Now showing items 1-20 of 9165

    • The Bronze Age funerary cups of southern England

      Gibson, Alex M.; Copper, Claire (University of BradfordSchool of Forensic and Archaeological Sciences, 2017)
      ’Pygmy’, ‘incense’, ‘accessory’ or ‘funerary’ cups are small Early Bronze Age vessels, almost all from mortuary contexts, united by their diminutive size. Although several small-scale and regional studies have previously been undertaken, until recently there has been little attempt to consider such vessels as a whole. The vessels from the north of England were recently examined in detail by Hallam (2015), and the present study of the southern English vessels will complement Hallam’s work with the ultimate goal of producing a national corpus. Details of over three hundred and fifty vessels, from thirty counties, are presented together with a comprehensive literature review. Analysis demonstrates how the form and depositional contexts of such vessels probably arose within Beaker ceramic and funerary traditions. Many have complex biographies, some being deposited ‘fresh’ whilst others are fragmented or otherwise damaged. Perforations, long seen as a key feature of the tradition, appear to be restricted to certain forms only, and it is suggested that fenestration may be a development of this practice. Regional links and networks may be discerned through the distribution of attributes and similar vessel types and probably reflect trade networks. It is suggested that the cups had a primary role within Early Bronze Age funerary rituals associated only with certain individuals, perhaps marked out by the nature of their deaths
    • Novel Technology for Crystal Engineering of Pharmaceutical Solids

      Paradkar, Anant R.; Vangala, Venu R.; Jadav, Niten B. (University of BradfordSchool of Life Sciences, 2018)
      The research work described in this thesis, the environmentally friendly novel "Microwave Assisted Sub-Critical water (MASCW)" technology for particle engineering of active pharmaceutical ingredients and excipients was developed. The present novel technology MASCW process is described as green technology as water is used as the solvent medium and microwave energy as external source of heat energy for generation of a particle with different morphological and chemical properties. In MASCW process supersaturated solution of APIs is prepared by dissolving solute in water at high temperature and pressure conditions. Upon rapid and controlled cooling, based on the aqueous solubility of solute, solute/solvent concentration and dielectric constant of water rapid precipitation of API with narrow particle size distribution occurs. Using paracetamol (pca) as API moiety understanding of the mechanism of MASCW crystallisation process was investigated. The effect of different process and experimental parameters on crystallisation pathway and end product attributes were analysed. Correlation between the degree of supersaturation concentration of pca solution against temperature and pressure parameters was explained by generating binary phase diagram. Determination of polymorphic transformation pathway of pca from form I (stable) to form II metastable polymorphs in solution was analysed using Raman spectroscopy. The difference between conventional heating and subcritical treatment was explored by determining the change in the solvent dielectric constant and solubility of hydrophobic API molecule. Based on the process understanding results, this technology was further implemented to explore its application in generating phase pure stable and metastable cocrystal phase. Based on the solubility of API and cocrystal former congruent (CBZ/SAC, SMT/SAC, SMZ/SAC) and incongruent (CAF/4HBA) cocrystal pairs were selected. For the first time generation of anhydrous phase of CAF: 4HBA cocrystal in 1:1 stoichiometric ration was reported and generation of metastable cocrystal phase of CA CBZ: SAC form II was reported. The application of this technology was explored in generating phase pure metastable polymorph of paracetamol which retain higher compressibility and dissolution rate. The potential of MASCW micronisation process, theophylline is used as the model component to produce micro sized particles for pulmonary drug delivery system via dry powder inhaler (Foradil inhaler). The results demonstrate that the THF particles generated using MASCW process displayed greater aerodynamic performance compared to conventional spray-dried THF sample. In the final chapter, synthesis of inorganic biomaterial (nano crystalline hydroxyapatite) was reported for the first time and the prospects of combining API like ibuprofen (IBU) with a biologically active component like nano-crystalline hydroxyapatite (HA) through hydrogen bonding was mechanistically explained using X-ray diffractometer and spectroscopic techniques.
    • Investigation of cytochrome p450 isoforms 1A1, 1B1 and 2W1 as targets for therapeutic intervention in head and neck cancer. Probing CYP1A1, 1B1 and 2W1 activity with duocarmycin bioprecursors

