Now showing items 1-20 of 10386

    • The use of silent substitution in measuring isolated cone- & rod- human electroretinograms. An electrophysiological study of human rod- and cone- photoreceptor activity derived using silent substitution paradigm

      McKeefry, Declan J.; Tripathy, Srimant P.; Kommanapalli, Deepika (University of BradfordBradford School of Optometry and Vision Sciences, 2019)
      After over a decade of its discovery, the Electroretinogram (ERG) still remains the objective tool that is conventionally used in assessment of retinal function in health and disease. Although there is ongoing research in developing ERG- recording techniques, interpretation and clinical applications, there is still a limited understanding on how each photoreceptor class contribute to the ERG waveform and their role and/or susceptibilities in various retinal diseases still remains unclear. Another limitation with currently used conventional testing protocols in a clinical setting is the requirement of an adaptation period which is time-consuming. Furthermore, the ERG responses derived in this manner are recorded under different stimulus conditions, thus, making comparison of these signals difficult. To address these issues and develop a new testing method, we employed silent substitution paradigm in obtaining cone- and rod- isolating ERGs using sine- and square- wave temporal profiles. The ERGs achieved in this manner were shown to be photoreceptor-selective. Furthermore, these responses did not only provide the functional index of photoreceptors but their contributions to their successive postreceptoral pathways. We believe that the substitution stimuli used in this thesis could be a valuable tool in functional assessment of individual photoreceptor classes in normal and pathological conditions. Furthermore, we speculate that this method of cone/rod activity isolation could possibly be used in developing faster and efficient photoreceptor-selective testing protocols without the need of adaptation.
    • Contributions for Handling Big Data Heterogeneity. Using Intuitionistic Fuzzy Set Theory and Similarity Measures for Classifying Heterogeneous Data

      Neagu, Daniel; Trundle, Paul R.; Ali, Najat (University of BradfordDepartment of Computer Science, 2019)
      A huge amount of data is generated daily by digital technologies such as social media, web logs, traffic sensors, on-line transactions, tracking data, videos, and so on. This has led to the archiving and storage of larger and larger datasets, many of which are multi-modal, or contain different types of data which contribute to the problem that is now known as “Big Data”. In the area of Big Data, volume, variety and velocity problems remain difficult to solve. The work presented in this thesis focuses on the variety aspect of Big Data. For example, data can come in various and mixed formats for the same feature(attribute) or different features and can be identified mainly by one of the following data types: real-valued, crisp and linguistic values. The increasing variety and ambiguity of such data are particularly challenging to process and to build accurate machine learning models. Therefore, data heterogeneity requires new methods of analysis and modelling techniques to enable useful information extraction and the modelling of achievable tasks. In this thesis, new approaches are proposed for handling heterogeneous Big Data. these include two techniques for filtering heterogeneous data objects are proposed. The two techniques called Two-Dimensional Similarity Space(2DSS) for data described by numeric and categorical features, and Three-Dimensional Similarity Space(3DSS) for real-valued, crisp and linguistic data are proposed for filtering such data. Both filtering techniques are used in this research to reduce the noise from the initial dataset and make the dataset more homogeneous. Furthermore, a new similarity measure based on intuitionistic fuzzy set theory is proposed. The proposed measure is used to handle the heterogeneity and ambiguity within crisp and linguistic data. In addition, new combine similarity models are proposed which allow for a comparison between the heterogeneous data objects represented by a combination of crisp and linguistic values. Diverse examples are used to illustrate and discuss the efficiency of the proposed similarity models. The thesis also presents modification of the k-Nearest Neighbour classifier, called k-Nearest Neighbour Weighted Average (k-NNWA), to classify the heterogeneous dataset described by real-valued, crisp and linguistic data. Finally, the thesis also introduces a novel classification model, called FCCM (Filter Combined Classification Model), for heterogeneous data classification. The proposed model combines the advantages of the 3DSS and k-NNWA classifier and outperforms the latter algorithm. All the proposed models and techniques have been applied to weather datasets and evaluated using accuracy, Fscore and ROC area measures. The experiments revealed that the proposed filtering techniques are an efficient approach for removing noise from heterogeneous data and improving the performance of classification models. Moreover, the experiments showed that the proposed similarity measure for intuitionistic fuzzy data is capable of handling the fuzziness of heterogeneous data and the intuitionistic fuzzy set theory offers some promise in solving some Big Data problems by handling the uncertainties, and the heterogeneity of the data.
    • What is left for the youth at-risk? Honouring local peace dividends, rehabilitation and integration through the relational sensibility approach. An analysis of reintegration approaches and their effectiveness on youth at-risk of criminalisation – a Somalia case study

