Now showing items 1-20 of 9940

    • Testing ORCID for repository

      Nieminen, Satu M.; Brown, Emma (2022-05-15)
      Testing our ORCID functionality for Bradford Scholars.
    • Single-Element and MIMO Circularly Polarized Microstrip Antennas with Negligible Back Radiation for 5G Mid-Band Handsets

      Alnahwi, F.M.; Al-Yasir, Yasir I.A.; See, C.H.; Abd-Alhameed, Raed A. (2022-04)
      In this paper, single-element and MIMO microstrip antenna with two pairs of unequal slits is proposed as a circularly polarized antenna with negligible back radiation for 5G mid-band handsets. The unequal pairs of slits are engraved on the antenna patch to guarantee the presence of the circular polarization (CP). The proximity-coupled feeding technique is used to excite the proposed microstrip antenna in order to provide larger antenna -10 dB bandwidth which approaches 10.8% (3.48-3.87 GHz). A novel analysis technique is proposed in this paper that demonstrates the 3D axial ratio pattern in order to generate CP in the broadside direction without affecting the structure of the ground plane which ensures weak back radiation. The 3 dB axial ratio bandwidth (ARBW) is found to be equal to 4.1% extended along the range (3.58-3.73 GHz). To make the design more compatible with the 5G mid-band handsets, the 2 × 2 MIMO structure of the proposed antenna with reduced mutual coupling (less than -20 dB) is also presented in this work. The simulation and measured results are in good agreement, and both verify the CP characteristics and the weak back radiation of the proposed antenna.
    • Demonstrating the Potential of Using Bio-Based Sustainable Polyester Blends for Bone Tissue Engineering Applications

      Ramos-Rodriguez, D.H.; Pashneh-Tala, S.; Bains, A.K.; Moorehead, R.D.; Kassos, Nikolaos; Kelly, Adrian L.; Paterson, T.E.; Orozco-Diaz, C.A.; Gill, A.A.; Ortega Asencio, I. (2022-04)
      Healthcare applications are known to have a considerable environmental impact and the use of bio-based polymers has emerged as a powerful approach to reduce the carbon footprint in the sector. This research aims to explore the suitability of using a new sustainable polyester blend (Floreon™) as a scaffold directed to aid in musculoskeletal applications. Musculoskeletal problems arise from a wide range of diseases and injuries related to bones and joints. Specifically, bone injuries may result from trauma, cancer, or long-term infections and they are currently considered a major global problem in both developed and developing countries. In this work we have manufactured a series of 3D-printed constructs from a novel biopolymer blend using fused deposition modelling (FDM), and we have modified these materials using a bioceramic (wollastonite, 15% w/w). We have evaluated their performance in vitro using human dermal fibroblasts and rat mesenchymal stromal cells. The new sustainable blend is biocompatible, showing no differences in cell metabolic activity when compared to PLA controls for periods 1-18 days. FloreonTM blend has proven to be a promising material to be used in bone tissue regeneration as it shows an impact strength in the same range of that shown by native bone (just under 10 kJ/m2) and supports an improvement in osteogenic activity when modified with wollastonite.
    • Reduction of scour around circular piers using collars

      Pandey, M.; Pu, Jaan H.; Pourshahbaz, H.; Khan, M.A. (2022-03)
      River dynamics and sediment transport play an important role in river bed morphology. Building a bridge pier along the river alters the cross-section of the river and causes the change in flow processes. These changes are mainly responsible for pier scour. In this paper, the usage of collars to reduce scour around circular piers has been investigated. The collars with different diameters and depth positions have been studied using previous data and additional data collected in the present study to assess their effectiveness in reducing scour. Using a wide range of measured data, an empirical equation to compute the maximum scour depth around the circular piers in the presence of collars has been proposed. The proposed equation has been validated and proven to be applicable to a wide range of pier layouts. It has been found that the maximum efficiency can be achieved by fixing the collar at bed level and adopting a collar diameter 1.5–2.5 times of pier diameter.
    • Improving bond of fiber-reinforced polymer bars with concrete through incorporating nanomaterials  