      Patterson, Laurence H.; McCaul, Jim; Pors, Klaus; Presa, Daniela (University of BradfordInstitute of Cancer Therapeutics, Faculty of Life Sciences, 2018)
      Cytochrome P450 enzymes such as CYP1A1 and CYP2W1 have been shown to be overexpressed in tumour tissue compared to surrounding normal tissue, providing an opportunity to develop targeted therapies. Recent studies have shown that re-engineered duocarmycins can be activated selectively by cancer cells expressing CYP1A1 and/or CYP2W1 to potent cytotoxins that damage DNA. This study aimed to explore CYP expression in HNC tissue, and link CYP1A1, 1B1 and 2W1 expression with capacity to bioactivate duocarmycin bioprecursors. A panel of HNC cell lines was investigated for CYP gene expression using Real Time PCR (RT-PCR), and protein expression by Western blot and/or immunofluorescence. The cell lines were also evaluated for anti proliferative activity using lead duocarmycin bioprecursor compounds (ICT2700, ICT2706 and ICT2726) and novel analogues. Various levels of mRNA expression were observed for CYP1A1 and 1B1, but not for CYP2W1, which was only detected at very low levels, contrasting with the moderate-to high CYP2W1 expression found in clinical tissues and xenografts. FaDu and Detroit-562 were identified as sensitive cell lines to several duocarmycins, and hence useful for assessing compound activity. Two novel compounds, ICT2700S and ICT11003, were shown to be the most potent duocarmycins evaluated in FaDu and Detroit-562, which primarily expressed CYP1A1. Using the comet assay and γH2AX, ICT2700S cytotoxic activity was correlated with DNA single-strand breaks (SSBs) and double-strand breaks (DSBs), while one benzofuran-based duocarmycin (ICT2724) was shown to cause more inter stand crosslinks (ICLs). The significance of target CYP expression and compound activity warrants further investigations in preclinical models to ascertain the clinical potential of duocarmycin-based bioprecursors.
    • Neural membrane mutual coupling characterisation using entropy-based iterative learning identification

      Tang, X.; Zhang, Qichun; Dai, X.; Zou, Y. (2020-11)
      This paper investigates the interaction phenomena of the coupled axons while the mutual coupling factor is presented as a pairwise description. Based on the Hodgkin-Huxley model and the coupling factor matrix, the membrane potentials of the coupled myelinated/unmyelinated axons are quantified which implies that the neural coupling can be characterised by the presented coupling factor. Meanwhile the equivalent electric circuit is supplied to illustrate the physical meaning of this extended model. In order to estimate the coupling factor, a data-based iterative learning identification algorithm is presented where the Rényi entropy of the estimation error has been minimised. The convergence of the presented algorithm is analysed and the learning rate is designed. To verified the presented model and the algorithm, the numerical simulation results indicate the correctness and the effectiveness. Furthermore, the statistical description of the neural coupling, the approximation using ordinary differential equation, the measurement and the conduction of the nerve signals are discussed respectively as advanced topics. The novelties can be summarised as follows: 1) the Hodgkin-Huxley model has been extended considering the mutual interaction between the neural axon membranes, 2) the iterative learning approach has been developed for factor identification using entropy criterion, and 3) the theoretical framework has been established for this class of system identification problems with convergence analysis.
    • Emerging markets from a multidisciplinary perspective: challenges, opportunities and research agenda

      Dwivedi, Y.K.; Rana, Nripendra P.; Slade, E.L.; Shareef, M.A.; Clement, M.; Simintiras, A.C.; Lal, B. (2018)
      This book examines prominent issues in the Emerging Markets (EM) from a variety of disciplines in order to make useful societal contributions through knowledge exchange. EMs offer enormous opportunities, but realizing them is both challenging and risky due to inherent uncertainties of such markets. EM’s also have unique characteristics that makes them different from developed countries. This causes implications for both theory and practice. These markets necessitate substantial adaptations of developed theories and approaches employed in the Western world. This book investigates problems specific to emerging markets, and identifies new theoretical constructs, hypotheses (re)development, and emphasizes institutional contexts. The chapters in this book establish new conceptual and theoretical paradigms from multidisciplinary perspectives concentrated in the areas of information systems, electronic government, and digital and social media matters. The book focuses on topics in these areas such as digital enterprises, sustainability, telemedicine, and Information Communication Technology (ICT) and surveys the potential challenges and opportunities that may arise. These concepts and topics covered in this book are vital for making the global economy more equitable and sustainable.
    • Glycosyl disulfides: importance, synthesis and application to chemical and biological systems

