Now showing items 1-20 of 9564

    • The Organic Material Culture of Western Ulster: An Ethno-historical and Heritage Science Approach

      Croucher, Karina T.; Wilson, Andrew S.; McElhinney, Peter J. (University of BradfordFaculty of Life Sciences, 2019)
      This research attempts to describe the material culture of the Gaelic labouring classes living in western Ulster in the Late Medieval period. The research combines ethnohistorical contextual and technical scientific analysis of ‘chance’ finds discovered in the region’s bogs. Technical analysis dates fifteen museum objects, characterises the materials from which they were made, and explores their cultural significance. Absolute dating indicates that one third of the 15 objects analysed relate to the Gaelic lordships of late medieval western Ulster, with the remainder reflecting aspects of Iron Age and Post-Medieval material culture and related cultural pracrices. Contextual analysis of the later medieval objects and their find locations provides new insights into Gaelic Irish culture and landscape interactions in this period and place. In addition, the research explores the trajectory of indigenous materiality in western Ulster beyond the Late Medieval period. To this end, the thesis examines the relationship between Late Medieval indigenous materiality, and the folk material culture that emerges in western Ulster in the Modern period.
    • Toward full-stack in silico synthetic biology: integrating model specification, simulation, verification, and biological compilation

      Konur, Savas; Mierla, L.M.; Fellermann, H.; Ladroue, C.; Brown, B.; Wipat, A.; Twycross, J.; Dun, B.P.; Kalvala, S.; Gheorghe, Marian; et al. (2021-08-02)
      We present the Infobiotics Workbench (IBW), a user-friendly, scalable, and integrated computational environment for the computer-aided design of synthetic biological systems. It supports an iterative workflow that begins with specification of the desired synthetic system, followed by simulation and verification of the system in high- performance environments and ending with the eventual compilation of the system specification into suitable genetic constructs. IBW integrates modelling, simulation, verification and bicompilation features into a single software suite. This integration is achieved through a new domain-specific biological programming language, the Infobiotics Language (IBL), which tightly combines these different aspects of in silico synthetic biology into a full-stack integrated development environment. Unlike existing synthetic biology modelling or specification languages, IBL uniquely blends modelling, verification and biocompilation statements into a single file. This allows biologists to incorporate design constraints within the specification file rather than using decoupled and independent formalisms for different in silico analyses. This novel approach offers seamless interoperability across different tools as well as compatibility with SBOL and SBML frameworks and removes the burden of doing manual translations for standalone applications. We demonstrate the features, usability, and effectiveness of IBW and IBL using well-established synthetic biological circuits.
    • Performance Analysis of Virtualisation in a Cloud Computing Platform. An application driven investigation into modelling and analysis of performance vs security trade-offs for virtualisation in OpenStack infrastructure as a service (IaaS) cloud computing platform architectures.

      Kouvatsos, Demetres D.; Kiran, Miriam; Kamala, Mumtaz A.; Maiyama, Kabiru M. (University of BradfordDepartment of Computer Science, Faculty of Engineering and Informatics, 2019)
      Virtualisation is one of the underlying technologies that led to the success of cloud computing platforms (CCPs). The technology, along with other features such as multitenancy allows delivering of computing resources in the form of service through efficient sharing of physical resources. As these resources are provided through virtualisation, a robust agreement is outlined for both the quantity and quality-of-service (QoS) in a service level agreement (SLA) documents. QoS is one of the essential components of SLA, where performance is one of its primary aspects. As the technology is progressively maturing and receiving massive acceptance, researchers from industry and academia continue to carry out novel theoretical and practical studies of various essential aspects of CCPs with significant levels of success. This thesis starts with the assessment of the current level of knowledge in the literature of cloud computing in general and CCPs in particular. In this context, a substantive literature review was carried out focusing on performance modelling, testing, analysis and evaluation of Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS), methodologies. To this end, a systematic mapping study (SMSs) of the literature was conducted. SMS guided the choice and direction of this research. The SMS was followed by the development of a novel open queueing network model (QNM) at equilibrium for the performance modelling and analysis of an OpenStack IaaS CCP. Moreover, it was assumed that an external arrival pattern is Poisson while the queueing stations provided exponentially distributed service times. Based on Jackson’s theorem, the model was exactly decomposed into individual M/M/c (c ≥ 1) stations. Each of these queueing stations was analysed in isolation, and closed-form expressions for key performance metrics, such as mean response time, throughput, server (resource) utilisation as well as bottleneck device were determined. Moreover, the research was extended with a proposed open QNM with a bursty external arrival pattern represented by a Compound Poisson Process (CPP) with geometrically distributed batches, or equivalently, variable Generalised Exponential (GE) interarrival and service times. Each queueing station had c (c ≥ 1) GE-type servers. Based on a generic maximum entropy (ME) product form approximation, the proposed open GE-type QNM was decomposed into individual GE/GE/c queueing stations with GE-type interarrival and service times. The evaluation of the performance metrics and bottleneck analysis of the QNM were determined, which provided vital insights for the capacity planning of existing CCP architectures as well as the design and development of new ones. The results also revealed, due to a significant impact on the burstiness of interarrival and service time processes, resulted in worst-case performance bounds scenarios, as appropriate. Finally, an investigation was carried out into modelling and analysis of performance and security trade-offs for a CCP architecture, based on a proposed generalised stochastic Petri net (GSPN) model with security-detection control model (SDCM). In this context, ‘optimal’ combined performance and security metrics were defined with both M-type or GE-type arrival and service times and the impact of security incidents on performance was assessed. Typical numerical experiments on the GSPN model were conducted and implemented using the Möbius package, and an ‘optimal’ trade-offs were determined between performance and security, which are crucial in the SLA of the cloud computing services.
    • Drawn from life: Cocreating narrative and graphic vignettes of lived experience with people affected by dementia

