Now showing items 21-40 of 7832

    • Development of National Drug Policy in the State of Kuwait

      Clark, Brian J.; Alali, Khaled Y.A.A (University of BradfordFaculty of Life Sciences, 2016)
      This Thesis examines the benefits and usefulness of a National Drug Policy (NDP) for the developing of the Health Care System in Kuwait. The NDP is one of the most important structures of the Health System which can lead to improved health services by establishing guidelines, proposals and directives to organize, structure and regulate health legislation; it is of help to ensure the availability of quality, safety and efficacy in using medicines and it can reduce the irrational use of medicines. The NDP is a frame work between the government, schools and universities, media, health professionals, pharmaceutical industries and companies and public. It is cooperation between the public and private sectors to achieve the goal of access to good quality medicines for all. However there are many key factors which need to be examined before the National Drug Policy is introduced and these are considered the baseline for establishing a good policy, and includes; selection of essential drugs, affordability of drugs, drug financing, supply management, drug regulation, rational use of drugs, drugs registration, purchasing of drugs, health research and human resource development. During this research study from 2012 – 2015 several visits to the public and private health areas, were undertaken. At this time there were discussions with 121 health professionals and data was collected and this indicated that in Kuwait there are no such policies. This is despite the availability of financial means, specialized human resources and the existence of the ministerial decisions and regulations governing the health sector in both public and private, whether hospitals, health centers, pharmacies and health departments. In addition it is suggested that the process of a good NDP should be built around 3 main components which includes: 1.Development, 2. Implementation and 3. Monitoring and Evaluation. Therefore the establishing of a NDP without implementation and monitoring is not enough and does not achieve the desired results. The aim of this Thesis is to establish a NDP in the State of Kuwait. This policy is necessary for the State of Kuwait to ensure development an improvement of the Health Care System and ensure better health for population.
    • The Development of a Knowledge-Based Wax Deposition, Three Yield Stresses Model and Failure Mechanisms for Re-starting Petroleum Field Pipelines. Building on Chang and Boger’s Yield Stresses Model, Bidmus and Mehrotra’s Wax Deposition and Lee et al.’s Adhesive-Cohesive Failure Concepts to better Underpin Restart Operation of Waxy Crude Oil Pipelines

      Benkreira, Hadj; Fakroun, Abubaker A. (University of BradfordFaculty of Engineering and Informatics, 2017)
      Twenty years ago, Chang et al. (1998) introduced the three-yield stresses concept (dynamic, static and elastic limits) to describe yielding of waxy crude oils cooled below the wax appearance temperature (WAT). At the time, the limits in rheological instruments were such that they never actually measured the elastic-limit, a key fundamental property. Using modern instruments, this research succeeds in recording for the first time the entire yielding process down to stresses of 10-7 Pa and shear rate of 10-6 min-1 as a function of temperature, cooling rate and stress loading rate using two waxy oils of different origins and wax content. A four-yield stress model is established using derivative data (dynamic fluidity and failure acceleration). In addition, calorimetry (DSC) and microscopy (CPM) helped extract WAT, the gel and pour points and link gel crystal structure and its yielding and breakage to rheological properties. The yielding stresses measured rheologically were tested in laboratory pipelines at two diameter scales, 6.5mm and 13.5mm to compare stresses in uniform and non-uniform cooling. It is demonstrated that rheological instruments can only predict gel breaking pressure when the cooling rate is low, i.e. yielding at the pipe wall. A complementary heat transfer study was performed on a section of pipe statically cooled, both experimentally and theoretically to predict the gel front-liquid oil interface that develops in industrial pipeline where gel breaking occurs. This key information together with rheological data provide the means to predict accurately restart pressures of shut gelled pipelines that have eluded previous research.
    • Environmental sustainability orientation, competitive strategy and financial performance