      Ribeiro Morais, Goreti; Falconer, Robert A. (2020)
      The disulfide bond plays an important role in the formation and stabilisation of higher order structures of peptides and proteins, while in recent years interest in this functional group has been extended to carbohydrate chemistry. Rarely found in nature, glycosyl disulfides have attracted significant attention as glycomimetics, with wide biological applications including lectin binding, as key components of dynamic libraries to study carbohydrate structures, the study of metabolic and enzymatic studies, and even as potential drug molecules. This interest has been accompanied and fuelled by the continuous development of new methods to construct the disulfide bond at the anomeric centre. Glycosyl disulfides have also been exploited as versatile intermediates in carbohydrate synthesis, particularly as glycosyl donors. This review focuses on the importance of the disulfide bond in glycobiology and in chemistry, evaluating the different methods available to synthesise glycosyl disulfides. Furthermore, we review the role of glycosyl disulfides as intermediates and/or glycosyl donors for the synthesis of neoglycoproteins and oligosaccharides, before finally considering examples of how this important class of carbohydrates have made an impact in biological and therapeutic contexts.
    • From ‘touch’ to a ‘multisensory’ experience: The impact of technology interface and product type on consumer responses

      Mishra, A.; Shukla, A.; Rana, Nripendra P.; Dwivedi, Y.K. (2020)
      Online retailers are increasingly using augmented reality (AR) and virtual reality (VR) technologies to solve mental and physical intangibility issues in a product evaluation. Moreover, the technologies are easily available and accessible to consumers via their smartphones. The authors conducted three experiments to examine consumer responses to technology interfaces (AR/VR and mobile apps) for hedonic and utilitarian products. The results show that AR is easier to use (vs. app), and users find AR more responsive when buying a hedonic (vs. utilitarian) product. Touch interface users are likely to have a more satisfying experience and greater recommendation intentions, as compared to AR, for buying utilitarian products. In contrast, a multisensory environment (AR) results in a better user experience for purchasing a hedonic product. Moreover, multisensory technologies lead to higher visual appeal, emotional appeal, and purchase intentions. The research contributes to the literature on computer-mediated interactions in a multisensory environment and proposes actionable recommendations to online marketers.
    • Breakage of carbon nanotube agglomerates within polypropylene matrix by solid phase die drawing

      Lin, X.; Gong, M.; Innes, James; Spencer, Paul E.; Coates, Philip D.; Korde, Sachin A. (2020-01)
      Melt blending of polyolefin/carbon nanotube (CNT) composites always leads to serious agglomeration of CNTs and hence inferior properties. Thus, well-dispersed CNTs within matrix are urgently required during processing. In this work, effective breakage of CNT agglomerates was achieved by solid-phase die drawing at a temperature below but near to the melting temperature of the matrix. Experimental results indicate that the incurred extensional stress provides a high orientation degree on the polypropylene (PP) matrix and consequently helps rupture CNT agglomerates, leading to improved alternating current(AC) conductivity by ~5–6 orders in magnitude. The reduced agglomerate ratio, the altered CNT networks (3D→2D), and the improved interfacial morphology between CNT and matrix are suggested to be responsible for the viscoelasticity variation of the composite melt and the improved property of PP/multiwalled CNTs (MWCNTs) composite. The initial loss of tensile ductility by the incorporation of MWCNTs is recovered by nearly 100%, which was attributed to the low agglomeration rate and improved interfacial morphology. This article provided the potential inspiration for the melt blending of polymer melt and CNTs.
    • Highly improved PP/CNTs sheet prepared by tailoring crystallization morphology through solid-phase die drawing and multilayer hot compression

      Lin, X.; Spencer, Paul E.; Gong, M.; Coates, Philip D. (2020-08)
      Simply melt blended polypropylene/carbon nanotubes composites (PP/CNTs) usually present mechanical deterioration. In this work, multilayered sheet of PP/CNTs with improved tensile property was obtained by solid-phase orientation and hot compression. The initially blended PP/CNTs were highly orientated by employing a constrained slit die and hot compressed under a certain temperature and pressure by stacking eight layers together. The effects of compression temperature and pressure on the tensile property and AC conductivity of the multilayered sheets were examined to explore the evolution of hierarchical crystallization morphology and CNT networks. The multilayered sheet which was hot compressed at 184°C and 5 MPa demonstrated an optimum tensile strength of ∼132.5 MPa and an elongation at break ∼52.7%, respectively, raised by almost 3-fold compared with those initially blended PP/CNTs. By increasing compression temperature and decreasing pressure, the AC conductivity showed an increase of 2 to 4 orders of magnitude.
    • Englishization and the Politics of Translation

