Now showing items 1-20 of 7916

    • Can occupational therapy address the occupational implications of hoarding?

      Clarke, Cathy (2019-03)
      Hoarding is often described as a medical disorder, defined by a persistent difficulty in discarding possessions and associated high levels of emotional distress when forced to part with these. This article will discuss how having a different view of hoarding, seeing hoarding as a daily occupation which provides value, purpose, and meaning and with a relationship to self-identity and life purpose, could offer alternate interventions to support an individual who hoards. The article will consider the components of hoarding activity and how these relate to health and wellbeing and doing, being, belonging, and becoming as understood by occupational therapists. The article will consider what occupational therapy, a profession which considers a person’s daily occupations, the things that occupy their time and which give meaning to their existence, could offer as an alternative to current hoarding interventions. Proposals for occupational therapy interventions will be suggested which would support occupational choice, support engagement in activities which have more positive outcomes on a person’s health, and seek to address barriers which limit engagement and occupational performance in activities within the person’s home environment.
    • Design and development of Knowledge Based System for Integrated Maintenance Strategy and Operations

      Milana, M.; Khan, M. Khurshid; Munive-Hernandez, J. Eduardo (2017-03)
      The importance of maintenance has escalated significantly by the increase in automation in manufacturing processes. This condition changed the perspective of maintenance from being considered as an inevitable cost to being seen as a key business function to drive competitiveness. Consequently, maintenance decisions need to be aligned with the business competitive strategy as well as the requirements of manufacturing/quality functions in order to support manufacturing equipment performance. Therefore, it is required to synchronise the maintenance strategy and operations with business and manufacturing/quality aspects. This article presents the design and development of a Knowledge Based System for Integrated Maintenance Strategy and Operations. The developed framework of the Knowledge Based System for Integrated Maintenance Strategy and Operations is elaborated to show how the Knowledge Based System for Integrated Maintenance Strategy and Operations can be applied to support maintenance decisions. The knowledge-based system integrates the Gauging Absences of Prerequisites methodology in order to deal with different decision-making priorities and to facilitate benchmarking with a target performance state. This is a new contribution to this area. The Knowledge Based System for Integrated Maintenance Strategy and Operations is useful in reviewing the existing maintenance system and provides reasonable recommendations for maintenance decisions with respect to business and manufacturing perspectives. In addition, it indicates the roadmap from the current state to the benchmark goals for the maintenance system.
    • Assessing quality management system at a tertiary hospital in Oman using a hybrid knowledge-based system

      Al Khamisi, Yousuf N.; Khan, M. Khurshid; Munive-Hernandez, J. Eduardo (2018-09)
      The cost of medical care is snowballing at an alarming and unmaintainable rate universally. Consequently, the need for a trusted quality management (QM) system at healthcare organizations is a must. Such system will aid the healthcare governance to increase the effectiveness and decrease the cost. It will help in minimizing the risk and enhancing patient safety. Several challenges facing healthcare QM in Oman are creating computerizing monitoring tool and confirming commitment of decision makers at all levels. The Report of Quality and Patient Safety (RQPS) in Oman 2016 highlighted the low level of patient safety and quality culture among staff. It recommended to inaugurate a well-defined organizational chart based on each healthcare organization’s vision and mission. Therefore, it is important to design a national accreditation system that is accredited by an international accreditation body. Such step will help in prioritizing the needs and minimizing the cost of maintaining and upgrading systems. To overcome these challenges, this article is presenting a novel methodology of hybrid knowledge-based (KB) system to assess QM in healthcare environment (QMHE) using gauging absence of prerequisites tool for benchmarking and analytical hierarchy process for prioritizing. The KB-QMHE model can be used as a standard to assess QM at any healthcare organization around the globe. The results showed that 852 questions were answered by the quality managers in a tertiary hospital in Oman; the percentage of bad points in this hospital was 32%. The KB-QMHE model has clearly shown that the priority 1, in level 0, is to focus on the patient-centered dimension in the healthcare quality dimensions submodule. Output, also, suggested a prioritized action plan covering healthcare governance module, healthcare leadership module and healthcare organization’s resources module in level 1–3.
    • Mechanical durability of hydrophobic surfaces fabricated by injection moulding of laser-induced textures

