature/period (115 oC/24 h) and concentration of alkaline activator (12%), it is possible to obtain compressive strength results more than 45 MPa. Hollow brick is the most successful precursor resulting in higher compressive strength results thanks to a more compact microstructure. The strength performance of red clay brick and roof tile is similar. The compressive strength results of geopolymers with glass precursor are lower, most probably due to significantly coarser particles of glass used. The main reaction products of red clay brick-, roof tile- and hollow brick-based geopolymers are sodium aluminosilicate hydrate (N-A-S-H) gels with zeolite-like structures while they are sodium silicate gels in the case of glass-based geopolymers. Our findings showed that CDW-based materials can be used successfully in producing geopolymers. Current research is believed to help raise awareness in novel routes for the effective utilization of such wastes which are realistically troublesome and attract further research on the utilization of CDW-based materials in geopolymer production.
    • Fundamental results for learning deterministic extended finite state machines from queries

      Ipate, F.; Gheorghe, Marian; Lefticaru, Raluca (2020)
      Regular language inference, initiated by Angluin, has many developments, including applications in software engineering and testing. However, the capability of finite automata to model the system data is quite limited and, in many cases, extended finite state machine formalisms, that combine the system control with data structures, are used instead. The application of Angluin-style inference algorithms to extended state machines would involve constructing a minimal deterministic extended finite state machine consistent with a deterministic 3-valued deterministic finite automaton. In addition to the usual, accepting and rejecting, states of finite automaton, a 3-valued deterministic finite automaton may have “don't care” states; the sequences of inputs that reach such states may be considered as accepted or rejected, as is convenient. The aforementioned construction reduces to finding a minimal deterministic finite automaton consistent with a 3-valued deterministic finite automaton, that preserves the deterministic nature of the extended model that also handles the data structure associated with it. This paper investigates fundamental properties of extended finite state machines in relation to Angluin's language inference problem and provides an inference algorithm for such models.
    • An experimental and simulation comparison of a 3-D abrupt contraction flow using the Molecular Stress Function constitutive model

      Olley, Peter; Gough, T.; Spares, R.; Coates, Philip D. (Maney Publishing, 2020)
      The Molecular Stress Function (MSF) constitutive model with convective constraint release mechanism has been shown to accurately fit a large range of viscometric data, and also shown to give strong vortex growth in flows of LDPE through planar and axisymmetric contractions. This work compares simulation and experimental results for 3-D flows of Lupolen 1840H LDPE through a contraction slit; 3-D effects are introduced by using a slit with a low upstream aspect ratio of 5:3. Comparisons are made with vortex opening angles obtained from streak photography, and also with stress birefringence measurements. The comparisons are made with two versions of the convective constraint release (CCR) mechanism. The simulated vortex angles for one version of the CCR mechanism are found to approach what is seen experimentally. The best-fit value for the stress optical coefficient was found to vary between CCRs and to decrease with flow rate. This is partially explained by different centreline elongational rates with the two CCRs, which in turn is related to different opening angles. A 3-D simulation is compared to the corresponding 2-D simulation. It is shown that both velocity vectors and birefringence show only small changes to around 60% of the distance to the side wall.
    • Uniaxial compressive fatigue behavior of ultra-high performance concrete reinforced with super-fine stainless wires

      Dong, S.; Wang, Y.; Ashour, Ashraf F.; Han, B.; Ou, J. (2021-01)
      Super-fine stainless wires (SSWs) with micron diameter and large specific surface area can simultaneously strengthen and toughen reactive powder concrete (RPC) at low volume fraction, so SSW reinforced RPC composites have potential for developing infrastructures bearing fatigue load or with aseismic requirements. In this paper, the uniaxial compressive fatigue characteristics of such composites under high stress levels were investigated, and the modification mechanisms of SSWs to RPC were revealed through failure state and microstructure analyses. The results showed that incorporating only 0.5 vol.% SSWs into RPC enables the fatigue life and energy dissipation capacity to increase by 252.0% and 262.3%, meanwhile, the fatigue limit strength of composites at the failure probability of 50% reaches up to 76.6% of static uniaxial compressive strength, due to the improvement effect on microstructure compactness, inhibiting effect on flaw initiation, and the ability to convert single main crack into radial multiple micro cracks centered on SSWs. Furthermore, the average maximum fatigue strain and residual strain of composites are improved by 73.7% and 87.2%, respectively, which can be ascribed to the bridging, debonding and being pulled-off effect of SSWs. It can be therefore concluded that the incorporation of SSWs endows RPC with excellent fatigue performance, thus further enlarging the application of composites.
    • Setting the future of digital and social media marketing research: Perspectives and research propositions