      Wilmot, Natalie V.; Tietze, Susanne (Emerald, 2020)
      Purpose This article investigates the treatment of translation within the international business and management (IBM) literature in order to highlight colonialist assumptions inscribed in this treatment as a result of the hegemonic status of English. Design/methodology/approach This investigation takes the form of a systemic literature review to examine the treatment of translation in the IBM literature through a postcolonial lens Findings The findings demonstrate that despite growing interest in language in international business, matters of translation have received comparatively little attention. However, those articles which do address translation matters tend to do so in five key ways, including epistemological/methodological considerations, exploring translator agency, the investigations of the discursive void/conceptual fuzziness between languages, and approaches which discuss translation as social practice. Research limitations/implications Despite our critique of English language hegemony, our literature review is restricted to English-language journals, which we acknowledge as problematic and discuss within the article. Practical implications In exposing the limited treatment of translation within the literature, we provide a call to action for IBM scholars to be more explicit in their treatment of translation in order to ensure representation of cultural and linguistic Others, rather than providing domesticated accounts of multilingual research. Originality/value Although there have been other articles which have examined translation in the past, this article is the first to do so through a postcolonial lens, demonstrating from a linguistic perspective the colonialist assumptions which are still prevalent in IBM knowledge production as evidenced by the treatment of translation in the field.
    • Chatter model for enabling a digital twin in machining

      Afazov, S.; Scrimieri, Daniele (2020-09)
      This paper presents the development of a new chatter model using measured cutting forces instead of a mathematical model with empirical nature that describes them. The utilisation of measured cutting forces enables the prediction of real-time chatter conditions and stable machining. The chatter model is validated using fast Fourier transform (FFT) analyses for detection of chatter. The key contribution of the developed chatter model is that it can be incorporated in digital twins for process monitoring and control in order to achieve greater material removal rates and improved surface quality in future industrial applications involving machining processes.
    • Technological innovation, organizational innovation and international performance of SMEs: The moderating role of domestic institutional environment

      Donbesuur, F.; Ampong, G.O.A.; Owusu-Yirenkyi, D.; Chu, Irene (2020-12)
      Despite the growing research on the performance implications of technological and organizational innovation, our understanding of how they impact SMEs’ international performance is limited. Drawing from the dynamic capability and the institutional theories, this study argues that technological and organizational innovation has a synergistic effect on international performance and that this effect is contingent on unique domestic institutional factors. We test this model using structural equation modeling on a sample of 204 internationalized SMEs operating in Ghana. The findings from the analysis show that high levels of organizational and technological innovation jointly improve SMEs’ international performance. In addition, the results show that institutional environment specificity and institutional environment enforceability enhance the complementary effect of organizational and technological innovation on the international performance of SMEs. The theoretical and managerial implications of the findings are discussed.
    • Depth-resolved variations in visibility of retinal nerve fibre bundles across the retina in enface OCT images of healthy eyes.

      Cheloni, Riccardo; Denniss, Jonathan (2020-11)
      Recent developments in optical coherence tomography (OCT) technology enable direct enface visualisation of retinal nerve fibre bundle (RNFB) loss in glaucoma. However, the optimum depth at which to visualise RNFBs across the retina is unknown. We aimed to evaluate the range of depths and optimum depth at which RNFBs can be visualised across the retina in healthy eyes. The central ± 25° retina of 10 healthy eyes from 10 people aged 57–75 years (median 68.5 years) were imaged with spectral domain OCT. Slab images of maximum axial resolution (4 μm) containing depth‐resolved attenuation coefficients were extracted from 0 to 193.5 μm below the inner limiting membrane (ILM). Bundle visibility within 10 regions of a superimposed grid was assessed subjectively by trained optometrists (n = 8), according to written instructions. Anterior and posterior limits of RNFB visibility and depth of best visibility were identified for each grid sector. Effects of retinal location and individual eye on RNFB visibility were explored using linear mixed modelling with likelihood ratio tests. Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was used to measure overall agreement and repeatability of grading. Spearman’s correlation was used to measure correlation between depth range of visible RNFBs and retinal nerve fibre layer thickness (RNFLT). Retinal location and individual eye affected anterior limit of visibility (χ2(9) = 58.6 and 60.5, both p < 0.0001), but none of the differences exceeded instrument resolution, making anterior limit consistent across the retina and different eyes. Greater differences were observed in the posterior limit of visibility across retinal areas (χ2(9) = 1671.1, p < 0.0001) and different eyes (χ2(9) = 88.7, p < 0.0001). Optimal depth for visualisation of RNFBs was around 20 µm below the ILM in most regions. It varied slightly with retinal location (χ2(9) = 58.8, p < 0.0001), but it was not affected by individual eye (χ2(9) = 10.7, p = 0.29). RNFB visibility showed good agreement between graders (ICC 0.89, 95%CI 0.87–0.91), and excellent repeatability (ICC 0.96–0.99). Depth range of visible RNFBs was highly correlated with RNFLT (ρ = 0.9, 95%CI: 0.86–0.95). The range of depths with visible RNFBs varies markedly across the healthy retina, consistently with RNFLT. To extract all RNFB information consistently across the retina, slab properties should account for differences across retinal locations and between individual eyes.
    • Burnout, eating behaviour traits and dietary patterns