      Danso, A.; Adomako, Samuel; Amankwah-Amoah, J.; Owusu-Agyei, S.; Konadu, R. (2019)
      Extant research has established that environmental sustainability orientation (ESO) has a positive influence on performance outcomes. Nevertheless, several contingencies tend to affect the strength of this relationship. In this study, we draw on natural resource-based theory to introduce competitive strategies as moderators in the ESO-performance nexus. Using time-lagged data obtained from 269 firms in Ghana, this study finds that firms pursuing the differentiation strategy can positively boost performance outcomes with ESO than without differentiation strategy. We also find that firms can use the low-cost or the integrated strategy to get higher impact on performance with ESO respectively. Based on the results, firms in Ghana do not need differentiation strategy in order to boost the effect of ESO on financial performance. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.
    • Preference of non-pharmaceutical preoperative anxiety reduction intervention in patients undergoing elective surgery

      Dagona, S.; Archibong, Uduak E.; McClelland, Gabrielle T. (2018-12)
      For patients to be treated, decisions about their care must be made before treatment begins. In case of pre-operative anxiety, it is currently unknown how clinicians and patients discuss information about the issue, and it is also not known whether clinicians consider (or are ready to consider) their patients’ preferences of non-pharmaceutical pre-operative anxiety reduction interventions. At present no study has been conducted to find information on surgical patients’ preferences of, and their involvement in decisions about non-pharmaceutical interventions for reducing their pre-operative anxiety. This paper investigates elective surgical patients’ involvement in treatment decisions with the aim of finding out their preferred non-pharmaceutical pre-operative anxiety reduction interventions before they undergo elective surgery. Method: A survey method was used to collect data on patients’ preference of non-pharmaceutical preoperative anxiety reduction interventions at a tertiary health facility in Nigeria. Participants: A sample of 30 participants-17 male and 13 female, schedule to undergo surgical operations was selected using a convenient sampling method. Their ages range between 17 to 70 years (mean age = 41.03 and standard deviation = 16.09). Study design/procedure: To elicit preference of interventions, the study participants were presented with cards that contain picture of surgical patient receiving one of the non-pharmaceutical interventions used in reducing pre-operative anxiety. The pictures were presented one at a time for 30-40 seconds. The researcher then gives the participants a sheet of paper with the different interventions boldly written for the participants to rank order them according to the degree of their preferences. Through this process, data was collected from all the 30 participants. Results: The results obtained were entered into SPSS for analysis. Descriptive statistics, at 95 % confidence was calculated to estimate the percentage, mean, standard deviation and confidence intervals based on the participants’ preference of the interventions. Discussions: The findings were discussed alongside the existing literature and recommendations were offered for clinical practice and further research.
    • Sharenting: pride, affect and the day to day politics of digital mothering

      Lazard, L.; Capdevila, Rose; Dann, C.; Locke, Abigail; Roper, S. (2019)
      The coming together of parenting and routine posting on social networking sites has become a visible and recognisable theme and the term ‘sharenting’ has found a place in everyday talk to describe some forms of parental digital sharing practices. However, while social media has undoubtedly provided a space for parents to share experiences and receive support around parenting, sharenting remains a contestable issue. Thus, one reading of sharenting would be as a display of good parenting as mothers ‘show off’ their children as a marker of success. However, the term also can be used pejoratively to describe parental oversharing of child-focused images and content. In this paper we explore the practice of sharenting in terms of pride, affect, and the politics of digital mothering in a neoliberal context to conclude that sharenting can be best understood as a complex affective and intersectional accomplishment that produces motherhood and family as communicative activities within digital social practices.
    • Cost evaluation and optimisation of hybrid multi effect distillation and reverse osmosis system for seawater desalination

      Al-Obaidi, M.A.; Filippini, G.; Manenti, F.; Mujtaba, Iqbal M. (2019-04-15)
      In this research, the effect of operating parameters on the fresh water production cost of hybrid Multi Effect Distillation (MED) and Reverse Osmosis (RO) system is investigated. To achieve this, an earlier comprehensive model developed by the authors for MED + RO system is combined with two full-scale cost models of MED and RO processes collected from the literature. Using the economic model, the variation of the overall fresh water cost with respect to some operating conditions, namely steam temperature and steam flow rate for the MED process and inlet pressure and flow rate for the RO process, is accurately investigated. Then, the hybrid process model is incorporated into a single-objective non-linear optimisation framework to minimise the fresh water cost by finding the optimal values of the above operating conditions. The optimisation results confirm the economic feasibility of the proposed hybrid seawater desalination plant.
    • Ranking strategies to support toxicity prediction: a case study on potential lxr binders