      Dwivedi, Y.K.; Ismagilova, Elvira; Hughes, D.L.; Carlson, J.; Filieri, R.; Jacobson, J.; Jain, V.; Karjaluoto, H.; Kefi, H.; Krishen, A.S.; et al. (2020)
      The use of the internet and social media have changed consumer behavior and the ways in which companies conduct their business. Social and digital marketing offers significant opportunities to organizations through lower costs, improved brand awareness and increased sales. However, significant challenges exist from negative electronic word-of-mouth as well as intrusive and irritating online brand presence. This article brings together the collective insight from several leading experts on issues relating to digital and social media marketing. The experts’ perspectives offer a detailed narrative on key aspects of this important topic as well as perspectives on more specific issues including artificial intelligence, augmented reality marketing, digital content management, mobile marketing and advertising, B2B marketing, electronic word of mouth and ethical issues therein. This research offers a significant and timely contribution to both researchers and practitioners in the form of challenges and opportunities where we highlight the limitations within the current research, outline the research gaps and develop the questions and propositions that can help advance knowledge within the domain of digital and social marketing.
    • Security, Privacy and Risks Within Smart Cities: Literature Review and Development of a Smart City Interaction Framework

      Ismagilova, Elvira; Hughes, L.; Rana, Nripendra P.; Dwivedi, Y.K. (2020)
      The complex and interdependent nature of smart cities raises significant political, technical, and socioeconomic challenges for designers, integrators and organisations involved in administrating these new entities. An increasing number of studies focus on the security, privacy and risks within smart cities, highlighting the threats relating to information security and challenges for smart city infrastructure in the management and processing of personal data. This study analyses many of these challenges, offers a valuable synthesis of the relevant key literature, and develops a smart city interaction framework. The study is organised around a number of key themes within smart cities research: privacy and security of mobile devices and services; smart city infrastructure, power systems, healthcare, frameworks, algorithms and protocols to improve security and privacy, operational threats for smart cities, use and adoption of smart services by citizens, use of blockchain and use of social media. This comprehensive review provides a useful perspective on many of the key issues and offers key direction for future studies. The findings of this study can provide an informative research framework and reference point for academics and practitioners.
    • Structural Basis for Mechanical Anisotropy in Polymorphs of Caffeine-Glutaric Acid Cocrystal

      Mishra, M.K.; Mishra, K.; Narayan, Aditya N.; Reddy, C.M.; Vangala, Venu R. (American Chemical Society, 2020)
      Insights into structure–mechanical property correlations in molecular and multicomponent crystals have recently attracted significant attention owing to their practical applications in the pharmaceutical and specialty fine chemicals manufacturing. In this contribution, we systematically examine the mechanical properties of dimorphic forms, Forms I and II of 1:1 caffeine-glutaric acid cocrystal on multiple faces using nanoindentation to fully understand their mechanical anisotropy and mechanical stability under applied load. Higher hardness, H, and elastic modulus, E, of stable Form II has been rationalized based on its corrugated layers, higher interlayer energy, lower interlayer separation, and presence of more intermolecular interactions in the crystal structure compared to metastable Form I. Our results show that mechanical anisotropy in both polymorphs arises due to the difference in orientation of the same 2D structural features, namely the number of possible slip systems, and strength of the intermolecular interactions with respect to the indentation direction. The mechanical properties results suggest that 1:1 caffeine-glutaric acid cocrystal, metastable form (Form I) could be a suitable candidate with desired tablet performance to that of stable Form II. The overall, it demonstrates that the multiple faces of nanoindentation is critical to determine mechanical anisotropy and structure- mechanical property correlation. Further, the structural-mechanical property correlations aids in the selection of the best solid phase for macroscopic pharmaceutical formulation.
    • Fostering Financial Inclusion in Developing Countries: Predicting User Acceptance of Mobile Wallets in Cameroon

      Fosso Wamba, S.; Queiroz, M.M.; Blome, C.; Sivarajah, Uthayasankar (2020)
      Financial inclusion is a vital development priority for countries worldwide. Mobile wallet (m-wallet) is considered as a disruptive payment method that will substitute the traditional physical wallet to achieve the so-called cashless society and enables financial inclusion. This study aims at developing and testing a research model that integrates a set of technology factors (perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, fun to use, monetary value), external factors (peer influence and perceived status benefit), and cultural factors (humane orientation and societal collectivism) to assess the intention to adopt and use m-wallet, for financial inclusion, in a developing country. The proposed conceptual model is tested using data collected from 621 m-wallet users in Cameroon. The model explains 47.5% of the variance of the actual use of m-wallet and 32.90% of the variance of financial inclusion. Finally, implications for research and practice are discussed.
    • Resource-Induced Coping Heuristics and Entrepreneurial Orientation in Dynamic Environments

