Now showing items 1-20 of 9130

    • Silicon-based 0.450-0.475 THz series-fed double dielectric resonator on-chip antenna array based on metamaterial properties for integrated-circuits

      Alibakhshikenari, M.; Virdee, B.S.; See, C.H.; Abd-Alhameed, Raed A.; Falcone, F.; Limiti, E. (2019-09)
      The antenna array designed to operate over 0.450-0.475 Terahertz comprises two dielectric resonators (DRs) that are stacked vertically on top of each other and placed on the surface of the slot antenna fabricated on a silicon substrate using standard CMOS technology. The slot created in the silicon substrate is meandering and is surrounded by metallic via-wall to prevent energy dissipation. The antenna has a maximum gain of 4.5dBi and radiation efficiency of 45.7% at 0.4625 THz. The combination of slot and vias transform the antenna to a metamaterial structure that provides a relatively small antenna footprint. The proposed series-fed double DRs on-chip antenna array is useful for applications in THz integrated circuits.
    • Study on isolation improvement between closely-packed patch antenna arrays based on fractal metamaterial electromagnetic bandgap structures

      Alibakhshikenari, M.; Virdee, B.S.; See, C.H.; Abd-Alhameed, Raed A.; Ali, Ammar H.; Falcone, F.; Limiti, E. (2018-11)
      A decoupling metamaterial (MTM) configuration based on fractal electromagnetic-bandgap (EMBG) structure is shown to significantly enhance isolation between transmitting and receiving antenna elements in a closely-packed patch antenna array. The MTM-EMBG structure is cross-shaped assembly with fractal-shaped slots etched in each arm of the cross. The fractals are composed of four interconnected-`Y-shaped' slots that are separated with an inverted-`T-shaped' slot. The MTM-EMBG structure is placed between the individual patch antennas in a 2 × 2 antenna array. Measured results show the average inter-element isolation improvement in the frequency band of interest is 17, 37 and 17 dB between radiation elements #1 & #2, #1 & #3, and #1 & #4, respectively. With the proposed method there is no need for using metallic-via-holes. The proposed array covers the frequency range of 8-9.25 GHz for X-band applications, which corresponds to a fractional-bandwidth of 14.5%. With the proposed method the edge-to-edge gap between adjacent antenna elements can be reduced to 0.5λ 0 with no degradation in the antenna array's radiation gain pattern. Across the array's operating band, the measured gain varies between 4 and 7 dBi, and the radiation efficiency varies from 74.22 and 88.71%. The proposed method is applicable in the implementation of closely-packed patch antenna arrays used in SAR and MIMO systems.
    • High-Performance 50μm Silicon-Based On-Chip Antenna with High Port-To-Port Isolation Implemented by Metamaterial and SIW Concepts for THz Integrated Systems

      Alibakhshikenari, M.; Virdee, B.S.; See, C.H.; Abd-Alhameed, Raed A.; Falcone, F.; Limiti, E. (2019-09-16)
      A novel 50μm Silicon-based on-chip antenna is presented that combines metamaterial (MTM) and substrate integrated waveguide (SIW) technologies for integration in THz circuits operating from 0.28 to 0.30 THz. The antenna structure comprises a square patch antenna implemented on a Silicon substrate with a ground-plane. Embedded diagonally in the patch are two T-shaped slots and the edges of the patch is short-circuited to the ground-plane with metal vias, which convert the structure into a substrate integrated waveguide. This structure reduces loss resulting from surface waves and Silicon dielectric substrate. The modes in the structure can be excited through two coaxial ports connected to the patch from the underside of the Silicon substrate. The proposed antenna structure is essentially transformed to exhibit metamaterial properties by realizing two T-shaped slots, which enlarges the effective aperture area of the miniature antenna and significantly enhances its impedance bandwidth and radiation characteristics between 0.28 THz to 0.3 THz. It has an average gain and efficiency of 4.5dBi and 65%, respectively. In addition, it is a self-isolated structure with high isolation of better than 30dB between the two ports. The on-chip antenna has dimensions of 800×800×60 μm3.
    • A comprehensive survey of "metamaterial transmission-line based antennas: design, challenges, and applications"