      Romano, J-M.; Gulcur, Mert; Garcia-Giron, A.; Martinez-Solanas, E.; Whiteside, Benjamin R.; Dimov, S.S. (2019-05-15)
      The paper reports an investigation on the mechanical durability of textured thermoplastic surfaces together with their respective wetting properties. A range of laser-induced topographies with different aspect ratios from micro to nanoscale were fabricated on tool steel inserts using an ultrashort pulsed near infrared laser. Then, through micro-injection moulding the topographies were replicated onto polypropylene surfaces and their durability was studied systematically. In particular, the evolution of topographies on textured thermoplastic surfaces together with their wetting properties were investigated after undergoing a controlled mechanical abrasion, i.e. reciprocating dry and wet cleaning cycles. The obtained empirical data was used both to study the effects of cleaning cycles and also to identify cleaning procedures with a minimal impact on textured thermoplastic surfaces and their respective wetting properties. In addition, the use of 3D areal parameters that are standardised and could be obtained readily with any state-of-the-art surface characterisation system are discussed for monitoring the surfaces' functional response.
    • A method for predicting geometric characteristics of polymer deposition during fused-filament-fabrication

      Hebda, Michael; McIlroy, C.; Whiteside, Benjamin R.; Caton-Rose, F.; Coates, Philip D. (2019-05)
      In recent years 3D printing has gained popularity amongst industry professionals and hobbyists alike, with many new types of Fused Filament Fabrication (FFF) apparatus types becoming available on the market. A massively overlooked component of FFF is the requirement for a simple method to calculate the geometries of polymer depositions extruded during the FFF process. Manufacturers have so far achieved adequate methods to calculate tool-paths through so called slicer software packages which calculate the required velocities of extrusion from prior knowledge and data. Presented here is a method for obtaining a series of equations for predicting height, width and cross-sectional area values for given processing parameters within the FFF process for initial laydown on to a glass surface.
    • Performance analysis of contending customer equipment in wireless networks

      Afzal, H.; Awan, Irfan U.; Mufti, M.R.; Sheriff, Ray E. (2016-07)
      Initial ranging is the primary and important process in wireless networks for the customer premise equipments (CPEs) to access the network and establish their connections with the base station. Contention may occur during the initial ranging process. To avoid contention, the mandatory solution defined in the standards is based on a truncated binary exponential random backoff (TBERB) algorithm with a fixed initial contention window size. However, the TBERB algorithm does not take into account the possibility that the number of contended CPEs may change dynamically over time, leading to a dynamically changing collision probability. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first attempt to address this issue. There are three major contributions presented in this paper. First, a comprehensive analysis of initial ranging mechanisms in wireless networks is provided and initial ranging request success probability is derived based on number of contending CPEs and the initial contention window size. Second, the average ranging success delay is derived for the maximum backoff stages. It is found that the collision probability is highly dependent on the size of the initial contention window and the number of contending CPEs. To achieve the higher success probability or to reduce the collision probability among CPEs, the BS needs to adjust the initial contention window size. To keep the collision probability at a specific value for the particular number of contending CPEs, it is necessary for the BS to schedule the required size of the initial contention window to facilitate the maximum number of CPEs to establish their connections with reasonable delay. In our third contribution, the initial window size is optimized to provide the least upper bound that meets the collision probability constraint for a particular number of contending CPEs. The numerical results validate our analysis.
    • Failure Prediction using Machine Learning in a Virtualised HPC System and application