      Adomako, Samuel (Elsevier, 2021-01)
      Prior studies show the impact of various facets of individual characteristics in driving a firm’s entrepreneurial orientation (EO). The present study complements this line of research by deriving insights from the conservation of resources (COR) theory to examine the effects of resource-induced coping heuristics (acquiring, protecting, and developing resources) on EO. Additionally, it investigates the underlying conditions influencing these relationships. Data were collected from new ventures in two developing countries (Ghana, N=204, and Ethiopia, N=214). Utilizing the moderated hierarchical regression analysis, the results show that the three dimensions of resource-induced coping heuristics positively relate to EO and these relationships are amplified when environmental dynamism is high. These findings provide a nuanced understanding of the relationships among the different types of resource-induced coping heuristics and EO. In this way, the study extends the boundaries of the resource-induced coping heuristics, EO, and broader entrepreneurship literature.
    • The RAC1 target NCKAP1 plays a crucial role in progression of BRAF/PTEN -driven melanoma in mice

      Swaminathan, Karthic; Campbell, A.; Papalazarou, V.; Jaber-Hijazi, F.; Nixon, C.; McGhee, E.; Strathdee, D.; Sansom, O.J.; Machesky, L.M. (2020)
      BRAF V600E is the most common driver mutation in human cutaneous melanoma and is frequently accompanied by loss of the tumor suppressing phosphatase PTEN. Recent evidence suggests a co-operative role for RAC1 activity in BRAF V600E -driven melanoma progression and drug resistance. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms and the role of RAC1 downstream targets are not well explored. Here, we examine the role of the NCKAP1 subunit of the pentameric cytoskeletal SCAR/WAVE complex, a major downstream target of RAC1, in a mouse model of melanoma driven by BRAF V600E; PTEN loss. The SCAR/WAVE complex is the major driver of lamellipodia formation and cell migration downstream of RAC1 and depends on NCKAP1 for its integrity. Targeted deletion of Nckap1 in the melanocyte lineage delayed tumor onset and progression of a mutant Braf ; Pten loss driven melanoma mouse model. Nckap1 depleted tumors displayed fibrotic stroma with increased collagen deposition concomitant with enhanced immune infiltration. Nckap1 loss slowed proliferation and tumor growth, highlighting a role in cell cycle progression. Altogether, we propose that NCKAP1-orchestrated actin polymerization is essential for tumor progression and maintenance of tumor tissue integrity in a mutant Braf ; Pten loss driven mouse model for melanoma.
    • Founder retention as CEO at IPO in emerging economies: The role of private equity owners and national institutions

      Hearn, Bruce; Filatotchev, I. (2019-05)
      We integrate the institutional perspective with research on the governance role of private equity firms in an investigation of Founder-CEO successions in Initial Public Offerings (IPOs) in emerging markets. Using a unique, hand-collected and comprehensive sample of 191 firms having undertaken IPOs in 21 markets across the African continent between January 2000 and August 2016, we apply instrumental variable (IV) Probit methodology and find that higher levels of private equity ownership are positively associated with the probability of the founder's retention as CEO, especially in the context of low-quality formal institutions. Further, in societies with high tribalism, higher private equity ownership is associated with an increased likelihood of founder retention. Voids in the institutional architecture underscore the importance of the founder as a key organizational resource for the firm and a source of institutionalized legitimacy, which in turn confers on the firm an ability to access required resources.
    • QualDash: Adaptable Generation of Visualisation Dashboards for Healthcare Quality Improvement