      Alibakhshikenari, M.; Virdee, B.S.; Azpilicueta, L.; Naser-Moghadasi, M.; Akinsolu, M.O.; See, C.H.; Liu, B.; Abd-Alhameed, Raed A.; Falcone, F.; Huyen, I.; et al. (2020-08)
      In this review paper, a comprehensive study on the concept, theory, and applications of composite right/left-handed transmission lines (CRLH-TLs) by considering their use in antenna system designs have been provided. It is shown that CRLH-TLs with negative permittivity (ε <; 0) and negative permeability (μ <; 0) have unique properties that do not occur naturally. Therefore, they are referred to as artificial structures called “metamaterials”. These artificial structures include series left-handed (LH) capacitances (C L ), shunt LH inductances (L L ), series right-handed (RH) inductances (LR), and shunt RH capacitances (CR) that are realized by slots or interdigital capacitors, stubs or via-holes, unwanted current flowing on the surface, and gap distance between the surface and ground-plane, respectively. In the most cases, it is also shown that structures based on CRLH metamaterial-TLs are superior than their conventional alternatives, since they have smaller dimensions, lower-profile, wider bandwidth, better radiation patterns, higher gain and efficiency, which make them easier and more cost-effective to manufacture and mass produce. Hence, a broad range of metamaterial-based design possibilities are introduced to highlight the improvement of the performance parameters that are rare and not often discussed in available literature. Therefore, this survey provides a wide overview of key early-stage concepts of metematerial-based designs as a thorough reference for specialist antennas and microwave circuits designers. To analyze the critical features of metamaterial theory and concept, several examples are used. Comparisons on the basis of physical size, bandwidth, materials, gain, efficiency, and radiation patterns are made for all the examples that are based on CRLH metamaterialTLs. As revealed in all the metematerial design examples, foot-print area decrement is an important issue of study that have a strong impact for the enlargement of the next generation wireless communication systems.
    • Mutual-coupling isolation using embedded metamaterial EM bandgap decoupling slab for densely packed array antennas

      Alibakhshikenari, M.; Khalily, M.; Virdee, B.S.; See, C.H.; Abd-Alhameed, Raed A.; Limiti, E. (2019-04)
      This article presents a unique technique to enhance isolation between transmit/receive radiating elements in densely packed array antenna by embedding a metamaterial (MTM) electromagnetic bandgap (EMBG) structure in the space between the radiating elements to suppress surface currents that would otherwise contribute towards mutual coupling between the array elements. The proposed MTM-EMBG structure is a cross-shaped microstrip transmission line on which are imprinted two outward facing E-shaped slits. Unlike other MTM structures there is no short-circuit grounding using via-holes. With this approach, the maximum measured mutual coupling achieved is -60 dB @ 9.18 GHz between the transmit patches (#1 & #2) and receive patches (#3 & #4) in a four-element array antenna. Across the antenna’s measured operating frequency range of 9.12 to 9.96 GHz, the minimum measured isolation between each element of the array is 34.2 dB @ 9.48 GHz, and there is no degradation in radiation patterns. The average measured isolation over this frequency range is 47 dB. The results presented confirm the proposed technique is suitable in applications such as synthetic aperture radar (SAR) and multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) systems.
    • A crack closure system for cementitious composite materials using knotted shape memory polymer (k-SMP) fibres

      Maddalena, R.; Bonanno, L.; Balzano, B.; Tuinea-Bobe, Cristina-Luminita; Sweeney, John; Mihai, I. (2020-11)
      Formation of cracks represents one of the major causes of concrete deterioration, which can lead to durability and safety issues. In this work, a novel crack closure system is developed, using polyethylene terephthalate (PET) polymer fibres embedded in a mortar mix. The PET polymer has shape memory properties and shrinks upon thermal activation, if free to do so, or otherwise exerts shrinkage restraint forces. A single knot was manufactured at each end of the PET fibres to provide mechanical anchorage into the mortar matrix. Mortar samples with embedded knotted fibres were pre-cracked and subsequently placed in an oven to thermally activate the polymers and induce the shrinkage mechanism into the fibres. Crack closure was measured in the range 45–100%, depending on the geometry, dimension and distribution of the fibres, and the size of the initial crack.
    • Surface wave reduction in antenna arrays using metasurface inclusion for MIMO and SAR systems