      Bashir, Mohammed; Awan, Irfan U.; Ugail, Hassain; Muhammad, Y. (2019)
      Failure is an increasingly important issue in high performance computing and cloud systems. As large-scale systems continue to grow in scale and complexity, mitigating the impact of failure and providing accurate predictions with sufficient lead time remains a challenging research problem. Traditional existing fault-tolerance strategies such as regular check-pointing and replication are not adequate because of the emerging complexities of high performance computing systems. This necessitates the importance of having an effective as well as proactive failure management approach in place aimed at minimizing the effect of failure within the system. With the advent of machine learning techniques, the ability to learn from past information to predict future pattern of behaviours makes it possible to predict potential system failure more accurately. Thus, in this paper, we explore the predictive abilities of machine learning by applying a number of algorithms to improve the accuracy of failure prediction. We have developed a failure prediction model using time series and machine learning, and performed comparison based tests on the prediction accuracy. The primary algorithms we considered are the Support Vector Machine (SVM), Random Forest(RF), k-Nearest Neighbors (KNN), Classi cation and Regression Trees (CART) and Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA). Experimental results indicates that the average prediction accuracy of our model using SVM when predicting failure is 90% accurate and effective compared to other algorithms. This f inding implies that our method can effectively predict all possible future system and application failures within the system.
    • Corneal confocal microscopy detects a reduction in corneal endothelial cells and nerve fibres in patients with acute ischemic stroke

      Khan, A.; Kamran, S.; Akhtar, N.; Ponirakis, G.; Al-Muhannadi, H.; Petropoulos, I.N.; Al-Fahdawi, Shumoos; Qahwaji, Rami S.R.; Sartaj, F.; Babu, B.; Wadiwala, M.F.; Shuaib, A.; Mailk, R.A. (2018-11)
      Endothelial dysfunction and damage underlie cerebrovascular disease and ischemic stroke. We undertook corneal confocal microscopy (CCM) to quantify corneal endothelial cell and nerve morphology in 146 patients with an acute ischemic stroke and 18 age-matched healthy control participants. Corneal endothelial cell density was lower (P<0.001) and endothelial cell area (P<0.001) and perimeter (P<0.001) were higher, whilst corneal nerve fbre density (P<0.001), corneal nerve branch density (P<0.001) and corneal nerve fbre length (P=0.001) were lower in patients with acute ischemic stroke compared to controls. Corneal endothelial cell density, cell area and cell perimeter correlated with corneal nerve fber density (P=0.033, P=0.014, P=0.011) and length (P=0.017, P=0.013, P=0.008), respectively. Multiple linear regression analysis showed a signifcant independent association between corneal endothelial cell density, area and perimeter with acute ischemic stroke and triglycerides. CCM is a rapid non-invasive ophthalmic imaging technique, which could be used to identify patients at risk of acute ischemic stroke.
    • A smartphone camera reveals an ‘invisible’ Parkinsonian tremor: a potential pre-motor biomarker?

      Williams, S.; Fang, H.; Alty, J.; Qahwaji, Rami S.R.; Patel, P.; Graham, C.D. (2018)
      There are a wide variety of ways to objectively detect neurological signs, but these either require special hard-ware (such as wearable technology) or patient behaviour change (such as engagement with smartphone tasks) [2]. Neither constraint applies to the technology of computer vision, which is the processing of single or multiple camera images by computer to automatically derive useful information. The only equipment involved is ubiquitous: camera and computer.We report a computer vision-enhanced video sequence from a 68-year-old man, diagnosed with idiopathic Parkinson’s disease 2 years previously.
    • Data quality and governance in a UK social housing initiative: Implications for smart sustainable cities

      Duvier, Caroline; Anand, Prathivadi B.; Oltean-Dumbrava, Crina (2018)
      Smart Sustainable Cities (SSC) consist of multiple stakeholders, who must cooperate in order for SSCs to be successful. Housing is an important challenge and in many cities, therefore, a key stakeholder are social housing organisations. This paper introduces a qualitative case study of a social housing provider in the UK who implemented a business intelligence project (a method to assess data networks within an organisation) to increase data quality and data interoperability. Our analysis suggests that creating pathways for different information systems within an organisation to ‘talk to’ each other is the first step. Some of the issues during the project implementation include the lack of training and development, organisational reluctance to change, and the lack of a project plan. The challenges faced by the organisation during this project can be helpful for those implementing SSCs. Currently, many SSC frameworks and models exist, yet most seem to neglect localised challenges faced by the different stakeholders. This paper hopes to help bridge this gap in the SSC research agenda.
    • Data quality challenges in the UK social housing sector