      Chesters, Graeme S.; Kelly, Rhys H.S.; Schumicky-Logan, Lilla (University of BradfordFaculty of Social Science. Department of Peace Studies, 2018)
      The liberal peace approach guided the Disarmament Demobilisation and Reintegration (DDR) programmes under the auspices of the United Nations. While both practitioners and policymakers recognised that context fitted approaches are required, which resulted in the revision of DDR policy and practice, the driving principle approach remained the liberal peace theory, which creates a hierarchical relationship between the intervener and the intervened. I argue that applying the relational sensibility concept that places relations, dialogue, and hybridity in its focus can (potentially) contribute to a more effective locally designed, led, and implemented reintegration programme that is owned by the different stakeholders instead of imposed. Most reintegration programmes focused on the economic reintegration of ex combatants yielding limited results. I argue that social development for not only former combatants but also for youth at-risk of criminalisation is an essential element of reintegration. I probe the applicability of an alternative peace-building approach to the liberal peace that prioritises actions over relations by reviewing past DDR programmes and a specific case study in Somalia. I establish that an inclusive, community-based reintegration programme that focuses on the social rehabilitation and integration of vulnerable and at-risk youth by strengthening their social and spiritual capitals, as well as promotes restorative justice, can contribute to the decreased level of aggression at the individual level and the perceptions of the increased level of community security in Somalia. I conclude that DDR programmes both policy and practice, should look into more community-based approaches, inclusivity, and balancing between social and economic development opportunities.
    • Female friendships in the workplace: A qualitative study of women's relationships in the Kuwaiti education sector

      Williams, Jannine; Kelly, Simon; Alkandari, Anwaar M. (University of BradfordFaculty of Management, Law and Social Sciences, 2018)
      This thesis draws upon the qualitative findings of 20 interviews undertaken with female teachers in order to explore the topic of workplace friendships between women in an all-female organisational setting. The interview data sheds light on these friendships within the all-female workplace context, examining how the workplace setting can influence the forms of friendship women build with one another. This thesis explores this topic across three main areas: 1) the way in which women develop workplace friendships, and the forms that women-women relations take in all-female workplaces; 2) the importance of workplace friendships and the meanings attached to these friendships; and 3) the blurred boundaries between family and friends, which result in unique workplace-friendship relationships. This study contributes to current knowledge on friendship development and, specifically, the issues associated with women’s development of friendships within the all-female workplace context. The findings highlight the difficulties that some women experience in creating and developing friendships based on cultural boundaries. The findings also emphasise the weaker utility in female friendships, which remains both unacceptable and unchallenged yet nonetheless recognised by women. Furthermore, women are argued to create “other-self” friends and to experience another form of suffusion process in the workplace context. This study also contributes to the current literature on the barriers and opportunities associated with female friendship-building by highlighting how female misogyny employed in the workplace and that workplace friendship is a surviving tool used, adopting a sociological perspective to explore and analyse the findings.
    • The effect of government support on bureaucracy, COVID-19 resilience and export intensity: Evidence from North Africa

      Onjewu, A.E.; Olan, F.; Nyuur, Richard B.; Paul, S.; Nguyen, H.T.T. (2023-02)
      The literature on the imperativeness of government support for firm survival since the onset of COVID-19 is vast, but scholars have scarcely considered the impact of such assistance on managers' time, nor the extent to which support measures induce resilience and export activity. Accordingly, this study assesses the impact of government support on (1) bureaucracy and (2) resilience using data from 535 Moroccan SMEs. It further evaluates the influence of resilience on direct versus indirect exports, and espouses the institutional voids, resource-based and strategy-creation view to explain the associations through a contingency lens. The results demonstrate that (1) government support increases bureaucracy which, (2) surprisingly triggers and enhances resilience. Furthermore, (3) resilience has a positive impact on direct exports but (4) adversely affects indirect exports. Theoretically, the findings acquiesce extant calls for measurement specificity in export performance. Practically, stakeholders' attention is drawn to the value of managers' time well spent.
    • Entrepreneurial strategic posture and new technology ventures in an emerging economy