      Elshehaly, Mai; Randell, Rebecca; Brehmer, M.; McVey, L.; Alvarado, Natasha; Gale, C.P.; Ruddle, R.A. (2021-02)
      Adapting dashboard design to different contexts of use is an open question in visualisation research. Dashboard designers often seek to strike a balance between dashboard adaptability and ease-of-use, and in hospitals challenges arise from the vast diversity of key metrics, data models and users involved at different organizational levels. In this design study, we present QualDash, a dashboard generation engine that allows for the dynamic configuration and deployment of visualisation dashboards for healthcare quality improvement (QI). We present a rigorous task analysis based on interviews with healthcare professionals, a co-design workshop and a series of one-on-one meetings with front line analysts. From these activities we define a metric card metaphor as a unit of visual analysis in healthcare QI, using this concept as a building block for generating highly adaptable dashboards, and leading to the design of a Metric Specification Structure (MSS). Each MSS is a JSON structure which enables dashboard authors to concisely configure unit-specific variants of a metric card, while offloading common patterns that are shared across cards to be preset by the engine. We reflect on deploying and iterating the design of QualDash in cardiology wards and pediatric intensive care units of five NHS hospitals. Finally, we report evaluation results that demonstrate the adaptability, ease-of-use and usefulness of QualDash in a real-world scenario.
    • Effect of Education on Myopia: Evidence from the United Kingdom ROSLA 1972 Reform

      Plotnikov, D.; Williams, C.; Atan, D.; Davies, N.M.; Ghorbani Mojarrad, Neema; Guggenheim, J.A. (2020-09-04)
      Cross-sectional and longitudinal studies have consistently reported an association between education and myopia. However, conventional observational studies are at risk of bias due to confounding by factors such as socioeconomic position and parental educational attainment. The current study aimed to estimate the causal effect of education on refractive error using regression discontinuity analysis. Methods: Regression discontinuity analysis was applied to assess the influence on refractive error of the raising of the school leaving age (ROSLA) from 15 to 16 years introduced in England and Wales in 1972. For comparison, a conventional ordinary least squares (OLS) analysis was performed. The analysis sample comprised 21,548 UK Biobank participants born in a nine-year interval centered on September 1957, the date of birth of those first affected by ROSLA. Results: In OLS analysis, the ROSLA 1972 reform was associated with a −0.29 D (95% confidence interval [CI]: −0.36 to −0.21, P < 0.001) more negative refractive error. In other words, the refractive error of the study sample became more negative by −0.29 D during the transition from a minimum school leaving age of 15 to 16 years of age. Regression discontinuity analysis estimated the causal effect of the ROSLA 1972 reform on refractive error as −0.77 D (95% CI: −1.53 to −0.02, P = 0.04). Conclusions: Additional compulsory schooling due to the ROSLA 1972 reform was associated with a more negative refractive error, providing additional support for a causal relationship between education and myopia.
    • Initial resistance to companion drugs should not be considered an exclusion criterion for the multidrug-resistant tuberculosis shorter treatment regimen

      Lempens, P.; Decroo, T.; Aung, K.J.M.; Hossain, M.A.; Rigouts, L.; Meehan, Conor J.; Van Deun, A.; de Jong, B.C. (2020)
      We investigated whether companion drug resistance was associated with adverse outcome of the shorter MDR-TB regimen in Bangladesh, after adjusting for fluoroquinolone resistance. MDR/RR-TB patients registered for treatment with a standardized gatifloxacin-based shorter MDR-TB regimen were selected for the study. Drug resistance was determined using the proportion method, gatifloxacin and isoniazid minimum inhibitory concentration testing for selected isolates, and whole genome sequencing. Low-level and high-level fluoroquinolone resistance were the most important predictors of adverse outcomes, with pyrazinamide resistance having a significant yet lower impact. In patients with fluoroquinolone-/second-line injectable-susceptible TB, non-eligibility to the shorter MDR-TB regimen (initial resistance to either pyrazinamide, ethionamide, or ethambutol) was not associated with adverse outcome (aOR 1.01; 95%CI 0.4-2.8). Kanamycin resistance was uncommon (1.3%). Increasing levels of resistance to isoniazid predicted treatment failure, also in a subgroup of patients with high-level fluoroquinolone-resistant TB. Our results suggest that resistance to companion drugs of the shorter MDR-TB regimen, except kanamycin resistance, is of no clinical importance as long as fluoroquinolone susceptibility is preserved. Hence, contrary to current WHO guidelines, exclusions to the standard regimen are justified only in the case of fluoroquinolone, and possibly kanamycin resistance.
    • Social Media as a Tool of Knowledge Sharing in Academia: An Empirical Study using Valance, Instrumentality and Expectancy (VIE) Approach