      Palczewska, Anna Maria; Kovarich, S.; Ciacci, A.; Fioravanzo, E.; Bassan, A.; Neagu, Daniel (2019)
      The current paradigm of toxicity testing is set within a framework of Mode-of-Action (MoA)/Adverse Outcome Pathway (AOP) investigations, where novel methodologies alternative to animal testing play a crucial role, and allow to consider causal links between molecular initiating events (MIEs), further key events and an adverse outcome. In silico (computational) models are developed to support toxicity assessment within the MoA/AOP framework. This paper focuses on the evaluation of potential binding to the Liver X Receptor (LXR), as this has been identified among the MIEs leading to liver steatosis within an AOP framework addressing repeated dose and target-organ toxicity. The objective of this study was the development of a priority setting strategy, by means of in silico approaches and chemometric tools, to allow for the screening and ranking of chemicals according to their toxicity potential. As a case study, the present paper outlines the methodologies and procedures that have been developed in the context of the COSMOS/cosmetics safety assessment project [4], which developed computational methods in view of supporting cosmetics safety assessment, to rank chemicals based on their potential binding to LXR. Chemicals are ranked based on molecular and QSAR modelling outcomes. The contribution in this paper is threefold: the QSAR model for LXR dataset, an application of molecular modeling approaches, which have been developed and optimized for drug discovery, in the context of toxicology, and finally ranking chemicals based on diverse modelling outcomes. The novelty in this paper consists of the employment of linear (logistic regression) and non-linear (Random Forest) models in the context of ranking chemicals. The results show that these methods can be successfully applied for prioritization of compounds of major concern for potential liver toxicity, and that they perform better than the ranking methods reported in the literature to date (such as total ordering or data fusion).
    • Performance Modelling and Analysis of a New CoMP-based Handover Scheme for Next Generation Wireless Networks. Performance Modelling and Analysis for the Design and Development of a New Handover Scheme for Cell Edge Users in Next Generation Wireless Networks (NGWNs) Based on the Coordinated Multi-Point (CoMP) Joint Transmission (JT) Technique

      Kouvatsos, Demetres D.; Ahmed, Rana R. (University of BradfordFaculty of Engineering and Informatics, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, 2017)
      Inter-Cell Interference (ICI) will be one of main problems for degrading the performance of future wireless networks at cell edge. This adverse situation will become worst in the presence of dense deployment of micro and macro cells. In this context, the Coordinated Multi-Point (CoMP) technique was introduced to mitigate ICI in Next Generation Wireless Networks (NGWN) and increase their network performance at cell edge. Even though the CoMP technique provides satisfactory solutions of various problems at cell edge, nevertheless existing CoMP handover schemes do not prevent unnecessary handover initialisation decisions and never discuss the drawbacks of CoMP handover technique such as excessive feedback and resource sharing among UEs. In this research, new CoMP-based handover schemes are proposed in order to minimise unnecessary handover decisions at cell edge and determine solution of drawbacks of CoMP technique in conjunction with signal measurements such as Reference Signal Received Power (RSRP) and Received Signal Received Quality (RSRQ). A combination of calculations of RSRP and RSRQ facilitate a credible decision making process of CoMP mode and handover mode at cell edge. Typical numerical experiments indicate that by triggering the CoMP mode along with solutions of drawbacks, the overall network performance is constantly increase as the number of unnecessary handovers is progressively reduced.
    • A New Class of Muscle Mimetic Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Hydrogel Having Supramolecular Polyelectrolyte Interaction

