Now showing items 1-20 of 10731

    • Proteomic Investigation of Endocrine Therapy Resistance in Breast Cancer Investigating the Molecular Mechanisms for SERM Resistant Cell Lines Using SILAC-Based Proteomic Approach

      Sutton, Chris W.; Shnyder, Steven D.; Al-Kabariti, Aya Y. (University of BradfordSchool of Pharmacy. Faculty of Life Sciences, 2022)
      Introduction: Breast cancer is the second highest cause of cancer mortality in women worldwide. Hormonal therapy is considered one of the most effective therapies and is used against luminal-type malignancies. However, 40-50% of tumour cells can develop resistance, thereby limiting the success in breast cancer treatment. In this study, mechanisms of resistance were investigated using a novel multi-stable isotope labelled amino acids (SILAC) proteomics approach in phenotype-specific breast cancer cell lines resistant to endocrine treatment. Method: In vitro chemo-sensitivity (IC50) was determined for MCF7, T47D, MDA-MB-231, MDA-MB-468, MDA-MB-453, BT-20 and MCF-10A breast cell lines using four endocrine-based therapeutic agents (Tamoxifen, 4-Hydroxytamoxifen OHT, Raloxifene, Anastrozole) to select viable strains for resistance studies. MCF7 (luminal-type A) and MDA-MB-231 (triple negative breast cancer, TNBC) were selected and initially subject to OHT or raloxifene exposure with gradual increments for 10 months. WT cells were grown in the absence of drug in parallel as passage controls. Resistant cell lines were assessed by MTT and IF for comparison with parental cell lines. Resistant cell lines, along with the passage control and a SILAC control, were grown in “light” SILAC medium together with WT strains cultured in “heavy” SILAC medium. Proteins were extracted, concentrations determined and analysed by SDS PAGE for quality control. An aliquot of each “light” cell line (resistant, passage control or SILAC control) was combined with an equal amount of “heavy” WT, trypsin digested and analysed by nano-HPLC Orbitrap Fusion mass spectrometry (2D-LC MS/MS). Proteins were identified by database searching using MascotTM. Relative changes (resistant/WT ratio) in protein levels were determined and bioinformatics tools (STRING and UniProt) used to explore significantly changed pathways associated with resistance. Western blotting was used to verify selected target proteins. Results: Four consistently resistant sublines were generated MCF7 OHT Res (2.00-fold more resistant), MCF7 Ralx Res (2.00-fold), MDA-MB-231 OHT Res (1.90-fold change) and MDA-MB-231 Ralx Res (2.00-fold), in addition to two high passage controls. ER expression by IF was decreased in MCF7 OHT Res compared to the WT and MCF7 Ralx Res, whereas CD44 was increased. Proteomic analysis revealed 2247 and 2880 total proteins in MCF7 OHT Res and MCF7 Ralx Res whilst 3471 and 3495 total proteins were identified in MDA-MB-231 OHT Res and MDA-MB-231 Ralx Res, respectively. Bioinformatics tools identified significantly changed pathways included apoptosis, cytoskeleton, cell motility and redox cell homeostasis. Components of the MAPK-signalling cascade were consistently found to be upregulated in resistant cell lines. MAPK1 (ERK2), previously associated with tamoxifen resistance was increased in MDA-MB-231 Ralx Res cell lines by 4.45-fold and confirmed by Western blotting. Sorcin, which contributes to calcium homeostasis and is also linked to multidrug resistance was increased 4.11- and 2.35-fold in MCF7 OHT Res and Ralx Res sub cell lines, respectively. Some results, such as those for c-Jun, were inconsistent between proteomic analysis and Western blotting and require further investigation. Conclusion: The unique resistant cell lines generated here, as well the MCF7 OHT resistant line, provided novel data that give insights into the biological pathways involved in mechanisms of endocrine drug resistance in breast cancer. Proteomics analysis provided extensive data on common functionality and pathways across the resistant cell lines independent of phenotype or SERM. Overall, the results provided interesting targets for re-sensitising resistant breast cancer and the potential to investigate novel combination therapies in the future.
    • Proteomic profiling of matched normal and tumour tongue biopsies from smokers and non-smokers. Oncoproteomic applications for oral tongue squamous cell carcinoma biomarker discovery