      Amankwah-Amoah, J.; Nyuur, Richard B.; Hinson, R.; Kosiba, J.P.; Al-Tabbaa, O.; Cunningham, J.A. (2023-02)
      Purpose: Although start-ups have gained increasing scholarly attention, we lack sufficient understanding of their entrepreneurial strategic posture (ESP) in emerging economies. The purpose of this study is to examine the processes of ESP of new technology venture start-ups (NTVs) in an emerging market context. Design/methodology/approach: In line with grounded theory guidelines and the inductive research traditions, the authors adopted a qualitative approach involving 42 in-depth semi-structured interviews with Ghanaian NTV entrepreneurs to gain a comprehensive analysis at the micro-level on the entrepreneurs' strategic posturing. A systematic procedure for data analysis was adopted. Findings: From the authors' analysis of Ghanaian NTVs, the authors derived a three-stage model to elucidate the nature and process of ESP Phase 1 spotting and exploiting market opportunities, Phase II identifying initial advantages and Phase III ascertaining and responding to change. Originality/value: The study contributes to advancing research on ESP by explicating the process through which informal ties and networks are utilised by NTVs and NTVs' founders to overcome extreme resource constraints and information vacuums in contexts of institutional voids. The authors depart from past studies in demonstrating how such ties can be harnessed in spotting and exploiting market opportunities by NTVs. On this basis, the paper makes original contributions to ESP theory and practice.
    • Online product decision support using sentiment analysis and fuzzy cloud-based multi-criteria model through multiple e-commerce platforms

      Yang, Z.; Li, Q.; Vincent, Charles; Xu, B.; Gupta, S. (2023)
      The competitive landscape of multiple e-commerce platforms and the vast amount of product reviews associated with these platforms have supported both consumers’ online shopping decision making and also served as a reference for product attribute performance improvement. This paper proposes a sentiment-driven fuzzy cloud multi-criteria model for online product ranking and performance to provide purchase recommendations. In this novel model, Bi-directional Long Short-Term Memory Network-Conditional Random Fields (BiLSTM-CRF), sentiment analysis, and K-means clustering are first integrated to mine product attributes and compute sentiment values based on reviews from various platforms. Next, considering the confidence of the sentiment value, the cloud model is combined with q-rung orthopair fuzzy sets to define the new concept of the q-rung orthopair fuzzy cloud (q-ROFC) and the interaction operational laws between q-ROFCs are given. The sentiment values of each product attribute from different platforms are cross-combined and transformed into a type of q- ROFC, while multiple interactive information matrices are established. To investigate the correlation among homogeneous attributes, the q-ROFC interaction weighted partitioned Maclaurin Symmetric mean operator is proposed. Finally, we provide real-world examples of online mobile phone ranking and attribute performance evaluation. The results show that our proposed method offers significant advantages in dealing with customer purchase decisions for online products and problems with performance direction identification. Managerial implications are discussed.
    • Design, development and investigation of innovative indoor approaches for healthcare solutions. Design and simulation of RFID and reconfigurable antenna for wireless indoor applications; modelling and Implementation of ambient and wearable sensing, activity recognition, using machine learning, neural network for unobtrusive health monitoring