      Alibakhshikenari, M.; Virdee, B.S.; See, C.H.; Abd-Alhameed, Raed A.; Falcone, F.; Limiti, E. (2019-11)
      An effective method is presented for suppressing mutual coupling between adjacent radiating elements which is based on metasurface isolation for MIMO and synthetic aperture radar (SAR) systems. This is achieved by choking surface current waves induced over the patch antenna by inserting a cross-shaped metasurface structure between the radiating elements. Each arm of the cross-shaped structure constituting the metasurface is etched with meander-line slot (MLS). Effectiveness of the metasurface is demonstrated for a2×2antenna array that operates over six frequency sub-bands in X, Ku and K-bands. With the proposed technique, the maximum improvement achieved in attenuating mutual coupling between neighbouring antennas is: 8.5 dB (8-8.4 GHz), 28 dB (9.6-10.8 GHz), 27 dB (11.7-12.6 GHz), 7.5 dB (13.4-14.2 GHz), 13 dB (16.5-16.8 GHz) and 22.5 dB (18.5-20.3 GHz). Furthermore, with the proposed technique (i) minimum center-to-center separation between the radiating elements can be reduced to 0.26λ0, where λ0 is 8.0 GHz; (ii) use of ground-plane or defected ground structures are unnecessary; (iii) use of short-circuited via-holes are avoided; (iv) it eliminates the issue with poor front-to-back ratio; and (v) it can be applied to existing arrays retrospectively.
    • Study on antenna mutual coupling suppression using integrated metasurface isolator for SAR and MIMO applications

      Alibakhshikenari, M.; Virdee, B.S.; See, C.H.; Abd-Alhameed, Raed A.; Falcone, F.; Andujar, A.; Anguera, J.; Limiti, E. (2018-09-27)
      A metasurface based decoupling structure that is composed of a square-wave slot pattern with exaggerated corners that is implemented on a rectangular microstrip provides high-isolation between adjacent patch antennas for Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) and Multi-Input-Multi-Output (MIMO) systems. The proposed 1×2 symmetric array antenna integrated with the proposed decoupling isolation structure is designed to operate at ISM bands of X, Ku, K, and Ka. With the proposed mutual coupling suppression technique (i) the average isolation in the respective ISM bands listed above is 7 dB, 10 dB, 5 dB, and 10 dB; and (ii) edge-to-edge gap between adjacent radiation elements is reduced to 10 mm (0.28λ). The average antenna gain improvement with the metasurface isolator is 2 dBi.
    • High performance on-chip array antenna based on metasurface feeding structure for terahertz integrated circuits

      Alibakhshikenari, M.; Virdee, B.S.; See, C.H.; Abd-Alhameed, Raed A.; Limiti, E. (2019-09-01)
      In this letter a novel on-chip array antenna is investigated which is based on CMOS 20μm Silicon technology for operation over 0.6-0.65 THz. The proposed array structure is constructed on three layers composed of Silicon-Ground-Silicon layers. Two antennas are implemented on the top layer, where each antenna is constituted from three sub-antennas. The sub-antennas are constructed from interconnected dual-rings. Also, the sub-antennas are interconnected to each other. This approach enhances the aperture of the array. Surface waves and substrate losses in the structure are suppressed with metallic via-holes implemented between the radiation elements. To excite the structure, a novel feeding mechanism is used comprising open-circuited microstrip lines that couple electromagnetic energy from the bottom layer to the antennas on the top-layer through metasurface slot-lines in the middle ground-plane layer. The results show the proposed on-chip antenna array has an average radiation gain, efficiency, and isolation of 7.62 dBi, 32.67%, and -30 dB, respectively.
    • Big Data Analytics-enabled Sensing Capability and Organizational Outcomes: Assessing the Mediating Effects of Business Analytics Culture

      Fosso Wamba, S.; Queiroz, M.M.; Wu, L.; Sivarajah, Uthayasankar (2020)
      With the emergence of information and communication technologies, organizations worldwide have been putting in meaningful efforts towards developing and gaining business insights by combining technology capability, management capability and personnel capability to explore data potential, which is known as big data analytics (BDA) capability. In this context, variables such as sensing capability—which is related to the organization’s ability to explore the market and develop opportunities—and analytics culture—which refers to the organization’s practices and behavior patterns of its analytical principles—play a fundamental role in BDA initiatives. However, there is a considerable literature gap concerning the effects of BDA-enabled sensing capability and analytics culture on organizational outcomes (i.e., customer linking capability, financial performance, market performance, and strategic business value) and on how important the organization’s analytics culture is as a mediator in the relationship between BDA-enabled sensing capability and organizational outcomes. Therefore, this study aims to investigate these relationships. And to attain this goal, we developed a conceptual model supported by dynamics capabilities, BDA, and analytics culture. We then validated our model by applying partial least squares structural equation modeling. The findings showed not only the positive effect of the BDA-enabled sensing capability and analytics culture on organizational outcomes but also the mediation effect of the analytics culture. Such results bring valuable theoretical implications and contributions to managers and practitioners.
    • Behaviours of circular CFDST with stainless steel external tube: Slender columns and beams