      Chatterjee, S.; Rana, Nripendra P.; Dwivedi, Y.K. (2020)
      Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to understand the factors that determine the knowledge exchange intention and behavioural nature of academics by the help of social media tools in the Indian higher education. Design/Methodology/Approach – This study has used Valance – Instrumentality – Expectancy (VIE) theory to determine the knowledge exchange behaviour of academics. The study has considered the effect of Knowledge Contributor (KC) and Knowledge Seeker (KS) as moderators. The model has been validated by using a survey with 320 usable respondents. Findings – The results highlight that if the stakeholders of higher education institutions feel the deficits of knowledge exchange, they realise importance of knowledge sharing and use social media to increase effect of knowledge exchange. Besides, perceived usefulness impacts on the use of social media for knowledge exchange by the concerned stakeholders. Moreover, it is observed that experience of the use of social media impacts the use of this tool for knowledge exchange. Theoretical Implication – The use and application of VIE theory has successfully been able to interpret the factors affecting the use of social media for knowledge exchange in the higher education institutions. The use of VIE theory has also been able to explain the proposed model better as the model could achieve a high explanative power (87%). Practical Implication – This study has provided meaningful insights to the practitioners or policymakers to realise how the stakeholders of the higher education institutions in India can be motivated to feel the need of sharing of knowledge and how they can use the social media with ease for this purpose. Originality/Value – Not much research has been conducted with regards to the usage of social media as a tool for knowledge sharing in higher education sector in India. In that sense, this study is a novel attempt to undertake such research.
    • The effects of inter-organisational information technology networks on patient safety: a realist synthesis

      Keen, J.; Abdulwahid, M.; King, N.; Wright, J.; Randell, Rebecca; Gardner, P.; Waring, J.; Longo, R.; Nikolova, S.; Sloan, C.; et al. (2020)
      Health services in many countries are investing in inter-organisational networks, linking patients’ records held in different organisations across a city or region. The aim of the systematic review was to establish how, why, and in what circumstances these networks improve patient safety, fail to do so, or increase safety risks, for people living at home. Design Realist synthesis, drawing on both quantitative and qualitative evidence, and including consultation with stakeholders in nominal groups and semi-structured interviews. Eligibility criteria The co-ordination of services for older people living at home, and medicine reconciliation for older patients returning home from hospital. Information sources 17 sources including Medline, Embase, CINAHL, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, ACM Digital Library and Applied Social Sciences Index and Abstracts (ASSIA). Outcomes Changes in patients’ clinical risks. Results We did not find any detailed accounts of the sequences of events that policy makers and others believe will lead from the deployment of interoperable networks to improved patient safety. We were, though, able to identify a substantial number of theory fragments, and these were used to develop programme theories. There is good evidence that there are problems with the co-ordination of services in general, and the reconciliation of medication lists in particular, and it indicates that most problems are social and organisational in nature. There is also good evidence that doctors and other professionals find interoperable networks difficult to use. There was limited high quality evidence about safety-related outcomes associated with the deployment of interoperable networks. Conclusions Empirical evidence does not currently justify claims about the beneficial effects of interoperable networks on patient safety. There appears to be a mismatch between technology-driven assumptions about the effects of networks and the socio-technical nature of co-ordination problems. Review registration: PROSPERO CRD42017073004
    • Preclinical Anticancer Activity of an Electron-Deficient Organoruthenium(II) Complex

      Soldevila-Barreda, Joan J.; Azmanova, Maria; Pitto-Barry, Anaïs; Cooper, Patricia A.; Shnyder, Steven D.; Barry, Nicolas P.E. (2020-06-04)
      Ruthenium compounds have been shown to be promising alternatives to platinum(II) drugs. However, their clinical success depends on achieving mechanisms of action that overcome Pt-resistance mechanisms. Electron-deficient organoruthenium complexes are an understudied class of compounds that exhibit unusual reactivity in solution and might offer novel anticancer mechanisms of action. Here, we evaluate the in vitro and in vivo anticancer properties of the electron-deficient organoruthenium complex [(p-cymene)Ru(maleonitriledithiolate)]. This compound is found to be highly cytotoxic: 5 to 60 times more potent than cisplatin towards ovarian (A2780 and A2780cisR), colon (HCT116 p53+/+ and HCT116 p53−/−), and non-small cell lung H460 cancer cell lines. It shows no cross-resistance and is equally cytotoxic to both A2780 and A2780cisR cell lines. Furthermore, unlike cisplatin, the remarkable in vitro antiproliferative activity of this compound appears to be p53-independent. In vivo evaluation in the hollow-fibre assay across a panel of cancer cell types and subcutaneous H460 non-small cell lung cancer xenograft model hints at the activity of the complex. Although the impressive in vitro data are not fully corroborated by the in vivo follow-up, this work is the first preclinical study of electron-deficient half-sandwich complexes and highlights their promise as anticancer drug candidates.
    • Ultrasound-triggered therapeutic microbubbles enhance the efficacy of cytotoxic drugs by increasing circulation and tumour drug accumulation and limiting bioavailability and toxicity in normal tissues