      Abd-Alhameed, Raed A.; Jones, Steven M.R.; Noras, James M.; Oguntala, George A. (University of BradfordDepartment of Biomedical and Electronics Engineering. Faculty of Engineering and Informatics, 2019)
      The continuous integration of wireless communication systems in medical and healthcare applications has made the actualisation of reliable healthcare applications and services for patient care and smart home a reality. Diverse indoor approaches are sought to improve the quality of living and consequently longevity. The research centres on the development of smart healthcare solutions using various indoor technologies and techniques for active and assisted living. At first, smart health solutions for ambient and wearable assisted living in smart homes are sought. This requires a detailed study of indoor localisation. Different indoor localisation technologies including acoustic, magnetic, optical and radio frequency are evaluated and compared. From the evaluation, radio frequency-based technologies, with interest in wireless fidelity (Wi-Fi) and radio frequency identification (RFID) are isolated for smart healthcare. The research focus is sought on auto-identification technologies, with design considerations and performance constraints evaluated. Moreover, the design of various antennas for different indoor technologies to achieve innovative healthcare solutions is of interest. First, a meander line passive RFID tag antenna resonating at the European ultra-high frequency is designed, simulated and evaluated. Second, a frequency-reconfigurable patch antenna with the capability to resonate at ten distinct frequencies to support Wi-Fi and worldwide interoperability for microwave access applications is designed and simulated. Afterwards, a low-profile, lightweight, textile patch antenna using denim material substrate is designed and experimentally verified. It is established that, by loading proper rectangular slots and introducing strip lines, substantial size antenna miniaturisation is achieved. Further, novel wearable and ambient methodologies to further ameliorate smart healthcare and smart homes are developed. Machine learning and deep learning methods using multivariate Gaussian and Long short-term memory recurrent neural network are used to experimentally validate the viability of the new approaches. This work follows the construction of the SmartWall of passive RFID tags to achieve non-invasive data acquisition that is highly unobtrusive.
    • Development of Multiple Linear Regression Model and Rule Based Decision Support System to Improve Supply Chain Management of Road Construction Projects in Disaster Regions

      Not named; Anwar, Waqas (University of BradfordFaculty of Engineering and Informatics, 2019)
      Supply chain operations of construction industry including road projects in disaster regions results in exceeding project budget and timelines. In road construction projects, supply chain with poor performance can affect efficiency and completion time of the project. This is also the case of the road projects in disaster areas. Disaster areas consider both natural and man-made disasters. Few examples of disaster zones are; Pakistan, Afghanistan, Iraq, Sri Lanka, India, Japan, Haiti and many other countries with similar environments. The key factors affecting project performance and execution are insecurity, uncertainties in demand and supply, poor communication and technology, poor infrastructure, lack of political and government will, unmotivated organizational staff, restricted accessibility to construction materials, legal hitches, multiple challenges of hiring labour force and exponential construction rates due to high risk environment along with multiple other factors. The managers at all tiers are facing challenges of overrunning time and budget of supply chain operations during planning as well as execution phase of development projects. The aim of research is to develop a Multiple Linear Regression Model (MLRM) and a Rule Based Decision Support System by incorporating various factors affecting supply chain management of road projects in disaster areas in the order of importance. This knowledge base (KB) (importance / coefficient of each factor) will assist infrastructure managers (road projects) and practitioners in disaster regions in decision making to minimize the effect of each factor which will further help them in project improvement. Conduct of Literature Review in the fields of disaster areas, supply chain operational environments of road project, statistical techniques, Artificial Intelligence (AI) and types of research approaches has provided deep insights to the researchers. An initial questionnaire was developed and distributed amongst participants as pilot project and consequently results were analysed. The results’ analysis enabled the researcher to extract key variables impacting supply chain performance of road project. The results of questionnaire analysis will facilitate development of Multiple Linear Regression Model, which will eventually be verified and validated with real data from actual environments. The development of Multiple Linear Regression Model and Rule Based Decision Support System incorporating all factors which affect supply chain performance of road projects in disastrous regions is the most vital contribution to the research. The significance and novelty of this research is the methodology developed that is the integration of those different methods which will be employed to measure the SCM performance of road projects in disaster areas.
    • Implementation relations and testing for cyclic systems: adding probabilities

      Nunez, M.; Hierons, R.M.; Lefticaru, Raluca (Elsevier, 2023-07)
      This paper concerns the systematic testing of robotic control software based on state-based models. We focus on cyclic systems that typically receive inputs (values from sensors), perform computations, produce outputs (sent to actuators) and possibly change state. We provide a testing theory for such cyclic systems where time can be represented and probabilities are used to quantify non-deterministic choices, making it possible to model probabilistic algorithms. In addition, refusals, the inability of a system to perform a set of actions, are taken into account. We consider several possible testing scenarios. For example, a tester might only be able to passively observe a sequence of events and so cannot check probabilities, while in another scenario a tester might be able to repeatedly apply a test case and so estimate the probabilities of sequences of events. These different testing scenarios lead to a range of implementation relations (notions of correctness). As a consequence, this paper provides formal definitions of implementation relations that can form the basis of sound automated testing in a range of testing scenarios. We also validate the implementation relations by showing how observers can be used to provide an alternative but equivalent characterisation.
    • What are lay UK public perceptions of frailty: a scoping review