      Wang, X.; Ding, S.; Qiu, L.; Ashour, Ashraf A.; Wang, Y.; Han, B.; Ou, J. (Elsevier, 2022-06)
      The bond between FRP bars and concrete, the foremost performance for implementation of such reinforcements to corrosion-free concrete structures, is still unsatisfied due to the weak nature of duplex film in the interface. The existing approaches show low efficiency in improving the microstructures and bond between FRP bars and concrete. To address these issues, this paper provided a new approach for improving the bond between FRP bars and concrete by incorporating nanomaterials, as well as explored the modifying mechanisms and established the bond-slip models. For these purposes, the pull-out test, scanning electron microscope observation, as well as energy dispersive spectrometry analysis were performed. The experimental results demonstrated that the presence of nanomaterials increased the ultimate bond strengths between glass/carbon FRP bars and concrete by up to 16.2% and 37.8%, while the corresponding slips decreased by 28.7% and 35.4%, respectively. Such modification effects can be attributed to the optimized intrinsic composition and the reduced pore content of hydration products in the interface, especially in the duplex film, through the nanomaterial enrichment and nano-core effects. The bond-slip relationship between FRP bars and concrete with nanomaterials can be accurately predicted by the mBPE model.
    • Preservation of Smooth Muscle Cell Integrity and Function: A Target for Limiting Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Expansion?

      Clark, E.R.; Helliwell, R.J.; Bailey, M.A.; Hemmings, K.E.; Bridge, K.I.; Griffin, K.J.; Scott, D.J.A.; Jennings, L.M.; Riches-Suman, Kirsten; Porter, K.E. (2022-03)
      (1) Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is a silent, progressive disease with significant mortality from rupture. Whilst screening programmes are now able to detect this pathology early in its development, no therapeutic intervention has yet been identified to halt or retard aortic expansion. The inability to obtain aortic tissue from humans at early stages has created a necessity for laboratory models, yet it is essential to create a timeline of events from EARLY to END stage AAA progression. (2) We used a previously validated ex vivo porcine bioreactor model pre-treated with protease enzyme to create "aneurysm" tissue. Mechanical properties, histological changes in the intact vessel wall, and phenotype/function of vascular smooth muscle cells (SMC) cultured from the same vessels were investigated. (3) The principal finding was significant hyperproliferation of SMC from EARLY stage vessels, but without obvious histological or SMC aberrancies. END stage tissue exhibited histological loss of α-smooth muscle actin and elastin; mechanical impairment; and, in SMC, multiple indications of senescence. (4) Aortic SMC may offer a therapeutic target for intervention, although detailed studies incorporating intervening time points between EARLY and END stage are required. Such investigations may reveal mechanisms of SMC dysfunction in AAA development and hence a therapeutic window during which SMC differentiation could be preserved or reinstated.
    • Peripheral Refractive Error and its Association with Myopia Development and Progression. An examination of the role that peripheral retinal defocus may play in the origin and progression of myopia