      Duvier, Caroline; Neagu, Daniel; Oltean-Dumbrava, Crina; Dickens, D. (2018)
      The social housing sector has yet to realise the potential of high data quality. While other businesses, mainly in the private sector, reap the benefits of data quality, the social housing sector seems paralysed, as it is still struggling with recent government regulations and steep revenue reduction. This paper offers a succinct review of relevant literature on data quality and how it relates to social housing. The Housing and Development Board in Singapore offers a great example on how to integrate data quality initiatives in the social housing sector. Taking this example, the research presented in this paper is extrapolating cross-disciplinarily recommendations on how to implement data quality initiatives in social housing providers in the UK.
    • The Role of Intangible Human Factors in Business Success in South Asian Ethnic Minority Small Businesses

      Harding, Nancy H.; Williams, Jannine; Cornelius, Nelarine; Wallace, James; Haq, Muhibul (University of BradfordFaculty of Management and Law, 2016)
      Extant scholarship has paid considerable attention to exploring the impact of people-dependent intangible resources on business success but in large organisations only. Research about the role of these resources in small businesses, in general, and in ethnic minority small businesses, in particular, is scarce. The current study attempts to narrow this gap. Since it is impossible to study all the ethnic minority small businesses, this study uses a case study strategy that focuses on South Asian ethnic minority small businesses that deal in fashion. The study adopts a qualitative research methodology, it uses the semi-structured in-depth interview method to collect data, and it espouses an inductive thematic technique for coding/analysis of the data. Five overarching themes emerged from the interview data. These are: business success; compassionate customer service; relationships; knowledge, experience, training and education; and ethnic culture and the wider economic and political environment. Discussion of these themes leads to the formation of the culture-induced entrepreneurship model. According to this model, the continued success of these businesses is driven by the ethnic culture, while the existence of these businesses helps to maintain the culture in return. However, overdependence on the coethnic base might risk the future success of these businesses. This thesis concludes by highlighting its theoretical contributions to the culturalist view and the mixed embeddedness model of ethnic minority entrepreneurship and small business literature. The implications of this study for researchers, practitioners, and policy-makers, as well as its limitations and the possible future research paths, are also discussed.
    • Individual goal-oriented cognitive rehabilitation to improve everyday functioning for people with early-stage dementia: a multi-centre randomised controlled trial (the GREAT trial)

      Clare, L.; Kudlicka, A.; Oyebode, Jan R.; Jones, R.W.; Bayer, A.; Leroi, I.; Kopelman, M.; James, I.A.; Culverwell, A.; Pool, J.; Brand, A.; Henderson, C.; Hoare, Z.; Knapp, M.; Woods, B. (2019)
      Objectives: To determine whether individual goal-oriented cognitive rehabilitation (CR) improves everyday functioning for people with mild-to-moderate dementia. Design and methods: Parallel group multi-centre single-blind randomised controlled trial (RCT) comparing CR added to usual treatment (CR) with usual treatment alone (TAU) for people with an ICD-10 diagnosis of Alzheimer’s, vascular or mixed dementia and mild-to-moderate cognitive impairment (MMSE score ≥ 18), and with a family member willing to contribute. Participants allocated to CR received ten weekly sessions over three months and four maintenance sessions over six months. Participants were followed up three and nine months post-randomisation by blinded researchers. The primary outcome was self-reported goal attainment at three months. Secondary outcomes at three and nine months included informant-reported goal attainment, quality of life, mood, self-efficacy, and cognition, and study partner stress and quality of life. Results: We randomised (1:1) 475 people with dementia; 445 (CR=281) were included in the intention to treat analysis at three months, and 426 (CR=208) at nine months. At three months there were statistically-significant large positive effects for participant-rated goal attainment (d=0.97, 95% CI 0.75 to 1.19), corroborated by informant ratings (d=1.11, 0.89 to 1.34). These effects were maintained at nine months for both participant (d=0.94, 0.71 to 1.17) and informant ratings (d=0.96, 0.73 to 1.2). The observed gains related to goals directly targeted in the therapy. There were no significant differences in secondary outcomes. Conclusions: Cognitive rehabilitation enables people with early-stage dementia to improve their everyday functioning in relation to individual goals targeted in the therapy.
    • The Three Winds of Albert Lamorisse