      Shafiq, S.; Haith-Cooper, Melanie; Hawkins, R.; Parveen, Sahdia (2023-04)
      Rationale and objective: Perceptions of frailty can influence how families cope, quality of life and access to support services. Yet little is known of how lay members of the UK general public perceive frailty. This scoping review aimed to explore how frailty is perceived among the lay public in the United Kingdom. Methods: The established scoping review methodology by Arksey and O’Malley was followed and searches were conducted across eight electronic databases and grey literature websites for articles published between 1990 and August 2022. In total, 6,705 articles were identified, of which six were included in the review. Data were analysed using Braun and Clarke’s thematic analysis framework. Results: Three key themes were identified; frailty as a normal part of ageing, perceived consequences of frailty and coping with frailty. Overall, frailty has negative connotations and is perceived as linked to a natural part of the ageing process, increased dependency, loss of identity and social exclusion and stigma. However, it is unclear whether these perceptions have a direct bearing on access to support services for communities. Conclusion and implications: This review identifies that it is imperative for health and social care service providers to consider the individual meaning of frailty for older people and families, to understand and integrate their particular needs and preferences when planning and delivering person centred frailty care and support. There is also a need for development of interventions that focus on increasing education and reducing stigma around frailty in order to change frailty perceptions in the UK.
    • Comparative analysis of granule properties in continuous granulators

      Sekyi, Nana; Kelly, Adrian L.; Rahmanian, Nejat (2023)
      Several contributions in answering granulation challenges including the use of computer simulation and well thought out experimental analyses are being researched. Using a twin screw granulator (TSG) by design of experiments (DoE), comparisons on 1) equipment similarities i.e., continuous and 2) shear forces, are made to previous literature on continuous equipment and a Cyclomix. This study proposes that equipment specific DoE, better explains the contribution of parameters than investigating an identified parameter from the experimental findings from a specific equipment. Granule strength and structure are presented together with the contribution of process parameters, speed, temperature, and binder content. Seeded structures are present in all but the Extrudomix. Longer residence times within the Cyclomix facilitates seeded structures. Granule crushing strengths are higher in TSG than all other continuous equipment. Optimum condition for the formation of stronger granules with least variation is around 65.4 °C.
    • Management of non-communicable diseases in Kosovo: A scoping review

      Hoxha, I.; Apuk, V.; Kryeziu, B.; Rashiti, P.; Aliu, M.; Gonzalez Aquines, Alejandro; Khan, O.; Nguyen, H.T.H. (2023-02)
      Background: Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) affect a growing share of the population in Kosovo. The country faces challenges with NCDs management, specifically detecting, screening, and treating people with NCDs. Objective: To assess the management of NCDs, including the inputs that influence the provision of NCDs and outcomes of NCD management. Eligibility criteria: Studies had to report NCD management in Kosovo. Sources of evidence: We systematically searched Google Scholar, PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science. Charting methods: The data were charted by two researchers. We extracted data on general study details and design and information on the management and outcomes of NCDs in Kosovo. Synthesis of results: For the mix of studies that were included in the review, thematic narrative synthesis was used. We developed a conceptual framework based on health production core components to analyze the data. Results: Kosovo's health care system is available to provide basic care for patients with NCDs. However, there are serious limitations in the availability of key inputs providing care, i.e., funding, medicines, supplies, and medical staff. Additionally, in terms of the management of NCDs, there are areas for improvement, such as limited application of clinical pathways and guidelines and issues with referrals of patients among levels and sectors of care. Finally, it is worth noting that there is overall limited information on NCD management and outcomes. Conclusions: Kosovo provides only basic services and treatment of NCDs. The data reporting the existing situation on NCD management are limited. The inputs from this review are helpful for existing policy efforts by the government aimed to enhance NCD care in Kosovo.
    • Deposit-borrowing substitutability: evidence from microfinance institutions around the world

      Shettima, U.; Dzolkarnaini, Nazam (2023)
      Drawing from 645 microfinance institutions across 56 countries, this paper examines the deposit-borrowing dynamic of microfinance institutions’ source of capital. We find that deposits and borrowings are substitutes rather than complements. We further find that the degree of substitutability is more pronounced among microfinance institutions operating in a developed financial sector where the level of information asymmetry is lower. Our findings represent novel contribution in understanding microfinance institutions’ funding behaviour that supports its quest for further growth and long-term sustainability.
    • Cryptocurrency Risk and Governance Challenges