      Sutton, Chris W.; Pors, Klaus; Saeed, Sidra (University of BradfordFaculty of Life Sciences. School of Pharmacy, 2021)
      Despite considerable development in the therapeutic repertoire for managing cancer-related malignancies, head and neck cancer mortality has not significantly improved. The burden of HNSCC fluctuates across countries and has been associated with exposure to tobacco-derived carcinogens, excessive alcohol consumption or combinations. Due to late detection, patients often present with oral pre-malignant lesions which have progressed to an advanced stage of HNSCC. In this study, the samples were from a male cohort as generally, men are at two to four-fold higher risk than women with over 90% of HNSCCs arising in the upper aerodigestive tract. Therefore, the purpose of this thesis was to identify HNSCC biomarkers in males associated within defined anatomical region (tongue) and causative agents, specific to smoking. An iTRAQ proteomic approach was used to profile protein changes in matched normal and tumour samples from male non-smoking (n=6) and smoking patients (n=6) with tongue carcinomas revealing identification of potential targets specific to cancer. Samples were subjected to liquid nitrogen cryo-pulverisation and protein determination. Protein extracts from the same category were pooled, trypsin digested and iTRAQ 4-plex labelled. Data was generated by 2D-LC/MS on an Orbitrap Fusion and significantly changed proteins (median ± SD) were subject to bioinformatics appraisal. A total of 3426 proteins were identified and quantified by proteomic analysis. Comparison of non-smoker tumour (NS:T) with smoker tumour (S:T) distinguished 64 proteins that were upregulated and 62 downregulated, S:T vs S:N categorised 349 proteins up- and 395 down-regulated respectively and NS:T vs NS:N identified 469 proteins up- and 431 down-regulated, respectively. Arginase-1 (ARG1), Keratin Type-2 Cytoskeletal 8 (KRT8), Lipocalin-1 (LCN1) and DNA replication licensing factor MCM2 (MCM2) were identified as biologically associated with smoking compared to non-smoking, providing viable targets for verification by immunochemical methods which further supported the proteomic data. Overall, the project demonstrated the importance of using matched biopsies with good clinicopathological data for experimental design and provided a set of unique targets for a more expanded verification study.
    • Time will tell: Material surface cues for the visual perception of material ageing Insights from psychophysics, online experiments, image processing and a science festival

      Bloj, Marina; Denniss, Jonathan; Logan, Andrew J.; De Korte, Elisabeth M. (University of BradfordSchool of Optometry and Vision Science. Faculty of Life Sciences, 2022)
      This thesis explores the visual perception of material change over time, a novel topic that has received little attention so far. We aimed to understand the material surface features and mental representations associated with material change over time by the human visual system, and possibly wider cognitive systems. To this end, we performed a series of experiments with varying methodologies. These included a psychophysics experiment, online experiments, and data collection during a science festival. The latter showed that the general public mentioned “Faded (colour)” most often to describe material change over time and that specific material surface change features clustered around specific materials. In another experiment, material type, but not colour or the geometrical distribution, had a significant effect on perceived material change. Other experiments partially contradicted this finding. It was found that perceived material type showed a significant, non-linear association with perceived material change, replicating earlier findings on the effect of material type. In contrast, material surface lightness, a constituent of colour, was associated with perceived material change. The same held for components of the geometrical distribution. They showed a minor contribution to the perception of material change, but a major one to perceived material type. Together, our findings suggest that the human visual system seems to use constituents of material surface colour as a cue to material change over time. The geometrical distribution seems to play a minor role. Although these contributions may vary with material type, as our findings showed that material type affected the perception of material change over time.
    • Online Anomaly Detection for Time Series. Towards Incorporating Feature Extraction, Model Uncertainty and Concept Drift Adaptation for Improving Anomaly Detection