      Chui, H.; Bryant, Eleanor J.; Sarabia, C.; Maskeen, S.; Stewart-Knox, Barbara (Emerald, 2019-11)
      Purpose: The purpose of this research has been to investigate whether burnout and eating behaviour traits were associated with food intake. Design/methodology/approach: Participants (n=109) 78 per cent female, mean age 39 years, were recruited from various occupations within a UK university to complete an on-line survey. Dietary habits were measured using Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ), burnout using the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) and eating behaviour traits using the Three Factor Eating Questionnaire (TFEQ) R18. Findings: Principal component analyses of FFQ responses revealed four dietary patterns: fast/junk food (+chicken and low fruit/vegetables); meat/fish; dairy/grains; beans/nuts. Dietary patterns were examined using multiple regression analysis as outcome variables with age, gender, burnout and eating behaviour traits as explanatory variables. More frequent consumption of “junk/fast food” was associated with lower TFEQ-Cognitive Restraint, higher TFEQ-Uncontrolled Eating (UE), lower MBI-Emotional Exhaustion and higher MBI-Depersonalisation. More frequent consumption of beans/nuts was associated with higher TFEQ-UE and higher MBI-Emotional Exhaustion. Models for meat/fish and grains/dairy dietary patterns were not significant. Research limitations/implications: Burnout may need to be considered to reduce junk food consumption in higher education employees. Causality between burnout, eating behaviour traits and food consumption requires further investigation on larger samples. Originality/value: This appears to be the first study to have explored associations between burnout, eating behaviour traits and dietary patterns.
    • Exploring the association between mental wellbeing, health-related quality of life, family affluence and food choice in adolescents

      Davison, J.; Stewart-Knox, Barbara; Connolly, P.; Lloyd, K.; Dunne, L.; Bunting, B. (2021-03)
      Young people choose energy-dense, nutrient-poor diets, yet understanding of potential determinants is limited. Associations between food choices, mental wellbeing, health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and family affluence were explored to identify targets for intervention to promote dietary health and wellbeing in young people. Adolescents were recruited via post-primary schools in the UK and surveyed at two time-points when aged 13-14 years and 15-16 years. The questionnaire enquired about mental wellbeing using the Short Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Wellbeing Scale, HRQoL using the KIDSCREEN-10, socio-economic status using the Family Affluence Scale and food choice by Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ). With missing and anomalous cases excluded, the sample comprised 1208 cases. Factor analysis on the FFQ indicated five food choice factors: ‘Junk Food’; ‘Meat’; ‘Healthy Protein’; ‘Fruit/Vegetables’; ‘Bread/Dairy’. Multivariate regression analysis indicated that frequent consumption of Junk Food was associated with being male and lower mental wellbeing. Frequent Meat intake was associated with being male and with lower HRQoL. Frequent choice of Bread/Dairy foods was more common among males and associated with higher wellbeing and greater affluence. Those who consumed Fruit/Vegetables frequently were more likely to be female, have higher HRQoL, higher mental wellbeing, and greater family affluence. These direct associations endured between time points. The dietary factors were not mutually exclusive. Those who frequently chose Junk Food were less likely to choose Fruit/Vegetables. Frequent choice of Meat was associated with more frequent choice of Junk Food and Healthy Protein. Intervention to improve dietary and psychological health in young people should target males, those in less affluent households, seek to reduce consumption of ‘junk’ food, and increase fruit and vegetable intake.
    • Food choice motives, attitude towards and intention to adopt personalised nutrition