      Goodall, Mark D. (2018)
      This text discusses the films of French director Albert Lamorisse in relation to the poetics of cinema. It focuses on three of Lamorisse’s films, Crin Blanc (1953), Le Ballon Rouge (1956) and Le Vent des Amoureux (1978), in order to examine his fascination with wind, a force of nature, due to its invisibility, that is virtually impossible to capture on film. Certain French theorists, however, have tried to explain the power of the wind, most notably Gaston Bachelard, whose works are quoted here as part of the analysis, while a few distinguished filmmakers, such as Joris Ivens and Andrei Tarkovsky, have used wind in interesting ways. But only Lamorisse had what could be described as a sustained obsession. Despite early success (the great French film theorist André Bazin was praiseworthy about his short films), Lamorisse has been somewhat neglected in recent years. Thus, this essay highlights the unique skills of a ‘forgotten man’ of French post-war cinema.
    • BMPRII deficiency impairs apoptosis via the BMPRII-ALK1-BclX-mediated pathway in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH)

      Chowdhury, H.M.; Sharmin, N.; Yuzbasioglu Baran, M.; Long, L.; Morrell, N.W.; Trembath, R.C.; Nasim, Md. Talat (2019)
      Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension (PAH) is a devastating cardiovascular disorder characterised by the remodelling of pre-capillary pulmonary arteries. The vascular remodelling observed in PAH patients results from excessive proliferation and apoptosis resistance of pulmonary arterial smooth muscle (PASMCs) and endothelial cells (PAECs). We have previously demonstrated that mutations in the type II receptor for bone morphogenetic protein (BMPRII) underlie the majority of the familial and inherited forms of the disease. We have further demonstrated that BMPRII deficiency promotes excessive proliferation and attenuates apoptosis in PASMCs, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. The major objective of this study is to investigate how BMPRII deficiency impairs apoptosis in PAH. Using multidisciplinary approaches, we demonstrate that deficiency in the expression of BMPRII impairs apoptosis by modulating the alternative splicing of the apoptotic regulator, Bcl-x (B-cell lymphoma X) transcripts: a finding observed in circulating leukocytes and lungs of PAH subjects, hypoxia-induced PAH rat lungs as well as in PASMCs and PAECs. BMPRII deficiency elicits cell specific effects: promoting the expression of Bcl-xL transcripts in PASMCs whilst inhibiting it in ECs, thus exerting differential apoptotic effects in these cells. The pro-survival effect of BMPRII receptor is mediated through the activin receptor like kinase 1 (ALK1) but not the ALK3 receptor. Finally, we show that BMPRII interacts with the ALK1 receptor and pathogenic mutations in the BMPR2 gene abolish this interaction. Taken together, dysfunctional BMPRII responsiveness impairs apoptosis via the BMPRII-ALK1-Bcl-xL pathway in PAH. We suggest Bcl-xL as a potential biomarker and druggable target.
    • The role of photoreceptors in human skin physiology; potential targets for light-based wound healing treatments. Identification of opsins and cryptochromes and the effect of photobiomodulation on human skin and in cultured primary epidermal keratinocytes and dermal fibroblasts