      Minhat, Marizah; Abdullah, M.; Dzolkarnaini, Nazam; Sapiei, N.S. (Routledge, 2023)
      This book provides an interdisciplinary critical perspective regarding risk, uncertainty, and governance challenges of cryptocurrencies. It considers the perspectives of several disciplines including accounting, cybersecurity, cyberlaw, economics, ethics, finance, financial regulation, shariah (Islamic) law and technology. Distinguished from other books on similar topic, our in-depth analysis and critical discourse on cryptocurrency risk categories are supplemented by research evidence gathered from surveys and interviews with stakeholders. The inclusion of an Islamic insight matters given mixed views at present regarding the permissibility of cryptocurrencies albeit some countries have imposed somewhat restricted function of cryptocurrencies for non-religious reasons. It is envisaged that this book will help enlighten stakeholders on this aspect of uncertainty and inspire fit and proper governance strategies for the public interest.
    • Animals, Identity and Cosmology: Mortuary Practice in Early Medieval Eastern England

      Bond, Julie M.; Buckberry, Jo; Pestell; Rainsford, Clare E. (University of BradfordSchool of Archaeological and Forensic Sciences. Faculty of Life Sciences, 2017)
      The inclusion of animal remains in funerary contexts was a routine feature of Anglo-Saxon cremation ritual, and less frequently of inhumations, until the introduction of Christianity during the 7th century. Most interpretation has focused either on the animal as symbolic of identity or as an indication of pagan belief, with little consideration given to the interaction between these two aspects. Animals were a fundamental and ubiquitous part of early medieval society, and their contribution to mortuary practices is considered to be multifaceted, reflecting their multiple roles in everyday life. This project considers the roles of animals in mortuary practice between the 5th-7th centuries across five counties in eastern England – Norfolk, Suffolk, Lincolnshire, Cambridgeshire and Essex – in both cremation and inhumation rites. Animal remains have been recognised in 5th to 7th century burials in eastern England from an early date, and the quality of the existing archives (both material and written) is investigated and discussed as an integral part of designing a methodology to effectively summarise data across a wide area. From the eastern England dataset, four aspects of identity in mortuary practice are considered in terms of their influence on the role of animals: choice of rite (cremation/inhumation); human biological identity (age & gender); regionality; and changing expressions of belief and status in the 7th century. The funerary role of animals is argued to be based around broadly consistent cosmologies which are locally contingent in their expression and practice.
    • The Civil Defence Debate in Britain 1957-1983. An account and critical analysis of the major issues in the debate about civil defence against nuclear attack

      Dando, Malcolm R.; Crossley, George J. (University of BradfordPostgraduate School of Studies in Peace Studies, 1985)
      The thesis details the course of the civil defence debate in Britain, assesses the value of civil defence against nuclear attack and investigates other issues of concern to those involved in the debate. The thesis is divided into three parts. Part one deals with the course of the debate, the issues raised and the methods used to propogate them. The role of activists, academics and professionals is given particular emphasis. The period is charaterised as seeing the decline of civil defence, in many peoples' eyes, from a sine qua non of British defence to becoming almost an irrelevance to nuclear war. Part two, by means of the use of a reference scenario, looks in detail at the organisation and effectiveness of British civil defence against nuclear attack. It is concluded that civil defence in the long term, is unlikely to make any significant difference to the number of survivors of nuclear war. The developing knowledge and debate about the Nuclear Winter is also discussed. Part three deals with important issues in the debate which are not directly related to the effectiveness of civil defence in nuclear war. The issues, dealt with in turn, are: the current and potential effect of civil defence on civil liberties; the possible effect of civil defence on crisis stability in times of acute international tensions and the possible effectiveness of civil defence against non-nuclear attack. The conclusion offers a number of explanations as to why, given the apparent ineffectiveness of civil defence, successive governments have continued to develop it. This question is also looked at with reference to Kuhn's theory of scientific revolution and suggests that the understanding of civil defence is at present undergoing a paradigm shift.
    • The Single Imputation Technique in the Gaussian Mixture Model Framework