      Banerjee, S.L.; Swift, Thomas; Hoskins, Richard; Rimmer, Stephen; Singha, N.K. (2019)
      Here in, we describe a non-covalent (ionic interlocking and hydrogen bonding) strategy of self-healing in a covalently crosslinked organic-inorganic hybrid 15 nanocomposite hydrogel, with special emphasize on it's improved mechanical stability. The hydrogel was prepared via in-situ free radical polymerization of sodium acrylate (SA) and successive crosslinking in the presence of poly(2-(methacryloyloxy)ethyl trimethyl ammonium chloride) (PMTAC) grafted cationically armed starch and organically modified montmorillonite (OMMT). This hydrogel shows stimuli triggered self-healing following damage in both neutral and acidic solutions (pH=7.4 and pH=1.2). This was elucidated by tensile strength and rheological analyses of the hydrogel segments joined at their fractured points. Interestingly this hydrogel can show water based shape memory effects. It was observed that the ultimate tensile strength (UTS) of the self-healed hydrogel at pH = 7.4 was comparable to extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscle of the New Zealand white rabbit. The as synthesized self-healable hydrogel was found to be non-cytotoxic against NIH 3T3 fibroblast cells.
    • How do consultant radiographers contribute to imaging service delivery and leadership?

      Snaith, Beverly; Clarke, R.; Coates, A.; Field, L.; McGuinness, A.; Yunis, S. (2019-01-02)
      Background: Consultant radiographer numbers remain low despite the ongoing capacity challenges in diagnostic imaging. This is compounded by the limited evidence of how such roles can positively impact on service delivery, particularly in relation to their leadership expectations. Aims: To examine the activities undertaken by consultant radiographers; evidence the impact of the roles, and consider whether the roles encompass the four domains of consultant practice. Method: Six consultant radiographers employed in a single NHS Trust completed an activity diary over a period of 7 days. Interval sampling every 15 minutes enabled the collection of a large volume of complex data. Findings: All consultants worked beyond their contacted hours. The documented activities demonstrate the breadth of the roles and confirmed that the participants were undertaking all four core functions of consultant practice. Conclusion: The impact of the roles stretched beyond the local department and organisation to the health system and wider profession.
    • Point of care creatinine testing in diagnostic imaging: a feasibility study within the outpatient computed tomography setting

      Snaith, Beverly; Harris, M.A.; Shinkins, B.; Messenger, M.; Lewington, A.; Jordaan, M.; Spencer, N. (2019-03)
      Introduction: Although the risks associated with iodinated contrast administration are acknowledged to be very low, screening of kidney function prior to administration is still standard practice in many hospitals. This study has evaluated the feasibility of implementing a screening form in conjunction with point of care (PoC) creatinine testing as a method to manage the risks of post contrast acute kidney injury (PC-AKI) within the CT imaging pathway. Method: Over an eight-week period 300 adult outpatients attending a UK CT department for contrast-enhanced scans were approached. Participants completed a screening questionnaire for co-morbidities linked to kidney dysfunction and consented to have a PoC and laboratory creatinine tests. Comparison was made against with previous baseline blood tests obtained within the preceding 3 months, as required by the study site. Participants were also invited to attend for follow up PoC and laboratory bloods tests at 48–72 h. Results: 14 patients (4.7%) had a scan-day eGFR below 45mL/min/1.73m2, all identified through screening. The majority of patients (n=281/300; 93.7%) fell in the same risk category based on previous and scan-day blood results. Six PoC test failures were recorded on the scan day. The constant error between the Abbott i-STAT PoC scan-day measurements and the laboratory scan-day measurements was -3.71 (95% CI: -6.41 to -0.50). Five patients had an elevated creatinine (≥25% from baseline) post contrast administration, but no instances of PC-AKI (≥50% from baseline) were identified. Conclusion: PoC creatinine testing is a practical method of ensuring renal function and is feasible in the radiology environment.
    • Recent Progress in the Design of 4G/5G Reconfigurable Filters

      Al-Yasir, Yasir; Ojaroudi Parchin, Naser; Abd-Alhameed, Raed A.; Abdulkhaleq, Ahmed M.; Noras, James M. (2019-01-20)
      Currently, several microwave filter designs contend for use in wireless communications. Among various microstrip filter designs, the reconfigurable planar filter presents more advantages and better prospects for communication applications, being compact in size, light-weight and cost-effective. Tuneable microwave filters can reduce the number of switches between electronic components. This paper presents a review of recent reconfigurable microwave filter designs, specifically on current advances in tuneable filters that involve high-quality factor resonator filters to control frequency, bandwidth and selectivity. The most important materials required for this field are also highlighted and surveyed. In addition, the main references for several types of tuneable microstrip filters are reported, especially related to new design technologies. Topics surveyed include microwave and millimetre wave designs for 4G and 5G applications, which use varactors and MEMSs technologies.
    • How do we avoid the ‘ever decreasing circles syndrome’ in service improvement?