      Thornton, M. Julie; Botchkarev, Vladimir A.; Castellano-Pellicena, Irene (University of BradfordCentre for Skin Sciences, Faculty of Life Sciences, 2017)
      The positive effect of photobiomodulation in wound healing has previously been reported, however there is a considerable lack of knowledge regarding the molecular mechanisms involved, and no consensus on light parameters. Cytochrome c oxidase (CCO) is established as the main photoreceptor in cells, but light also induces nitric oxide (NO), production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and activation of ion channels. Emerging new molecular targets include the GPCRs opsins (OPNs) and the circadian clock transcription factors, cryptochromes (CRYs). Localisation of OPN1-SW, OPN3, OPN5, CRY1 and CRY2 was seen in female facial and abdominal human skin. Furthermore, expression of these photoreceptors was retained in primary epidermal keratinocytes and dermal fibroblasts in culture; both cell types expressed OPN1-SW, OPN3, CRY1 and CRY2, at the mRNA and protein level. OPN2 was only expressed in cultured dermal fibroblasts, while in line with in situ expression, OPN5 was only expressed in cultured keratinocytes. The photoreceptor-expressing cultured epidermal keratinocytes demonstrated a dose- and wavelength- dependent response in both metabolic activity and cell migration in a scratch-wound assay. Specifically, low dose (2 J/cm2) blue light (447 nm) increased metabolic activity, but it did not impact keratinocyte migration. In contrast, high dose (30 J/cm2) blue light had no effect on metabolism, but inhibited migration of epidermal keratinocytes. Red light (655 nm) at 30 J/cm2 stimulated metabolic activity but did not modulate migration, while a higher dose of 60 J/cm2 had no effect on keratinocyte metabolic activity. In order to study OPN3 and CRY1 function, they were silenced in keratinocytes using siRNA; additionally 8 μM KL001 was used to stabilize CRY1. KL001 inhibited migration, and induced KRT1 and KRT10, an effect which was abrogated by knockdown of OPN3. Interestingly, knockdown of OPN3 upregulated CRY1 expression, while KL001 upregulated OPN3 expression, indicating a regulation by OPN3 of the molecular epidermal clock. Low levels of blue light increased early differentiation of epidermal keratinocytes, which was mediated by OPN3 and circadian clock mechanisms. However, low levels of blue light decreased keratinocyte DNA synthesis, which was mediated by circadian clock independently of OPN3. Translation of parameters ex vivo showed increasing re-epithelialisation and induction of OPN3 and CRY1 expression following exposure to 2 J/cm2 of blue light; however high doses of blue light inhibited re-epithelialisation. Red light, also increased re-epithelialisation, but had no effect on OPN3 or CRY1 expression. In conclusion, photoreceptors are expressed in human skin and they mediate DNA synthesis, migration and differentiation of epidermal keratinocytes. Furthermore, low dose of blue light interacts with OPN3 to induce epidermal differentiation, through the regulation of the circadian clock. A better understanding of the molecular mechanisms behind the photobiomodulation response in vitro will help to develop light based therapies for human wound healing. Interestingly, selected light parameters translated to human ex vivo skin showed a beneficial effect of low doses of blue (2 J/cm2) and red (30 J/cm2) light in re-epithelialisation.
    • Functional Investigation of Dual αvβ3 and αllbβ3 Integrin Inhibition in Haematological and Solid Tumour Models

      Sheldrake, Helen M.; Patterson, Laurence H.; Elsharif, Amal A.M. (University of BradfordInstitute of Cancer Therapeutics, Faculty of Life Sciences, 2018)
      Invasion and metastasis of cancer is the leading cause of increased mortality. In addition, haematological malignancies (leukaemia and lymphoma) are a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in both children and adults. Therefore, new treatments which will inhibit cancer progression are required. Integrin adhesion receptors, particularly the RGD-binding integrin subfamily comprising αvβ3, αvβ5, αvβ6, αvβ8, αllbβ3, α5β1, α8β1 and αvβ1 are related to progress and spread of cancer and poor prognosis. Because of the importance of integrin biology in the regulation of cancer dissemination, the integrin receptors are being utilised as targets to regulate cancer progression. The goal of this study was to develop a dual αvβ3/ αIIbβ3 expressing model for testing integrin antagonists. Expression of αv, αIIb, and β3 integrin subunits was characterised using immunofluorescence and flow cytometry in a panel of cell lines. After characterising the expression of αv, αIIb and β3 integrin subunits in inducible and natural expression models (K562 and MCF-7 cells respectively), functional tests for cellular adhesion, detachment and migration were determined. Phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA)-treated K562 cells showed increased adhesion on fibrinogen compared to untreated cells. Adhesion of cancer cells (K562 ± PMA and MCF-7) to fibrinogen was inhibited and detachment was induced by the known β3 antagonists, cRGDfV and GR104453. Migration of cancer cells (K562 without PMA and MCF-7) was inhibited by combination of the known β3 antagonists. A panel of 12 novel small molecules developed in the ICT was investigated for cytotoxicity and activity in the validated function assays. ICT9055 was the most potent antagonist in inhibition of cell adhesion, migration, and inducing cell detachment. The data presented in this thesis had selected models and assays for evaluating small molecule integrin antagonists and identified ICT9055 as a promising molecule to develop for further preclinical evaluation.
    • Molecular interactions in pharmaceutical preformulation and supramolecular complexes. Structural properties governing drug-plasma protein binding and investigation of amino acids co-crystals