      Mallen, Edward A.H.; Barrett, Brendan T.; Jamal, Heshow (University of BradfordFaculty of Life Sciences, 2019)
      Purpose: Currently there are attempts to slow myopia progression by manipulating peripheral refractive error. This study proposed to establish the distribution of peripheral refractive errors in hyperopic, emmetropic and myopic children and to test the hypothesis that relative peripheral hyperopia is a risk factor in the onset and progression of myopia. Methods: Refraction was measured under non-cycloplegic conditions, at 0°, 10° (superior, inferior, temporal and nasal retina) and 30° (temporal and nasal retina), at distance and near. Central spherical equivalent refractive error (SER) was used to classify the eyes as myopic (≤ −0.75 D), emmetropic (−0.75 < SER < +0.75 D) or hyperopic (≥ +0.75 D). Relative peripheral refraction was calculated as the difference between the central (i.e. foveal) and peripheral refractive measurements. At baseline, measurements were taken from 554 children and in a subset of 300 of these same children at the follow-up visit. The time interval between initial and follow-up measurement was 9.71 ± 0.87 months. Results: Results were analysed on 528 participants (10.21 ±0.94 years old) at baseline and 286 longitudinally. At baseline, myopic children (n=61) had relative peripheral hyperopia at all eccentricities at distance and near, except at 10°-superior retina where relative peripheral myopia was observed at near. Hyperopic eyes displayed relative peripheral myopia at all eccentricities, at distance and near. The emmetropes showed a shift from relative peripheral myopia at distance to relative peripheral hyperopia at near at all eccentricities, except at 10°-superior retina, where the relative peripheral myopia was maintained at near. In the longitudinal data analysis, myopes who became more myopic did not show greater relative peripheral hyperopia at baseline compared with myopic sub-groups whose central refraction remained stable. Conclusions: The peripheral refractive profile differences between different refractive groups that are reported in other studies have been confirmed in this study. Relative peripheral hyperopia is not found to be a significant risk factor in the onset or progression of myopia in children.
    • Construction of Ternary Phase Diagrams: Application of Quantitative NMR

      Telford, Richard; Obule, Whitney; Seaton, Colin C. (2022-02)
      The growth of cocrystalline phases continues to expand as a key area of crystal engineering research. Understanding the phase behavior of the material and controlling the crystalline form of the material from a solution-based route can be aided by the construction of a ternary phase diagram for the system. A range of methods exist for this process which display a variety of costs and time to achieve the final diagram. The application of quantitative NMR (qNMR) to this problem offers a fast analysis method to directly determine the solution composition of all species (coformers and solvent) and is demonstrated to successfully allow the construction of ternary diagrams with and without a cocrystal phase being formed for systems with high and low solubility.
    • Blockchain for Sustainable Supply Chain Management: Trends and Ways Forward

      Sahoo, S.; Kumar, S.; Sivarajah, Uthayasankar; Lim, W.M.; Westland, J.C.; Kumar, A. (2022-04)
      Blockchain operates on a highly secured framework, and its decentralized consensus has benefits for supply chain sustainability. Scholars have recognized the growing importance of sustainability in supply chains and studied the potential of blockchain for sustainable supply chain management. However, no study has taken stock of high-quality research in this area. To address this gap, this paper aims to provide a state-of-the-art overview of high-quality research on blockchain for sustainable supply chain management. To do so, this paper conducts a systematic literature review using a bibliometric analysis of 146 high-quality articles on blockchain for sustainable supply chain management that have been published in journals ranked “A*”, “A”, and “B” by the Australian Business Deans Council and retrieved from the Scopus database. In doing so, this paper unpacks the most prominent journals, authors, institutions, and countries that have contributed to three major themes in the field, namely blockchain for sustainable business activities, decision support systems using blockchain, and blockchain for intelligent transportation system. This paper also reveals the use of blockchain for sustainable supply chain management across four major sectors, namely food, healthcare, manufacturing, and infrastructure, and concludes with suggestions for future research in each sector.
    • Error Bred in the Bone

      Thompson, K.; Manchester, Keith; Buckberry, Jo; Sparrow, Thomas; Holland, Andrew D.; Wilson, Andrew S. (Springer Nature, 2022-04)
      This chapter describes a collaborative project funded by Grants for All, Arts Council England, led by artist Karina Thompson, together with researchers from the Biological Anthropology Research Centre (BARC), School of Archaeological and Forensic Sciences, University of Bradford. The artworks took digitised historic clinical radiographs and digitised human skeletal pathological data from the landmark Digitised Diseases, and From Cemetery to Clinic digital bioarchaeology resources developed by colleagues from Visualising Heritage as a starting point. In addition to a series of small-scale installations displayed alongside the Biological Anthropology Research Centre teaching collection, large-scale exhibition pieces were displayed as part of national and international exhibitions. Collectively these works draw attention to the potential of digital bioarchaeology, whilst ensuring the importance of humanising the documentation of disease through time.
    • Expansion of the 4-(Diethylamino)benzaldehyde Scaffold to Explore the Impact on Aldehyde Dehydrogenase Activity and Antiproliferative Activity in Prostate Cancer