      Neagu, Daniel; Gheorghe, Marian; Tambuwal, Ahmad I. (University of BradfordDepartment of Computer Science. Faculty of Engineering and Informatics, 2021)
      Time series anomaly detection receives increasing research interest given the growing number of data-rich application domains. Recent additions to anomaly detection methods in research literature include deep learning algorithms. The nature and performance of these algorithms in sequence analysis enable them to learn hierarchical discriminating features and time-series temporal nature. However, their performance is affected by the speed at which the time series arrives, the use of a fixed threshold, and the assumption of Gaussian distribution on the prediction error to identify anomalous values. An exact parametric distribution is often not directly relevant in many applications and it’s often difficult to select an appropriate threshold that will differentiate anomalies with noise. Thus, implementations need the Prediction Interval (PI) that quantifies the level of uncertainty associated with the Deep Neural Network (DNN) point forecasts, which helps in making a better-informed decision and mitigates against false anomaly alerts. To achieve this, a new anomaly detection method is proposed that computes the uncertainty in estimates using quantile regression and used the quantile interval to identify anomalies. Similarly, to handle the speed at which the data arrives, an online anomaly detection method is proposed where a model is trained incrementally to adapt to the concept drift that improves prediction. This is implemented using a window-based strategy, in which a time series is broken into sliding windows of sub-sequences as input to the model. To adapt to concept drift, the model is updated when changes occur in the new arrival instances. This is achieved by using anomaly likelihood which is computed using the Q-function to define the abnormal degree of the current data point based on the previous data points. Specifically, when concept drift occurs, the proposed method will mark the current data point as anomalous. However, when the abnormal behavior continues for a longer period of time, the abnormal degree of the current data point will be low compared to the previous data points using the likelihood. As such, the current data point is added to the previous data to retrain the model which will allow the model to learn the new characteristics of the data and hence adapt to the concept changes thereby redefining the abnormal behavior. The proposed method also incorporates feature extraction to capture structural patterns in the time series. This is especially significant for multivariate time-series data, for which there is a need to capture the complex temporal dependencies that may exist between the variables. In summary, this thesis contributes to the theory, design, and development of algorithms and models for the detection of anomalies in both static and evolving time series data. Several experiments were conducted, and the results obtained indicate the significance of this research on offline and online anomaly detection in both static and evolving time-series data. In chapter 3, the newly proposed method (Deep Quantile Regression Anomaly Detection Method) is evaluated and compared with six other prediction-based anomaly detection methods that assume a normal distribution of prediction or reconstruction error for the identification of anomalies. Results in the first part of the experiment indicate that DQR-AD obtained relatively better precision than all other methods which demonstrates the capability of the method in detecting a higher number of anomalous points with low false positive rates. Also, the results show that DQR-AD is approximately 2 – 3 times better than the DeepAnT which performs better than all the remaining methods on all domains in the NAB dataset. In the second part of the experiment, sMAP dataset is used with 4-dimensional features to demonstrate the method on multivariate time-series data. Experimental result shows DQR-AD have 10% better performance than AE on three datasets (SMAP1, SMAP3, and SMAP5) and equal performance on the remaining two datasets. In chapter 5, two levels of experiments were conducted basis of false-positive rate and concept drift adaptation. In the first level of the experiment, the result shows that online DQR-AD is 18% better than both DQR-AD and VAE-LSTM on five NAB datasets. Similarly, results in the second level of the experiment show that the online DQR-AD method has better performance than five counterpart methods with a relatively 10% margin on six out of the seven NAB datasets. This result demonstrates how concept drift adaptation strategies adopted in the proposed online DQR-AD improve the performance of anomaly detection in time series.
    • Physicochemical and biopharmaceutical characterization of novel derivatives of gallic acid

      Paluch, Krzysztof J.; Sheldrake, Helen M.; Kantamneni, Sriharsha; Alhyari, Dania H. (University of BradfordSchool of Pharmacy and Medical Sciences. Faculty of Life Sciences, 2022)
      Gallic acid is a known antioxidant and has anti-inflammatory activity in addition to other biological activities, but GA efficiency is restricted due to low permeability and low oral bioavailability. This study was designed to investigate the solubility, permeability, oral bioavailability, enzymatic stability with cytochrome CYP2D6, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity of novel gallic acid sulfonamide derivatives; TMBS, and THBS. In addition, a novel in silico permeability model was designed to predict the permeability and bioavailability of eighty derivatives of GA. In sillico prediction of intestinal permeability of GA derivative indicated an increase in permeability with increased lipophilicity and decreased aqueous solubility, replacing the carboxylic group with sulfonamide group has increased intestinal permeability. A significant (P <0.01) increase was observed in the permeability of TMBS and THBS over GA, in both gastric fluids and HIEC cells. TMBS was O-demethylated by CYP2D6. TMBS had greater ROS scavenging activity than GA in HIEC-6 cells. There was a significant (P< 0.05) increase in anti-inflammatory activity of THBS, and TMBS compared to ibuprofen. TMBS, and THBS had better oral bioavailability than GA. This data suggests that the in silico permeability model can be used in the future to study new candidate of gallic acid, and further in vivo and clinical investigations are required to introduce TMBS and THBS as a new antioxidant and anti-inflammatory drugs.
    • Examining the drivers and boundary conditions of social innovation: Evidence from MNE subsidiaries in a developing economy