      Zhao, H.; Wang, R.; Lam, Dennis; Hou, C-C; Zhang, R. (Elsevier, 2021-01)
      In this work, experimental and numerical investigations were performed on the behaviours of circular concrete filled double steel tubular (CFDST) slender columns and beams, in which the external tube employed stainless steel tube. Eighteen specimens, 12 slender columns and 6 beams, were tested to obtain the failure patterns, load versus deflection relationships and strain developments of stainless steel tube. A finite element (FE) model was developed and verified by experimental results. The validated FE model was then employed to investigate the effects of key parameters, including hollow ratio, eccentric ratio and material strength, on the load-carrying capacity. The load distribution among the components and contact stress between steel tube and sandwiched concrete were also analyzed. Finally, the design methods for CFDST, hollow CFST and solid CFST members with carbon steel external tube respectively suggested by Han et al. (2018), Chinese GB 50936-2014 (2014) and AISC 360-16 (2016) were employed to evaluate their applicability for the circular CFDST slender columns and beams with stainless steel outer tube.
    • Application of small molecule FPR1 antagonists in the treatment of cancers

      Ahmet, Djevdet S.; Basheer, H.A.; Salem, Anwar; Lu, Di; Aghamohammadi, Amin; Weyerhäuser, P.; Bordiga, A.; Almeniawi, J.; Rashid, S.; Cooper, Patricia A.; et al. (Nature, 2020-10)
      The formylpeptide receptor-1 (FPR1) is a member of the chemotactic GPCR-7TM formyl peptide receptor family, whose principle function is in trafficking of various leukocytes into sites of bacterial infection and inflammation. More recently, FPR1 has been shown to be expressed in different types of cancer and in this context, plays a significant role in their expansion, resistance and recurrence. ICT12035 is a selective and potent (30 nM in calcium mobilisation assay) small molecule FPR1 antagonist. Here, we demonstrate the efficacy of ICT12035, in a number of 2D and 3D proliferation and invasion in vitro assays and an in vivo model. Our results demonstrate that targeting FPR1 by a selective small molecule antagonist, such as ICT12035, can provide a new avenue for the treatment of cancers.
    • Overcome the Limitations of Performance Parameters of On-Chip Antennas Based on Metasurface and Coupled Feeding Approaches for Applications in System-on-Chip for THz Integrated-Circuits

      Alibakhshikenari, M.; Virdee, B.S.; See, C.H.; Abd-Alhameed, Raed A.; Falcone, F.; Limiti, E. (2019-12-10)
      This paper proposes a new solution to improve the performance parameters of on-chip antenna designs on standard CMOS silicon (Si.) technology. The proposed method is based on applying the metasurface technique and exciting the radiating elements through coupled feed mechanism. The on-chip antenna is constructed from three layers comprising Si.-GND-Si. layers, so that the ground (GND) plane is sandwiched between two Si. layers. The silicon and ground-plane layers have thicknesses of 20μm and 5μm, respectively. The 3×3 array consisting of the asterisk-shaped radiating elements has implemented on the top silicon layer by applying the metasurface approach. Three slot lines in the ground-plane are modelled and located directly under the radiating elements. The radiating elements are excited through the slot-lines using an open-circuited microstrip-line constructed on the bottom silicon layer. The proposed method to excite the structure is based on the coupled feeding mechanism. In addition, by the proposed feeding method the on-chip antenna configuration suppresses the substrate losses and surface-waves. The antenna exhibits a large impedance bandwidth of 60GHz from 0.5THz to 0.56THz with an average radiation gain and efficiency of 4.58dBi and 25.37%, respectively. The proposed structure has compact dimensions of 200×200×45μm3. The results shows that, the proposed technique is therefore suitable for on-chip antennas for applications in system-on-chip for terahertz (THz) integrated circuits.
    • Effect of polymerisation by microwave on the physical properties of molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) specific for caffeine