      Ibrahim, Ali I.M.; Battle, Elisabet; Sneha, Smarakan; Jimenez, R.; Pequerul, R.; Pares, X.; Rüngeler, T.; Jha, V.; Tuccinardi, T.; Sadiq, Maria; et al. (2022-03-10)
      Aldehyde dehydrogenases (ALDHs) are overexpressed in various tumor types including prostate cancer and considered a potential target for therapeutic intervention. 4-(Diethylamino)benzaldehyde (DEAB) has been extensively reported as a pan-inhibitor of ALDH isoforms, and here, we report on the synthesis, ALDH isoform selectivity, and cellular potencies in prostate cancer cells of 40 DEAB analogues; three analogues (14, 15, and 16) showed potent inhibitory activity against ALDH1A3, and two analogues (18 and 19) showed potent inhibitory activity against ALDH3A1. Significantly, 16 analogues displayed increased cytotoxicity (IC50 = 10-200 μM) compared with DEAB (>200 μM) against three different prostate cancer cell lines. Analogues 14 and 18 were more potent than DEAB against patient-derived primary prostate tumor epithelial cells, as single agents or in combination treatment with docetaxel. In conclusion, our study supports the use of DEAB as an ALDH inhibitor but also reveals closely related analogues with increased selectivity and potency.
    • Semi-Synthetic Analogues of Cryptolepine as a Potential Source of Sustainable Drugs for the Treatment of Malaria, Human African Trypanosomiasis and Cancer

      Abacha, Yabalu Z.; Forkuo, A.D.; Gbedema, S.Y.; Mittal, N.; Ottilie, S.; Rocamora, F.; Winzeler, E.A.; van Schalkwyk, D.A.; Kelly, J.M.; Taylor, M.C.; et al. (2022-04)
      The prospect of eradicating malaria continues to be challenging in the face of increasing parasite resistance to antimalarial drugs so that novel antimalarials active against asexual, sexual, and liver-stage malaria parasites are urgently needed. In addition, new antimalarials need to be affordable and available to those most in need and, bearing in mind climate change, should ideally be sustainable. The West African climbing shrub Cryptolepis sanguinolenta is used traditionally for the treatment of malaria; its principal alkaloid, cryptolepine (1), has been shown to have antimalarial properties, and the synthetic analogue 2,7-dibromocryptolepine (2) is of interest as a lead toward new antimalarial agents. Cryptolepine (1) was isolated using a two-step Soxhlet extraction of C. sanguinolenta roots, followed by crystallization (yield 0.8% calculated as a base with respect to the dried roots). Semi-synthetic 7-bromo- (3), 7, 9-dibromo- (4), 7-iodo- (5), and 7, 9-dibromocryptolepine (6) were obtained in excellent yields by reaction of 1 with N-bromo- or N-iodosuccinimide in trifluoroacetic acid as a solvent. All compounds were active against Plasmodia in vitro, but 6 showed the most selective profile with respect to Hep G2 cells: P. falciparum (chloroquine-resistant strain K1), IC50 = 0.25 µM, SI = 113; late stage, gametocytes, IC50 = 2.2 µM, SI = 13; liver stage, P. berghei sporozoites IC50 = 6.13 µM, SI = 4.6. Compounds 3–6 were also active against the emerging zoonotic species P. knowlesi with 5 being the most potent (IC50 = 0.11 µM). In addition, 3–6 potently inhibited T. brucei in vitro at nM concentrations and good selectivity with 6 again being the most selective (IC50 = 59 nM, SI = 478). These compounds were also cytotoxic to wild-type ovarian cancer cells as well as adriamycin-resistant and, except for 5, cisplatin-resistant ovarian cancer cells. In an acute oral toxicity test in mice, 3–6 did not exhibit toxic effects at doses of up to 100 mg/kg/dose × 3 consecutive days. This study demonstrates that C. sanguinolenta may be utilized as a sustainable source of novel compounds that may lead to the development of novel agents for the treatment of malaria, African trypanosomiasis, and cancer.
    • 3D simulation of the Hierarchical Multi-Mode Molecular Stress Function constitutive model in an abrupt contraction flow