      Nkrumah, M.; Owusu-Yirenkyi, Diana; Nyuur, Richard B.; Donbesuur, F.; Essuman, D. (2024)
      Although social innovation can help multinational enterprise (MNE) subsidiaries create social value for developing countries, they often encounter significant challenges in successfully implementing social innovation projects. This research applies the knowledge-based perspective to propose and test a theoretical framework to explain why MNE subsidiaries differ in their ability to pursue social innovation successfully in a developing country. The framework contends that MNEs’ relationship learning contributes to social innovation variability under varying levels of subsidiary autonomy and mode of entry. Analysis of primary data collected from 207 subsidiaries of MNEs operating in Ghana shows that relationship learning has a positive relationship with social innovation. Further analysis reveals that subsidiary autonomy enhances the positive association between relationship learning and social innovation, and that this moderating effect is stronger for subsidiaries with equity entry mode as opposed to non-equity entry mode. These insights advance the limited understanding of the antecedents of MNEs’ social innovation in developing countries and offer guidance on how MNE subsidiaries can successfully pursue social innovation interventions in a developing country.
    • Measuring The Information Literacy of School Stakeholders in Implementing Blended Learning in High Schools in The State of Kuwait to Propose a School Management System. Examining the level of information literacy of stakeholders in High schools and to propose a new school management system to achieve the best implementation of information literacy and blended learning practices

      Abd-Alhameed, Raed; Kamala, Mumtaz A.; Carruthers, Andrew; AlQaoud, Fatima N.H. (University of BradfordFaculty of Engineering and Informatics, 2022)
      Information Literacy (IL) has been implemented among workers in schools in recent years in order to enhance workers’ skills and competencies through the utilisation of technology in education. To implement a sustainable IL system, the building of an IT infrastructure is required including the provision of PCs and network access, enabling students to connect to the internet during class time in order to access educational web-based content as well as to share discussions about subjects with their peers in and out of the class. Assessing the level of information literacy (IL) of stakeholders will assist in creating a new proposed school management system (SMS) to be used among them in the future. This will encourage teachers to use blended learning approach for teaching their students. Therefore, it is important to examine the IL of stakeholders (principal, head of division, teacher) in Kuwait to increase their skills and competencies which will lead to greater innovation in future developments. This work aims at assessing information literacy level of stakeholders, their skills and competencies in utilising technology in a workplace environment, which will assist the researcher to create a new school system. In addition, this work presents a new proposed school management system (SMS) for stakeholders in the current educational system of high schools in Kuwait, therefore, applying the BL approach in order to achieve a high quality of students' learning outcomes.
    • Collision and Avoidance Modelling of Autonomous Vehicles using Genetic Algorithm and Neural Network

      Not named; Gadinaik, Yogesh Y. (University of BradfordFaculty of Engineering and Informatics, 2022)
      This thesis is to study the optimisation problems in autonomous vehicles, especially the modelling and optimisation of collision avoidance, and to develop some optimisation algorithms based on genetic algorithms and neural networks to operate autonomous vehicles without any collision. Autonomous vehicles, also called self-driving vehicles or driverless vehicles are completely robotised driving frameworks to allow the vehicle to react to outside conditions within a bunch of calculations to play out the undertakings. This thesis summarised artificial intelligence and optimisation techniques for autonomous driving systems in the literature. The optimisation problems related to autonomous vehicles are categorised into four groups: lane change, motion planner, collision avoidance, and artificial intelligence. A chart had been developed to summarise those research and related optimisation methods to help future researchers in the selection of optimisation methods Collision Avoidance is one of streamlining issues in autonomous vehicles. Several sensors had been used to identify position and dangers and collision avoidance algorithms had been developed to analyse the dangers and to use vehicles to avoid a collision. In this thesis, the current research on collision avoidance has been reviewed and some challenges and future works were presented to select the research direction of this thesis, the aim of this research will be the development of optimisation methods to avoid collisions in a predefined environment. The contributions of this thesis are that (1) a simulation model had been developed using Matlab for collision avoidance and serval scenarios were proposed and experimented with. The sensors are used as the inputs to determine collision in the learning preparation of the algorithm; (2) a neural network was used for collision avoidance of autonomous vehicles; (3) a new method was proposed with the combination of genetic algorithm and neural network. In the proposed frame, the neural network is used for decision making and a genetic algorithm is used for the training of the neural network. The results and experimentation show that the proposed strategies are well in the designed environment.
    • Social care planning and provision for people with young onset dementia and their families: Protocol for the DYNAMIC study.