      Paradkar, Anant R.; Liu, Xiangli; Kamble, Sharad R. (University of BradfordSchool of Biomedical Sciences and Pharmacy, Faculty of Life Sciences, 2018)
      The study of pharmaceutical preformulation includes the evaluation of pharmacokinetic, pharmacodynamic and physicochemical properties of the drug molecules that aid the formulation. However, it has a limited role in determining drug dosage optimisation in the formulation. The study of drug-Plasma Protein Binding (PPB), and the lipophilicity, solubility, and ionic behaviours of the desired drug molecules addresses the gap and enhances our undertraining related to the behaviour of the drug molecules in the body. The High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) technique was used in the current study to assess drug-PPB interaction. Using Michael Abraham’s ‘Linear Free Energy Relationship’ (LFER) method, two major plasma proteins namely, Human Serum Albumin as HSA and α-1-Acid Glycoprotein as AGP, were used and the structural properties governing drug-plasma protein binding was determined. This is the first time that the effect of ionised species on PPB has been quantitatively evaluated. In addition, the molecular interactions also play a key role in the supramolecular complexes of co-crystals. The project also evaluated the co-crystallisation process and its effect on physicochemical properties of the drug. In the current study, amino acids (AAs) have been observed to be a prominent source of coformers. The AAs showed co-crystals formation with carboxylic acids, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) and citric acid which overcome the hygroscopicity problems and improved the physical stability issues during storage. This study has also identified a new formulation which is helpful for improvement in the stability of effervescent tablets at various relative humidity (RH) conditions which will reduce the manufacturing cost associated with the production of effervescent tablets.
    • Dementia and minority ethnic carers

      Parveen, Sahdia; Oyebode, Jan R. (2018-06)
    • Uptake of oral anticoagulants for stroke prevention in patients with atrial fibrillation in a single Clinical Commissioning Group in England without restrictions to their use

      Medlinskiene, Kristina; Fay, M.; Petty, Duncan R. (2019)
      Background and Objective In England, the uptake of direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) for stroke prevention in atrial fbrillation has been slow and varied across diferent Clinical Commissioning Groups (CCGs). This study aimed to profle the prescribing of oral anticoagulants for stroke prevention in patients with atrial fbrillation over 3 years in a CCG without restrictions to DOACs use to understand more about organisational and/or individual barriers to the early uptake of DOACs. Methods Data were collected from nine general practices between 1 April 2012 and 31 March 2015 of patients who were initiated on the oral anticoagulant therapy. Data were analysed descriptively and with independent Student’s t test and Chi square test to explore if there was an association between type of oral anticoagulant initiated and sex, age, type of prescriber and prior aspirin use. Results The early uptake of DOACs signifcantly increased over the study period (p<0.0001; medium size efect φc=0.372). There was no statistically signifcant diference between sex or age and type of oral anticoagulant initiated. Primary-care prescribers were responsible for initiating the majority of oral anticoagulants (71%; N=257) and driving the use of DOACs (72%, N=71). Patients switched from aspirin to an oral anticoagulant were more likely to be initiated on warfarin than a DOAC. Conclusions The early use of DOACs, in a CCG without restrictions to their use, was embraced by primary-care prescribers in this particular CCG.