      Olley, Peter; Gough, Timothy D.; Spares, R.; Coates, Philip D. (Elsevier, 2022-06)
      A recent development of the Molecular Stress Function constitutive model, the Hierarchical Multi-Mode Molecular Stress Function (HMMSF) model has been shown to fit a large range of rheometrical data with accuracy, for a large range of polymer melts. We develop a 3D simulation of the HMMSF model and compare it to experimental data for the flow of Lupolen 1840H LDPE through an abrupt 3D contraction flow. We believe this to be the first finite element implementation of the HMMSF model. It is shown that the model gives a striking agreement with experimental vortex opening angles, with very good agreement to full-field birefringence measurements, over a wide range of flow rates. A method to give fully-developed inlet boundary conditions is implemented (in place of using parabolic inlet boundary conditions), which gives a significantly improved match to birefringence measurements in the inlet area, and in low stress areas downstream from the inlet. Alternative constitutive model parameters are assessed following the principle that extensional rheometer data actually provides a ‘lower bound’ for peak extensional viscosity. It is shown that the model robustly maintains an accurate fit to vortex opening angle and full-field birefringence data, provided that both adjustable parameters are kept such that both shear and extensional data are well fitted.
    • Business model canvas for humanitarian operations of logistics service providers

      Kucukaltan, B.; Irani, Zahir; Acar, A.Z. (2022)
      For years, humankind has been facing various disasters of which logistics has a crucial role for alleviating sufferings of vulnerable people, who are isolated and in need of basic supplies. Owing to the increasing importance of logistics in humanitarian operations, logistics service providers (LSPs) have recently become more prominent. Yet, only a few LSPs have the capabilities and mechanisms to offer operational solutions for humanitarian relief. Also, the conducted extensive literature review makes evident that the existence of a limited number of normative research reveals a barrier about what LSPs can bring into the humanitarian field. Accordingly, why LSPs are particularly important in the humanitarian supply chain and how LSPs manage their activities and resources in humanitarian operations become the main questions to be addressed. Thus, this study seeks to explore humanitarian operations of LSPs from different dimensions, enabled by Business Model Canvas (BMC). In this sense, the obtained findings clarify both similar and different viewpoints of diverse LSPs when mapped against the BMC. Consequently, the categorised interrelated information presented through the cross-case synthesis provide novelty to advance insights both on strategic missions of LSPs in humanitarian relief operations and on the usage of BMC beyond its common commercial implementations.
    • Gaining strategic insights into Logistics 4.0: expectations and impacts

      Kucukaltan, B.; Saatcioglu, O.Y.; Irani, Zahir; Tuna, O. (2022)
      The developments brought by Industry 4.0 have spread to various components in a supply chain, where logistics is of utmost importance due to the intermediate role of logistics service providers (LSPs) operating among different actors. Despite such a vital role, the extant literature lacks from the extensive analysis of Industry 4.0 implementations in the logistics industry, particularly for LSPs. Accordingly, this study sets out to investigate, comprehensively, Industry 4.0 projections in logistics and their reflections on LSPs by adopting a multidimensional approach. In this respect, the key themes influenced by Industry 4.0 developments are initially determined through a structured survey conducted in the Turkish logistics industry. Then, in the same industry, both the probabilities and the impacts of Industry 4.0-focused thematic statements are examined through an integrative interview survey, which also incorporates ‘why-type’ of questions. Consequently, this study offers academic implications in terms of demonstrating possible changes in the logistics industry from the operational, financial, and human resources aspects. Additionally, the findings serve as a reference for logistics professionals while fostering their competitive Industry 4.0 initiatives and facilitating their strategic decisions.
    • Using hotel reviews to assess hotel frontline employees’ roles and performances