      Quinn, Catherine; Young, Helen; Gridley, K.; Stamou, Vasileios; Mason, Clare; Oyebode, Jan (2024)
      Social care is vital to quality of life for people with young onset dementia and their families. Yet care is hugely variable, frequently lacking and poorly coordinated. We aim to establish current practice in English social care for people with young onset dementia and co-produce evidence-based recommendations and resources for improvement. In Work-Package 1, we will gather qualitative data from 25 people with young onset dementia and/or main supporters residing in England. We will ask them about their experiences of social care (broadly defined, including independent and voluntary sector provision) and suggestions for improvement. In Work-Package 2, we will conduct a short on-line survey with a wide range of staff with a role in adult social care in England. We will find out about current awareness, knowledge and practice and suggestions for improvements. Quantitative and qualitative analysis will provide a picture of current practice. In Work-Package 3, we will use convergence analysis to synthesise the findings from Work-Packages 1 and 2 and present the findings to a stakeholder workshop, to identify feasible priorities for improvement. We will establish what is already known about good practice relating to these key priorities using a scoping review and interviews with professionals. This knowledge will then feed into the co-production of resources and recommendations with key stakeholders to improve social care for people with young onset dementia and their families. This study seeks to address a gap in our understanding of social care provision for people with young onset dementia and develop recommendations and practical resources for improvements. The findings will help people with young onset dementia and supporters to receive higher quality social care. Study registration number: ISRCTN10653250.
    • Pregnancy, Transition to Motherhood, Infant Feeding Attitudes and Health Locus of Control in Nigeria

      Johnson, Sally E.; Stewart-Knox, Barbara; Lesk, Valerie E.; Adegbayi, Adenike (University of BradfordDivision of Psychology Faculty of Management, Law and Social Sciences, 2022)
      Exclusive breastfeeding and holistic maternity care are strategic to improving maternal and infant health outcomes in Nigeria. This thesis aimed at informing policies and interventions to promote breastfeeding and to improve Nigerian mother’s experiences in antenatal and intrapartum care. The study in this research focused upon psychological dynamics underlying societal culture around maternity and breastfeeding. Using quantitative method, attitudes toward breastfeeding and health orientation were surveyed in 400 Nigerian men and women using the Iowa Infant Feeding Attitude Scale (IIFAS) and the Multidimensional Health Locus of Control Scale (MHLoC). There were more positive attitudes toward breastfeeding in males, participants in the 20-29-year-old age category, and in those who identified as single. Higher internal HLoC was associated with more positive attitudes to breastfeeding and higher EHLoC scores were associated with more negative attitudes to formula feeding. The second study explored the experience of pregnancy and childbirth in Nigerian women. Qualitative interviews with 12 women implied that Nigerian women perceive pregnancy and childbirth as a multidimensional experience comprising physiological and psychological elements and also as risky. Control mechanisms that reflected internal HLoC included choosing multiple antenatal care sources to obtain holistic care, adopting new technology in bridging perceived communication gaps with health care providers and adopting physical and mental strategies in controlling the somatic and sensory changes that accompany pregnancy. Pregnancy and childbirth were viewed through an external HLoC lens as spiritual, and reflected in an entrenched belief in the intervention of deity to mitigate pain and risk associated with childbirth. These results have implications for practice, intervention and policy to promote breastfeeding at the societal level and improve maternity services for the current and next child-bearing generation.
    • Intersections between culture, sociodemographic change and caring: a qualitative study of current and prospective family caregivers in mainland China.