      Not named; Aisyah, Binti M.J. (University of BradfordFaculty of Engineering and Informatics, 2018)
      Missing data is a common issue in data analysis. Numerous techniques have been proposed to deal with the missing data problem. Imputation is the most popular strategy for handling the missing data. Imputation for data analysis is the process to replace the missing values with any plausible values. Two most frequent imputation techniques cited in literature are the single imputation and the multiple imputation. The multiple imputation, also known as the golden imputation technique, has been proposed by Rubin in 1987 to address the missing data. However, the inconsistency is the major problem in the multiple imputation technique. The single imputation is less popular in missing data research due to bias and less variability issues. One of the solutions to improve the single imputation technique in the basic regression model: the main motivation is that, the residual is added to improve the bias and variability. The residual is drawn by normal distribution assumption with a mean of 0, and the variance is equal to the residual variance. Although new methods in the single imputation technique, such as stochastic regression model, and hot deck imputation, might be able to improve the variability and bias issues, the single imputation techniques suffer with the uncertainty that may underestimate the R-square or standard error in the analysis results. The research reported in this thesis provides two imputation solutions for the single imputation technique. In the first imputation procedure, the wild bootstrap is proposed to improve the uncertainty for the residual variance in the regression model. In the second solution, the predictive mean matching (PMM) is enhanced, where the regression model is taking the main role to generate the recipient values while the observations in the donors are taken from the observed values. Then the missing values are imputed by randomly drawing one of the observations in the donor pool. The size of the donor pool is significant to determine the quality of the imputed values. The fixed size of donor is used to be employed in many existing research works with PMM imputation technique, but might not be appropriate in certain circumstance such as when the data distribution has high density region. Instead of using the fixed size of donor pool, the proposed method applies the radius-based solution to determine the size of donor pool. Both proposed imputation procedures will be combined with the Gaussian mixture model framework to preserve the original data distribution. The results reported in the thesis from the experiments on benchmark and artificial data sets confirm improvement for further data analysis. The proposed approaches are therefore worthwhile to be considered for further investigation and experiments.
    • Developing a Corporate Brand in a Transitional Economy

      Roper, Stuart; Muir, Jonathan; Bici, Alma (University of BradfordFaculty of Management and Law, 2018)
      This DBA thesis explores the development of a corporate brand in a transitional economy, a previously under-explored context. The work employs a qualitative exploratory case-study research strategy involving a leader in the FMCG industry in Albania. This helps to set a positive example for the rest of the industry in the context of a transitional economy. Agna Group, the case study in focus, is a FMCG company operating in a domestic market, thus contributing to further insights in the area of corporate brand development and management from a business context which has been under-explored to date, as main focus of corporate branding has been on MNCs. A conceptual framework of corporate brand building and management is initially introduced, and its relevance in the transitional economy of Albania is further explored. The research benefits from the privileged access of the researcher in the case study organization, and the triangulation of a variety of data collected through in-depth interviews, documentation, and observations. The research advances our knowledge and practice of corporate brand building and management by adding to empirical work in the area. It indicates the constructs and practicalities involved in corporate brand development and management in a transitional economy context. This is an important contribution as the literature to date has predominantly focused on developed countries, i.e North America and Western Europe. The research showcases the six main constructs involved in corporate brand development and management and the three main drivers behind them. Research indicates that corporate brand building and management is strongly impacted by culture, as well as market context influence.
    • Disruptive market shift: conceptualization, antecedents, and response mechanisms

      Olabode, Oluwaseun E.; Hultman, M.; Boso, N.; Leonidou, C. (2023-07)
      Although prior research has examined the effects of different forms of disruptive market shift on organizational practice, structure, and performance, knowledge is lacking on its conceptual domain, antecedents, and organizational response outcomes. This study draws insights from an in-depth analysis of 23 organizations to conceptualize disruptive market shift and explore its antecedents and consequences. We find that digitization, technological advancements, political uncertainty and government regulations, competitive pressures, the media, and customer dynamism are major drivers of disruptive market shifts. Furthermore, evidence suggests that organizations establish collaborative relationships, initiate internal transformational processes, and develop innovative metrics and patterns to respond to disruptive market shifts. We discuss the theoretical and managerial implications of the findings.