      Brahmbhatt, H.A.; Surtees, Alexander P.H.; Tierney, C.; Ige, O.A.; Piletska, E.V.; Swift, Thomas; Turner, N.W. (Royal Society of Chemistry, 2020-08)
      Molecularly Imprinted Polymers (MIPs) are a class of polymeric materials that exhibit highly specific recognition properties towards a chosen target. These “smart materials” offer robustness to work in extreme environmental conditions and cost effectiveness; and have shown themselves capable of the affinities/specificities observed of their biomolecular counterparts. Despite this, in many MIP systems heterogeneity generated in the polymerisation process is known to affect the performance. Microwave reactors have been extensively studied in organic chemistry because they can afford fast and well-controlled reactions, and have been used for polymerisation reactions; however, their use for creating MIPs is limited. Here we report a case study of a model MIP system imprinted for caffeine, using microwave initiation. Experimental parameters such as polymerisation time, temperature and applied microwave power have been investigated and compared with polymers prepared by oven and UV irradiation. MIPs have been characterised by BET, SEM, DSC, TGA, NMR, and HPLC for their physical properties and analyte recognition performance. The results suggest that the performance of these polymers correlates to their physical characteristics. These characteristics were significantly influenced by changes in the experimental polymerisation parameters, and the complexity of the component mixture. A series of trends were observed as each parameter was altered, suggesting that the performance of a generated polymer could be possible to predict. As expected, component selection is shown to be a major factor in the success of an imprint using this method, but this also has a significant effect on the quality of resultant polymers suggesting that only certain types of MIPs can be made using microwave irradiation. This work also indicates that the controlled polymerisation conditions offered by microwave reactors could open a promising future in the development of MIPs with more predictable analyte recognition performance, assuming material selection lends itself to this type of initiation.
    • A secure IoT-based modern healthcare system with fault-tolerant decision making process

      Gope, P.; Gheraibia, Y.; Kabir, Sohag; Sikdar, B. (2020)
      The advent of Internet of Things (IoT) has escalated the information sharing among various smart devices by many folds, irrespective of their geographical locations. Recently, applications like e-healthcare monitoring has attracted wide attention from the research community, where both the security and the effectiveness of the system are greatly imperative. However, to the best of our knowledge none of the existing literature can accomplish both these objectives (e.g., existing systems are not secure against physical attacks). This paper addresses the shortcomings in existing IoT-based healthcare system. We propose an enhanced system by introducing a Physical Unclonable Function (PUF)-based authentication scheme and a data driven fault-tolerant decision-making scheme for designing an IoT-based modern healthcare system. Analyses show that our proposed scheme is more secure and efficient than existing systems. Hence, it will be useful in designing an advanced IoT-based healthcare system.
    • A meta-analysis of the factors affecting eWOM providing behaviour

      Ismagilova, Elvira; Rana, Nripendra P.; Slade, E.; Dwivedi, Y.K. (2020)
      Purpose- Numerous studies have examined factors influencing eWOM providing behaviour. The volume of extant research and inconsistency in some of the findings makes it useful to develop an all-encompassing model synthesising results. Therefore, the aim of this study is to synthesise findings from existing studies on eWOM by employing meta-analysis, which will help to reconcile conflicting findings of factors affecting consumers’ intention to engage in eWOM communications. Design/methodology/approach- The findings from 51 studies were used for meta-analysis, which was undertaken using Comprehensive Meta-Analysis software. Findings- Factors affecting eWOM providing behaviour were divided into four groups: personal conditions, social conditions, perceptual conditions, and consumption-based conditions. The results of meta-analysis showed that out of 20 identified relationships, 16 were found to be significant (opinion seeking, information usefulness, trust in web eWOM services, economic incentive, customer satisfaction, loyalty, brand attitude, altruism, affective commitment, normative commitment, opinion leadership, self-enhancement, information influence, tie strength, homophily, and community identity). Originality/value- Applying meta-analysis helped reconciliation of conflicting findings, enabled investigation of the strengths of the relationships between motivations and eWOM providing behaviour, and offered a consolidated view. The results of this study facilitate the advancement of current knowledge of information dissemination on the Internet, which can influence consumer purchase intention and loyalty.
    • Automated reconfigurable antenna impedance for optimum power transfer

      Alibakhshikenari, M.; Virdee, B.S.; See, C.H.; Abd-Alhameed, Raed A.; Falcone, F.; Limiti, E. (2019-12)
      This paper presents an approach to implement an automatically tuning antenna for optimising power transfer suitable for software defined radio (SDR). Automatic tuning is accomplished using a closed loop impedance tuning network comprising of an impedance sensor and control unit. The sensor provides the control unit with data on the transmit or receive power, and the algorithm is used to impedance of a T-network of LC components to optimize the antenna impedance to maximise power transmission or reception. The effectiveness of the proposed tuning algorithm in relation to impedance matching and convergence on the optimum matching network goal is shown to be superior compared with the conventional tuning algorithm.
    • Adoption of AI-powered Industrial Robots in Auto Component Manufacturing Companies