      Oyebode, Jan; Quinn, Catherine; Breen, Liz; Bifarin, Oladayo O. (University of BradfordFaculty of Health Studies, 2022)
      Aim: As the ageing population in China increases, support required from family caregivers for older relatives living with long-term health conditions also increases. This being so, this thesis explored the experiences and perceptions of current and prospective family caregivers, under the culture of Xiao (孝; filial piety). Design and Methods: Phase 1 was conducted with 19 Chinese students using 3 focus groups to gain greater familiarity with the culture and inform the main study (Phase 2). Adopting a social constructivist philosophical position, data for Phase 2 were obtained from three generational sub-samples: only-children affected by the One-Child Policy (OCP), parents affected by OCP, and family caregivers in the workforce, totaling 23 participants through virtual in-depth interviews with participants in mainland China. Interviews were translated, transcribed, and analysed using reflective thematic analysis. Findings and Conclusion: Phase 1 confirmed the centrality of the concept of Xiao to attitudes and beliefs around future caregiving for parents. Phase 2 findings’ overarching theme was ‘Competing pressures’, which comprised of three inextricably linked themes: (i) Caregiving beliefs, (ii) Contextual factors, and (iii) Caregiving conditions. Participants expressed meaningful desires to fulfil obligations, reflecting value-based convictions, stemming from their socio-cultural environment. Stressors experienced reveals structural and personal barriers to seeking support. Ultimately, extensive demands and limited coping strategies could diminish meaning in caregiving. This thesis makes a novel contribution on perceptions and experiences of family caregivers of older relatives within China as a collectivist society. Findings have implications for research, policy, and practice, highlighting the need for culturally attuned services to build resilience.
    • A quantitative study examining infographic assessment guidelines for undergraduate nursing students with specific learning difficulties (SpLDs)

      Manchester, Kieran R.; Roberts, D. (2024-04)
      This research investigates the perceived clarity and usefulness of infographic versus traditional text-based assessment guidelines among undergraduate nursing students with and without specific learning difficulties (SpLDs). Through quantitative analysis, the study reveals that undergraduate nursing students with SpLDs significantly prefer infographics over text-based guidelines, both in terms of clarity and usefulness (p < .001). Interestingly, there were no statistically significant differences in the perceptions of students without SpLDs. These findings suggest that the use of infographics as a tool for presenting assessment guidelines could contribute to more inclusive educational practices. The research further highlights the potential of infographics to not only make complex information more accessible but also to cater to diverse learning needs. As higher education institutions strive to be more inclusive, adapting assessment guidelines to suit the varied learning styles and cognitive needs of all students, particularly those with SpLDs, becomes increasingly important. This paper provides initial evidence to support the adoption of infographic-based assessment guidelines as a step towards achieving this goal.
    • The nature of positive post-diagnostic support as experienced by people with young onset dementia

      Stamou, Vasileios; La Fontaine Papadopoulos, Jenny H.; O'Malley, M.; Jones, B.; Gage, H.; Parkes, J.; Carter, J.; Oyebode, Jan (2021)
      Objectives: Studies on service needs of people with young onset dementia have taken a problem-oriented approach with resulting recommendations focusing on reducing service shortcomings. This study aimed to build on ‘what works’ in real-life practice by exploring the nature of post-diagnostic support services that were perceived positively by younger people with dementia and carers. Method: Positive examples of support were gathered between August 2017 and September 2018, via a national survey. Inductive thematic analysis was employed to explore the nature of positively experienced services provided for younger people with dementia, including analysis of what was provided by positively experienced services. Results: Two hundred and thirty-three respondents reported 856 positive experiences of support. Data analysis yielded eight themes regarding the objectives of positive services: Specialist Advice and Information on Young Onset Dementia, Access to Age-appropriate Services, Interventions for Physical and Mental Health, Opportunities for Social Participation, Opportunities to Have a Voice, Enablement of Independence while Managing Risk, Enablement of Financial Stability, and Support Interventions for family relationships. Conclusion: The study findings (a) suggest that positive services may collectively create an enabling-protective circle that supports YPD to re-establish and maintain a positive identity in the face of young onset dementia, and (b) provide a basis from which future good practice can be developed.
    • 'Making the most of time during personal care' : nursing home staff experiences of meaningful engagement with residents with advanced dementia