      Hu, F.; Trivedi, Rohitkumar; Teichert, T. (2022-04-04)
      This study aims to explore how marketers can use text mining to analyze actors, actions and performance effects of service encounters by building on the role theory. This enables hotel managers to use introduced methodology to measure and monitor frontline employees’ role behavior and optimize their service. Design/methodology/approach: The authors’ approach links text mining and importance-performance analysis with role theory’s conceptual foundations taking into account the hotel industry’s specifics to assess the effect of frontline hotel employees’ actions on consumer satisfaction and to derive specific management implications for the hospitality sector. Findings: This study identifies different actors involved in hotel frontline interactions revealing distinct role behaviors that characterize consumers’ perspectives of service encounters with different role types associated with front-office employees. This research also identifies role performance related to role behavior to improve service encounters. Practical implications: Customer–employee interactions can be assessed by user-generated contents (UGC). Performance evaluations relate to frontline employee roles associated with distinct role scripts, whereby different hotel segments require tailored role designs. Insights of this study can be used for service optimization, market positioning as well as for improving human resource management practices in the hotel industry. Originality/value: This study contributes to the service encounter literature by applying role theory in the text mining of UGC to assess frontline employees as actors and the effects of their actions on service quality delivery.
    • Flexible design and operation of multi-stage reverse osmosis desalination process for producing different grades of water with maintenance and cleaning opportunity

      Al-Obaidi, Mudhar A.A.R.; Rasn, K.H.; Aladhwani, S.H.; Kadhom, M.; Mujtaba, Iqbal M. (2022)
      The use of Reverse Osmosis (RO) process in seawater desalination to provide high-quality drinking water is progressively increased compared to thermal technologies. In this paper, multistage spiral wound RO desalination process is considered. Each stage consists of several pressure vessels (PVs) organised in parallel with membrane modules in each PV being organised in series. This allows disconnecting a set of PVs and membrane modules depending on the requirement of cleaning and maintenance. While this flexibility offers the opportunity of generating several RO configurations, we presented only four such configurations of the RO system and analysed them via simulation and optimisation. Production of different grades of water catering different needs of a city is also considered for each of these configurations. The optimisation has resulted in the optimal operating conditions, which maximises the water productivity and minimises the specific energy consumption of the proposed configurations for a given water grade in terms of salinity. For instance, the results indicate that the proposed RO networks can produce drinking water of 500 ppm salinity with a minimum specific energy consumption of 3.755 kWh/m3. The strategy offers the production of different grades of water without plant shutdown while maintaining the membrane modules throughout the year.
    • Issues affecting supply of palliative medicines into community pharmacy: A qualitative study of community pharmacist and pharmaceutical wholesaler/distributor perspectives

      Campling, N.; Breen, Liz; Miller, E.; Birtwistle, J.; Richardson, A.; Bennett, M.; Latter, S. (Elsevier, 2022-06)
      ackground Patient access to medicines in the community at end-of-life (pertaining to the last year of life) is vital for symptom control. Supply of such medicines is known to be problematic, but despite this, studies have failed to examine the issues affecting community pharmacy access to palliative medicines. Objective To identify community pharmacists' and pharmaceutical wholesalers'/distributors' views on supply chain processes and challenges in providing access to medicines during the last year of life, to characterise supply in this UK context. Methods Qualitative design, with telephone interviews analysed using Framework Analysis. Coding frames were developed iteratively with data analysed separately and then triangulated to examine differences in perspectives. Findings Thirty-two interviews (24 community pharmacists and 8 wholesalers/distributors) were conducted. To ensure appropriate palliative medicines were available despite occasional shortages, community pharmacists worked tirelessly. They navigated a challenging interface with wholesalers/distributors, the Drug Tariff to ensure reimbursement, and multiple systems. IT infrastructures and logistics provided by wholesalers/distributors were often helpful to supply into community pharmacies resulting in same or next day deliveries. However, the inability of manufacturers to predict operational issues or accurately forecast demand led wholesalers/distributors to encounter shortages with manufactured stock levels, reducing timely access to medicines. Conclusions The study identifies for the first time how palliative medicines supply into community pharmacy, can be improved. A conceptual model was developed, illustrating how influencing factors affect responsiveness and speed of medicines access for patients. Work is required to strengthen this supply chain via effective relationship-building and information-sharing, to prevent patients facing disruptions in access to palliative medicines at end-of-life.
    • Barriers and facilitators of successful deprescribing as described by older patients living with frailty, their informal carers and clinicians: a qualitative interview study