      Manzoor, A.; Breen, Liz; Marques, Iuri; Edwards, Zoe (2018-09)
    • Probabilistic inequalities and measurements in bipartite systems

      Vourdas, Apostolos (2019-01)
      Various inequalities (Boole inequality, Chung–Erdös inequality, Frechet inequality) for Kolmogorov (classical) probabilities are considered. Quantum counterparts of these inequalities are introduced, which have an extra 'quantum correction' term, and which hold for all quantum states. When certain sufficient conditions are satisfied, the quantum correction term is zero, and the classical version of these inequalities holds for all states. But in general, the classical version of these inequalities is violated by some of the quantum states. For example in bipartite systems, classical Boole inequalities hold for all rank one (factorizable) states, and are violated by some rank two (entangled) states. A logical approach to CHSH inequalities (which are related to the Frechet inequalities), is studied in this context. It is shown that CHSH inequalities hold for all rank one (factorizable) states, and are violated by some rank two (entangled) states. The reduction of the rank of a pure state by a quantum measurement with both orthogonal and coherent projectors, is studied. Bounds for the average rank reduction are given.
    • Description of Potential Energy Surfaces of Molecules using FFLUX Machine Learning Models

      Hughes, Zak E.; Thacker, J.C.R.; Wilson, A.L.; Popelier, P.L.A. (2019)
      A new type of model, FFLUX, to describe the interaction between atoms has been developed as an alternative to traditional force fields. FFLUX models are constructed from applying the kriging machine learning method to the topological energy partitioning method, Interacting Quantum Atoms (IQA). The effect of varying parameters in the construction of the FFLUX models is analyzed, with the most dominant effects found to be the structure of the molecule and the number of conformations used to build the model. Using these models the optimization of a variety of small organic molecules is performed, with sub kJ mol-1 accuracy in the energy of the optimized molecules. The FFLUX models are also evaluated in terms of their performance in describing the potential energy surfaces (PESs) associated with specific degrees of freedoms within molecules. While the accurate description of PESs presents greater challenges than individual minima, FFLUX models are able to achieve errors of <2.5 kJ mol-1 across the full C-C-C-C dihedral PES of n-butane, indicating the future possibilities of the technique.
    • Development and evaluation of nanoemulsion and microsuspension formulations of curcuminoids for lung delivery with a novel approach to understanding the aerosol performance of nanoparticles

      Al Ayoub, Yuosef; Gopalan, Rajendran C.; Najafzadeh, Mojgan; Mohammad, Mohammad A.; Anderson, Diana; Paradkar, Anant R.; Assi, Khaled H. (2019-02-25)
      Extensive research has demonstrated the potential effectiveness of curcumin against various diseases, including asthma and cancers. However, few studies have used liquid-based vehicles in the preparation of curcumin formulations. Therefore, the current study proposed the use of nanoemulsion and microsuspension formulations to prepare nebulised curcuminoid for lung delivery. Furthermore, this work expressed a new approach to understanding the aerosol performance of nanoparticles compared to microsuspension formulations. The genotoxicity of the formulations was also assessed. Curcuminoid nanoemulsion formulations were prepared in three concentrations (100, 250 and 500 µg/ml) using limonene and oleic acid as oil phases, while microsuspension solutions were prepared by suspending curcuminoid particles in isotonic solution (saline solution) of 0.02% Tween 80. The average fine particle fraction (FPF) and mass median aerodynamic diameter (MMAD) of the nebulised microsuspension formulations ranged from 26% and 7.1 µm to 40% and 5.7 µm, for 1000 µg/ml and 100 µg/ml respectively. In a comparison of the low and high drug concentrations of the nebulised nanoemulsion, the average FPF and MMAD of the nebulised nanoemulsion formulations prepared with limonene oil ranged from 50% and 4.6 µm to 45% and 5.6 µm, respectively; whereas the FPF and MMAD of the nebulised nanoemulsion prepared with oleic acid oil ranged from 46% and 4.9 µm to 44% and 5.6 µm, respectively. The aerosol performance of the microsuspension formulations were concentration dependent, while the nanoemulsion formulations did not appear to be dependent on the curcuminoids concentration. The performance and genotoxicity results of the formulations suggest the suitability of these preparations for further inhalation studies in animals.
    • An assessment of supply chain vulnerabilities to dynamic disruptions in the pharmaceutical supply chain