      Pillai, R.; Sivathanu, B.; Mariani, M.; Rana, Nripendra P.; Yang, B.; Dwivedi, Y.K. (2020)
      The usage of AI-empowered Industrial Robots (InRos) is booming in the Auto Component Manufacturing Companies (ACMCs) across the globe. Based on a model leveraging the Technology, Organisation, and Environment (TOE) framework, this work examines the adoption of InRos in ACMCs in the context of an emerging economy. This research scrutinizes the adoption intention and potential use of InRos in ACMCs through a survey of 460 senior managers and owners of ACMCs in India. The findings indicate that perceived compatibility, external pressure, perceived benefits and support from vendors are critical predictors of InRos adoption intention. Interestingly, the study also reveals that IT infrastructure and government support do not influence InRos adoption intention. Furthermore, the analysis suggests that perceived cost issues negatively moderate the relationship between the adoption intention and potential use of InRos in ACMCs. This study offers a theoretical contribution as it deploys the traditional TOE framework and discovers counter-intuitively that IT resources are not a major driver of technology adoption: as such, it suggests that a more comprehensive framework than the traditional RBV should be adopted. The work provides managerial recommendations for managers, shedding light on the antecedents of adoption intention and potential use of InRos at ACMCs in a country where the adoption of InRos is in a nascent stage.
    • New extended Computer Science curriculum model: USE-VQP-VCP (University, Students and Employers – Vendor Qualification Providers – Value Chain Partnership)

      Panesar, K,; Panesar, Kulvinder (AdvanceHE, 2019-01-30)
      Empirically Computer Science (CS) and IT-related graduates are failing to secure specialist posts in the first three years after graduation due to limited skills and specialist experience. This issue contributes to the future skills gap of professionals for our technology-driven world. Consequently there is a growing vendor qualifications market; creditability of digital wallets and their global acceptance. We propose a new CS curriculum business value model comprising academia; embedded yearly industry qualifications; annual short placements (increased employer engagement); industrial placement; an extended academic year; fees (marginal increase). Benefits include: expediting graduates to achieve their long-term goals; skills gap minimised; and employers recruiting ready professionals.
    • ‘How can one evaluate a conversational software agent framework?’

      Panesar, Kulvinder (2018-07-06)
      This paper presents a critical evaluation framework for a linguistically orientated conversational software agent (CSA) (Panesar, 2017). The CSA prototype investigates the integration, intersection and interface of the language, knowledge, and speech act constructions (SAC) based on a grammatical object (Nolan, 2014), and the sub-model of belief, desires and intention (BDI) (Rao and Georgeff, 1995) and dialogue management (DM) for natural language processing (NLP). A long-standing issue within NLP CSA systems is refining the accuracy of interpretation to provide realistic dialogue to support the human-to-computer communication. This prototype constitutes three phase models: (1) a linguistic model based on a functional linguistic theory – Role and Reference Grammar (RRG) (Van Valin Jr, 2005); (2) Agent Cognitive Model with two inner models: (a) knowledge representation model employing conceptual graphs serialised to Resource Description Framework (RDF); (b) a planning model underpinned by BDI concepts (Wooldridge, 2013) and intentionality (Searle, 1983) and rational interaction (Cohen and Levesque, 1990); and (3) a dialogue model employing common ground (Stalnaker, 2002). The evaluation approach for this Java-based prototype and its phase models is a multi-approach driven by grammatical testing (English language utterances), software engineering and agent practice. A set of evaluation criteria are grouped per phase model, and the testing framework aims to test the interface, intersection and integration of all phase models and their inner models. This multi-approach encompasses checking performance both at internal processing, stages per model and post-implementation assessments of the goals of RRG, and RRG based specifics tests. The empirical evaluations demonstrate that the CSA is a proof-of-concept, demonstrating RRG’s fitness for purpose for describing, and explaining phenomena, language processing and knowledge, and computational adequacy. Contrastingly, evaluations identify the complexity of lower level computational mappings of NL – agent to ontology with semantic gaps, and further addressed by a lexical bridging consideration (Panesar, 2017).