      Peat, George W.; Fylan, Beth; Marques, Iuri; Rayner, D.K.; Breen, Liz; Olaniyan, Janice; Alldred, D.P. (2022-03)
      Objective To explore the barriers/facilitators to deprescribing in primary care in England from the perspectives of clinicians, patients living with frailty who reside at home, and their informal carers, drawing on the Theoretical Domains Framework to identify behavioural components associated with barriers/facilitators of the process. Design Exploratory qualitative study. Setting General practice (primary care) in England. Participants 9 patients aged 65+ living with frailty who attended a consultation to reduce or stop a medicine/s. 3 informal carers of patients living with frailty. 14 primary care clinicians including general practitioners, practice pharmacists and advanced nurse practitioners. Methods Qualitative semistructured interviews took place with patients living with frailty, their informal carers and clinicians. Patients (n=9) and informal carers (n=3) were interviewed two times: immediately after deprescribing and 5/6 weeks later. Clinicians (n=14) were interviewed once. In total, 38 interviews were undertaken. Framework analysis was applied to manage and analyse the data. Results 6 themes associated with facilitators and barriers to deprescribing were generated, respectively, with each supported by between two and three subthemes. Identified facilitators of deprescribing with patients living with frailty included shared decision-making, gradual introduction of the topic, clear communication of the topic to the patient and multidisciplinary working. Identified barriers of deprescribing included consultation constraints, patients' fear of negative consequences and inaccessible terminology and information. Conclusions This paper offers timely insight into the barriers and facilitators to deprescribing for patients living with frailty within the context of primary care in England. As deprescribing continues to grow in national and international significance, it is important that future deprescribing interventions acknowledge the current barriers and facilitators and their associated behavioural components experienced by clinicians, patients living with frailty and their informal carers to improve the safety and effectiveness of the process.
    • Effect of chloride corrosion on eccentric compression response of concrete columns reinforced with steel-FRP composite bars

      Ge, W.-J.; Zhu, J.-W.; Ashour, Ashraf F.; Yang, Z.-P.; Cai, X.-N.; Yao, S.; Yan, W.-H.; Cao, D.-F.; Lu, W.-G. (ASCE, 2022)
      This paper presents test results of eccentrically loaded concrete columns reinforced with steel-fibre-reinforced polymer (FRP) composite bars (SFCBs) subjected to chloride corrosion. The first stage of the experimental work explored the tensile and compressive tests of various reinforcements (SFCBs with different cross section, steel and FRP bars) used in the large reinforced concrete (RC) columns after chloride corrosion with or without sustained stresses. The results showed that the tensile and compressive stress-strain relationships of SFCBs are characterised by stable secondary (post-yield) stiffness. The second stage of the testing investigated the structural performance of RC columns with various amounts and types of reinforcements, slenderness ratio, applied load eccentricity and chloride corrosion rate. The results showed that the effect of reinforcements on eccentric compression behaviour is significant. The deformation and crack width of SFCB RC columns, respectively, decreased by 12.2%~52.6% and 8.5%~71.0%, while the load capacity improved by 0.9%~18.8%, when compared with the corresponding FRP RC columns having the same eccentricity and reinforcement ratio. The use of SFCBs as the reinforcement of RC columns, especially with high reinforcement ratio or SFCBs having high area ratio of inner steel to SFCB, is beneficial to reduce the deflection and crack width as well as improve the bearing capacity utilization coefficients under serviceability limit state.