      Rankin, A.; Bunting, B.P.; Poinhos, R.; van der Lans, I.A.; Fischer, A.R.H.; Kuznesof, S.; Almeida, M.D.V.; Markovina, Jerko; Frewer, L.J.; Stewart-Knox, Barbara (2018-10)
      The present study explored associations between food choice motives, attitudes towards and intention to adopt personalised nutrition, to inform communication strategies based on consumer priorities and concerns. Design/Setting: A survey was administered online which included the Food Choice Questionnaire (FCQ) and items assessing attitudes towards and intention to adopt personalised nutrition. Subjects: Nationally representative samples were recruited in nine EU countries (n 9381). Results: Structural equation modelling indicated that the food choice motives ‘weight control’, ‘mood’, ‘health’ and ‘ethical concern’ had a positive association and ‘price’ had a negative association with attitude towards, and intention to adopt, personalised nutrition. ‘Health’ was positively associated and ‘familiarity’ negatively associated with attitude towards personalised nutrition. The effects of ‘weight control’, ‘ethical concern’, ‘mood’ and ‘price’ on intention to adopt personalised nutrition were partially mediated by attitude. The effects of ‘health’ and ‘familiarity’ were fully mediated by attitude. ‘Sensory appeal’ was negatively and directly associated with intention to adopt personalised nutrition. Conclusions: Personalised nutrition providers may benefit from taking into consideration the importance of underlying determinants of food choice in potential users, particularly weight control, mood and price, when promoting services and in tailoring communications that are motivationally relevant.
    • Finance and women empowerment in India: Can financial literacy help?

      Arora, Rashmi (Springer Nature, 2021)
      Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) place considerable focus on women empowerment and access to finance as well. While goal 5 of SDGs targets gender equality and women empowerment, access to finance appears as an enabler of at least eight goals among seventeen SDG goals. Considering significant emphasis both on women empowerment and financial access by the policymakers and multilateral organisations, in this study using India as our country of interest, we examine the relationship between access to finance to women and women empowerment. In this context we also examine whether financial literacy can assist in improving women empowerment and their access to finance.
    • Self-assembled 0D/2D nano carbon materials enabled smart and multifunctional cement-based composites

      Dong, S.; Li, L.; Ashour, Ashraf F.; Dong, X.; Han, B. (2020)
      In this paper, two types of nano carbon materials including 0D nano carbon black and 2D graphene are assembled through electrostatic adsorption to develop smart cement-based composites. Owing to their excellent mechanical, electrical properties and synergistic effect, self-assembled 0D/2D nano carbon materials can form toughening and conductive networks in cement-based materials at low content level and without changing the preparation process of conventional cement-based materials, thus endowing cement-based materials with smart and multifunctional properties including high toughness, self-sensing property to stress/strain and damage, shielding/absorbing property to electromagnetic wave. The developed smart cement-based composites with self-assembled 0D/2D nano carbon materials have promising application in the fields of oil well cementing, structural health monitoring, and electromagnetic protection and anti-electromagnetic pollution. It can therefore conclude that electrostatic self-assembled 0D/2D nano carbon materials provide a simple preparation method and excellent composite effect for developing nano cement-based materials, which can be applied in large-scale infrastructures.
    • A system-wide interdisciplinary conceptual framework for food loss and waste mitigation strategies in the supply chain

      Dora, M.; Biswas, S.; Choudhury, S.; Nayak, R.; Irani, Zahir (2020)
      The issues of food loss and waste (FLW) in the global supply chains have recently attracted attention. However, the causes of and strategies for mitigating FLW at different stages of the supply chains remain under researched. Our research aims to address these gaps in knowledge in a three-fold way: i) we identified the key causes (through root-cause analysis) of FLW in the supply chain of developed and less developed countries; ii) we systematically classified measures and policies that have been implemented to mitigate FLW; and iii) we developed an interdisciplinary conceptual framework for waste utilisation practices that can contribute towards the triple bottom-line in food systems. A root-cause analysis was performed and mitigation strategies identified by systematically analysing and synthesising the research published over the past 20 years (1998 to 2018) in the areas of FLW in the supply chain. We propose a conceptual model for the prevention of FLW utilising a systems approach through the concept of a circular economy. Since the agri-food sector is largely interdisciplinary, in our proposed model, we have also demonstrated a method of integrating contributions from multiple disciplines towards achieving total depollution (zero waste) in the supply chain.