      Ingram, N.; McVeigh, L.E.; Abou-Saleh, R.H.; Maynard, J.; Peyman, S.A.; McLaughlan, J.R.; Fairclough, M.; Marston, G.; Valleley, E.M.A.; Jimenez-Macias, J.L.; et al. (2020)
      Most cancer patients receive chemotherapy at some stage of their treatment which makes improving the efficacy of cytotoxic drugs an ongoing and important goal. Despite large numbers of potent anti-cancer agents being developed, a major obstacle to clinical translation remains the inability to deliver therapeutic doses to a tumor without causing intolerable side effects. To address this problem, there has been intense interest in nanoformulations and targeted delivery to improve cancer outcomes. The aim of this work was to demonstrate how vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2)-targeted, ultrasound-triggered delivery with therapeutic microbubbles (thMBs) could improve the therapeutic range of cytotoxic drugs. Methods: Using a microfluidic microbubble production platform, we generated thMBs comprising VEGFR2-targeted microbubbles with attached liposomal payloads for localised ultrasound-triggered delivery of irinotecan and SN38 in mouse models of colorectal cancer. Intravenous injection into tumor-bearing mice was used to examine targeting efficiency and tumor pharmacodynamics. High-frequency ultrasound and bioluminescent imaging were used to visualise microbubbles in real-time. Tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was used to quantitate intratumoral drug delivery and tissue biodistribution. Finally, 89Zr PET radiotracing was used to compare biodistribution and tumor accumulation of ultrasound-triggered SN38 thMBs with VEGFR2 targeted SN38 liposomes alone. Results: ThMBs specifically bound VEGFR2 in vitro and significantly improved tumor responses to low dose irinotecan and SN38 in human colorectal cancer xenografts. An ultrasound trigger was essential to achieve the selective effects of thMBs as without it, thMBs failed to extend intratumoral drug delivery or demonstrate enhanced tumor responses. Sensitive LC-MS/MS quantification of drugs and their metabolites demonstrated that thMBs extended drug exposure in tumors but limited exposure in healthy tissues, not exposed to ultrasound, by persistent encapsulation of drug prior to elimination. 89Zr PET radiotracing showed that the percentage injected dose in tumors achieved with thMBs was twice that of VEGFR2-targeted SN38 liposomes alone. Conclusions: thMBs provide a generic platform for the targeted, ultrasound-triggered delivery of cytotoxic drugs by enhancing tumor responses to low dose drug delivery via combined effects on circulation, tumor drug accumulation and exposure and altered metabolism in normal tissues.
    • Dig! Arts Access Project: Finding Inspiration in the Park

      Giles, M.; Croucher, Karina T. (2019)
      Dig! Arts Access Project brought together excavation with artistic interpretations using collage, painting, drawing and poetry, to engage school learners in the legacy of the Whitworth Park Community Archaeology and History project. Through a series of workshops and site visits with local schools, participants expressed some of the ambiguities felt by urban children about parks. However, by the end of the sessions, they had increased their understanding of the history and heritage of their everyday places and were more confident about visiting parks.
    • The characteristics of intellectual property rights regimes: How formal and informal institutions affect outward FDI location

      Papageorgiadis, N.; McDonald, F.; Wang, Chengang; Konara, P. (2020-02)
      This study examines the institutional arrangements that define the characteristics of national legal systems that are used to protect intellectual property (IP) assets embedded in outward FDI. The focus of the study is on how the institutional underpinnings of IPR regimes affect the costs and risk of using legal arenas to enable effective use of IP assets. Following a property rights approach it is postulated that formal and informal institutional arrangements influence how IP regimes affect the transaction costs and risk associated with converting ownership rights over IP into economic rights. Informal institutions are considered to affect the behaviour of agents involved in enforcing legal rights. This behaviour influences how IP law is implemented in legal arenas and thereby impacts on the efficacy of IPR regimes to help secure economic rights from the use of IP assets. Using data on outward FDI from the USA to 42 host countries the results find that the strength of informal institutions connected to the enforcement of IP in a country directly affects outcomes and positively moderates the effect of formal legal aspects of IP law on FDI flows. The results highlight the importance of informal institutional aspects connected to the behaviour of enforcement agents when using national legal systems to protect IP rights in cross-frontier transactions.