      Yaroson, Emilia V.; Sharief, Karam; Shah, Awn; Breen, Liz (2018-09)
      Objective: The adverse impact of supply chain disruptions on the operational performance of supply chains have been suggested to emanate from its existing vulnerabilities. However, empirical studies regarding this proposition remain limited. This study provides empirical evidence of vulnerabilities in the face of dynamic disruptions in the pharmaceutical supply chain. This is geared at developing resilience strategies capable of curbing these forms of disruptions. Research Approach: In seeking to achieve the objective of this study, the mixed method research design in a longitudinal framework was adopted. It involved a two-step procedure where the study began by conducting semi-structured interviews with the downstream stakeholders of the pharmaceutical supply chain. Here the sampling method adopted was both purposive and snowballing. Data collected from this process was analysed using thematic analysis where key variables were coded for further analysis. Findings from the interviews were employed to construct close ended questionnaires. The questionnaires were administered online, approximately nine months after the first data collection process ended and analysed using various statistical techniques. Findings: The themes that emerged from the first phase of the data generation process were classified into five main pillars which include: supply chain characteristics, regulatory framework (schemas), imbalance of market power, managerial decisions and supply chain structures. These themes were further confirmed by the findings from the survey. The study finds that imbalance of market power generates negative welfare such as time consumption and stress on the downstream stakeholders of the pharmaceutical supply chain. In the same vein, dependence on suppliers and consumers in designing the supply chain exacerbates the impact of a dynamic disruption. The findings from the survey complement these pillars by identifying other vulnerabilities: price manipulation, inadequate policies, inefficient manufacturing processes as well as available training in handling these vulnerabilities. Originality/Value: By providing empirical evidence of the vulnerabilities within the pharmaceutical supply chain in the face of a dynamic disruption, this study extends operations management literature by highlighting vulnerability benchmarks against which resilience strategies can be employed in dynamic disruptive scenarios. The innovative aspect of this research is the ability to identify the vulnerabilities peculiar to the pharmaceutical supply chain which is required in order to successfully develop strategies that are resilient to dynamic disruptions. Research Impact: This study extends existing debates on supply chain vulnerabilities as well as supply chain disruptions. Practical Impact: This study contributes to practical managerial decisions, as the identifications of vulnerabilities to dynamic disruptions will aid pharmaceutical and or operations managers in assessing supplier selection and design.
    • A human-centric perspective exploring the readiness towards smart warehousing: the case of a large retail distribution warehouse

      Mahroof, Kamran (2019-04)
      The explosive rise in technologies has revolutionised the way in which business operate, consumers buy, and the pace at which these activities take place. These advancements continue to have profound impact on business processes across the entire organisation. As such, Logistics and Supply Chain Management (LSCM) are also leveraging benefits from digitisation, allowing organisations to increase efficiency and productivity, whilst also providing greater transparency and accuracy in the movement of goods. While the warehouse is a key component within LSCM, warehousing research remains an understudied area within overall supply chain research, accounting for only a fraction of the overall research within this field. However, of the extant warehouse research, attention has largely been placed on warehouse design, performance and technology use, yet overlooking the determinants of Artificial Intelligence (AI) adoption within warehouses. Accordingly, through proposing an extension of the Technology–Organisation–Environment (TOE) framework, this research explores the barriers and opportunities of AI within the warehouse of a major retailer. The findings for this qualitative study reveal AI challenges resulting from a shortage of both skill and mind-set of operational management, while also uncovering the opportunities presented through existing IT infrastructure and pre-existing AI exposure of management.