      Haunch, K.; Downs, Murna G.; Oyebode, Jan (2023-12)
      Objectives: Dementia progressively affects cognitive functioning, including the ability to communicate. Those who struggle to communicate are often considered unable to relate to other people. Frontline care workers are in a position to connect with residents. However, we know little about their perspectives. The aim of this study was to understand how and when nursing home staff meaningfully engaged with residents with advanced dementia. Methods: Semi-structured interviews, supplemented by informal conversations, were conducted with 21 staff from seven nursing homes. Inductive thematic analysis identified themes in the accounts. Results: Four themes related to how staff engaged with residents with advanced dementia (initiating meaningful engagement, recognising subtle reactions, practising caring behaviours, patience and perseverance). Two themes related to when meaningful engagement occurred (lacking time to connect, making the most of time during personal care). Conclusion: A key barrier to implementing formal interventions to improve care is lack of staff time. Staff overcome this by using personal care time for meaningful engagement with residents. Their approach, developed through experience, is consonant with person-centred dementia care. Building on this, future research should use participatory approaches building on practice wisdom to further develop and evaluate meaningful engagement with residents with advanced dementia.
    • Strategic Decision-making Process in the Qatari Public Sector. Relationship between the Decision-Making Process, Implementation, and Outcome

      Weerakkody, Vishanth J.P.; Sivarajah, Uthayasankar; Al-Hashimi, Khalid M.I.A. (University of BradfordSchool of Management. Faculty of Management, Law, and Social Science, 2022)
      Although several multi-dimensional models of strategic decision-making processes (SDMPs) have been examined in the literature, these studies have paid insufficient attention to the public sector context and Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) region. SDMP in the public sector and the State of Qatar can vary to SDMP in the private sector due to institutional and socio-cultural differences respectively. Therefore, more research is urgently needed to better understand SDPM within this context. To contribute to filling this void, this study develops and tests a multi-dimensional SDMP model including SDMP dimensions, implementation, and outcome. The study model examines (𝑖) the impact of four SDMP dimensions—procedural rationality, intuition, constructive politics, and participation—on the implementation success of the strategic decision; (𝑖𝑖) the impact of the successful implementation of SD over the SD quality; (𝑖𝑖𝑖) the mediation role of the implementation success of SD; (𝑖𝑣) the moderation effect of stakeholder uncertainty. The model was analysed using Partial Least Square Structural Equation Modelling (PLS-SEM) and tested using data from multiple informants on 170 strategic decisions in 38 Qatari public organisations. The study finds that procedural rationality, constructive politics, participations, and the implementation Success of SD plays a significant and positive role on SDMP and its overall outcome. Finally, the study provides substantial and original contributions to the knowledge of SDMP in the public sector; implications for decision-makers and directions for future research.
    • The 2021 Campus Dig

      George, Sarah; Jennings, Benjamin R. (Unknown, 2023-12)
    • An evaluation of CT radiation doses within the Yorkshire Lung Screening Trial

      Iball, Gareth; Beeching, C.E.; Gabe, R.; Tam, H.Z.; Darby, M.; Crosbie, P.A.J.; Callister, M.E.J. (2024)
      Objectives; To evaluate radiation doses for all low-dose CT scans performed during the first year of a lung screening trial. Methods; For all lung screening scans that were performed using a CT protocol that delivered image quality meeting the RSNA QIBA criteria, , radiation dose metrics, participant height, weight, gender and age were recorded. Values of CTDIvol and DLP were evaluated as a function of weight in order to assess the performance of the scan protocol across the participant cohort. Calculated effective doses were used to establish the additional lifetime attributable cancer risks arising from trial scans. Results; Median values of CTDIvol, DLP and effective dose (IQR) from the 3521 scans were 1.1mGy (0.70), 42.4mGycm (24.9) and 1.15mSv (0.67), whilst for 60-80kg participants the values were 1.0mGy (0.30), 35.8mGycm (11.4) and 0.97mSv (0.31). A statistically significant correlation between CTDIvol and weight was identified for males (r=0.9123, p<0.001) and females (r=0.9052, p<0.001), however the effect of gender on CTDIvol was not statistically significant (p=0.2328) despite notable differences existing at the extremes of the weight range. The additional lifetime attributable cancer risks from a single scan were in the range 0.001-0.006%. Conclusions; Low radiation doses can be achieved across a typical lung screening cohort using scan protocols that have been shown to deliver high levels of image quality. The observed dose levels may be considered as typical values for lung screening scans on similar types of scanner for an equivalent participant cohort. Advances in Knowledge; Presentation of typical radiation dose levels for CT lung screening examinations in a large UK trial. Effective radiation doses can be of the order of 1mSv for standard sized participants. Lifetime attributable cancer risks resulting from a single LDCT scan did not exceed 0.006%.
    • DEM simulation of a single screw granulator: The effect of liquid binder on granule properties

      Arthur, Tony B.; Sekyi, Nana; Rahmanian, Nejat (2024-03)
      The Caleva UK single-screw Variable Density Extruder (VDE) is a continuous powder processing equipment known for spheronization and extrusion. Its suitability for granulation remains uncertain, a common challenge in powder processing industries that deal with granules, pellets, and tablets. This study investigates the VDE's potential for granulation, using 65 µm CaCO3 powder and PEG 4000 as a liquid binder. In order to replicate several experimental setups with varying binder concentrations and liquid-to-solid ratios (L/S) of 0.1 and 0.15, eight DEM simulations were run. Our results indicate that higher binder concentrations yield more consistent products with fewer fines, while lower concentrations result in inconsistent products with increased fines. Low L/S ratios produce fragile, fine-sized products with a broad particle size distribution (PSD). DEM simulations reveal a direct relationship between liquid binder content and contact forces. Analysis of bonds formed, and particle counts in simulations corroborates experimental observations of fines production. Additionally, granule strength appears to be directly proportional to contact force.
    • Apigenin cocrystals: from computational pre-screening to physicochemical property characterisation

      Makadia, J.; Seaton, Colin C.; Li, M. (2023-05)
      Apigenin (4′,5,7-trihydroxyflavone, APG) has many potential therapeutic benefits; however, its poor aqueous solubility has limited its clinical applications. In this work, a large scale cocrystal screening has been conducted, aiming to discover potential APG cocrystals for enhancement of its solubility and dissolution rate. In order to reduce the number of the experimental screening tests, three computational prescreening tools, i.e., molecular complementarity (MC), hydrogen bond propensity (HBP), and hydrogen bond energy (HBE), were used to provide an initial selection of 47 coformer candidates, leading to the discovery of seven APG cocrystals. Among them, six APG cocrystal structures have been determined by successful growth of single crystals, i.e., apigenin-carbamazepine hydrate 1:1:1 cocrystal, apigenin-1,2-di(pyridin-4-yl)ethane hydrate 1:1:1 cocrystal, apigenin-valerolactam 1:2 cocrystal, apigenin-(dl) proline 1:2 cocrystal, apigenin-(d) proline/(l) proline 1:1 cocrystal. All of the APG cocrystals showed improved dissolution performances with the potential to be formulated into drug products.
    • The Impact of AI on Online Customer Experience and Consumer Behaviour. An Empirical Investigation of the Impact of Artificial Intelligence on Online Customer Experience and Consumer Behaviour in a Digital Marketing and Online Retail Context

      Mahroof, Kamran; Rana, Nripendra P.; Weerakkody, Vishanth J.P.; Kronemann, Bianca (University of BradfordFaculty of Management, Law and Social Science, 2022)
      Artificial Intelligence (AI) is adopted fast and wide across consumer industries and digital marketing. This new technology has the potential to enhance online customer experience and outcomes of customer experience. However, research relating to the impact of AI is still developing and empirical evidence sparse. Taking a consumercentred approach and by adopting Social Response Theory as theoretical lens, this research addresses an overall research question pertaining to the implications of online customer experience with AI on consumer behaviour. A quantitative research strategy with positivist approach is adopted to gather a large sample (n= 489) of online consumers who have previously interacted with AI-enabled technology. The collected data is analysed statistically utilising Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) and Structural Equation Modelling (SEM). Empirical findings show strong positive effects of anthropomorphism of AI, para-social interaction with AI, and performance expectancy of AI on all three customer experience dimensions of informativeness, entertainment and social presence. Additionally, there is strong statistical support for the positive effect of informativeness and social presence on continued purchase intentions (β= .379 and β= .315), while the effects of entertainment are less strong. The mediating effects of customer experience have been assessed, highlighting social presence as most important mediator. This research contributes to knowledge by extending previous customer experience theory and quantifying the influence of online customer experience with AI on purchase intentions and eWOM. The theoretical insights also translate into direct implications for marketing practice relating to the design, integration, and implementation of more consumer- and outcome-oriented AI applications.