      Capstick, Andrea; Dennison, Alison; Oyebode, Jan R.; Healy, Lesley; Surr, Claire A.; Parveen, Sahdia; Sass, C.; Drury, Michelle (Wiley, 2021)
      Background: The growing literature on Patient and Public Involvement and Engagement (PPIE) and dementia identifies specific problems related to the influence involvement has on research outcomes, over-reliance on family members as proxies, and lack of representation of seldom-heard groups. Adaptations to the PPIE process are therefore needed in order to make possible the involvement of a broader spectrum of people living with dementia. Objective: To adapt the PPIE process in order to make participation in co-creation by people living with dementia accessible and meaningful across a spectrum of cognitive abilities. Design: Narrative elicitation, informal conversation, and observation were used to co-create three vignettes based on PPIE group members’ personal experience of dementia services. Each vignette was produced in both narrative and graphic formats. Participants: Nine people living with dementia and five family members. Results: Using enhanced methods and outreach it was possible to adapt the PPIE process so that not only family members and people with milder cognitive difficulties could participate, but also those with more pronounced cognitive problems whose voices are less often heard. Conclusions: Making creative adaptations is vital in PPIE involving people living with dementia if we wish to develop inclusive forms of PPIE practice. This may, however, raise new ethical issues, which are briefly discussed.
    • Rethinking the design and implementation of financial services for poverty reduction: A case of Northern Ghana

      Arora, Rashmi; Anand, Prathivadi B.; Naab, Gilbert Z. (University of BradfordFaculty of Management, Law and Social Sciences, 2019)
      The thesis empirically examines how microfinance products are designed and implemented, and the implications for clients’ households and sources of livelihood. The study argues that the design of products and implementation that reflect the livelihood needs and poverty context of clients is one of the effective ways to reduce poverty. It investigates the microfinance operations of three financial institutions: Sinapi Aba Trust (SAT), St Joseph’s Cooperative Credit Union (CCU) and Sonzele Rural Bank (SRB) in Jirapa, a municipality in Northern Ghana. The study deployed a mixed-methods approach to collect data from six rural and urban communities. Data was sought from secondary sources, 20 interviews, 10 focus group discussions and 120 questionnaires. The research adopted the Sustainable Livelihoods and the Making Markets Work for the Poor approaches as a guide in the framework of analysis. The study, using qualitative and quantitative analytical tools found that product designs of SAT and SRB did not reflect the needs and poverty context of the majority of their clients. Clients of SAT and SRB were found to be less involved in the product design processes, suggesting a top-down institutional approach that seldom incorporated the needs of the poor. The method of group formation has a substantial implication on members’ poverty outcomes. Groups involving only females had a significant and positive relationship with members’ household and business outcomes, while members of male-only groups had a negative relationship with their household outcomes. The thesis concludes that accessible interest on loans and incentives to encourage savings would make microfinance markets work more sustainably for the rural poor. The findings challenge a reconsideration of the design of microfinance products to integrate financial technology as an efficient approach to deliver financial services, especially in rural areas.
    • Managing performance expectations in association football

      Fry, John; Serbera, J-P.; Wilson, R.J. (2021-10)
      Motivated by excessive managerial pressure and sackings, together with associated questions over the inefficient use of scarce resources, we explore realistic performance expectations in association football. Our aim is to improve management quality by accounting for information asymmetry. Results highlight uncertainty caused both by football’s low-scoring nature and the intensity of the competition. At a deeper level we show that fans and journalists are prone to under-estimate uncertainties associated with individual matches. Further, we quantify reasonable expectations in the face of unevenly distributed resources. In line with the statactivist approach we call for more rounded assessments to be made once the underlying uncertainties are adequately accounted for. Managing fan expectations is probably impossible though the potential for constructive dialogue remains.
    • Toward Improving Confidence in Autonomous Vehicle Software: A Study on Traffic Sign Recognition Systems

      Aslansefat, K.; Kabir, Sohag; Abdullatif, Amr R.A.; Vasudevan, Vinod; Papadopoulos, Y. (IEEE, 2021-08)
      This article proposes an approach named SafeML II, which applies empirical cumulative distribution function-based statistical distance measures in a designed human-in-the loop procedure to ensure the safety of machine learning-based classifiers in autonomous vehicle software. The application of artificial intelligence (AI) and data-driven decision-making systems in autonomous vehicles is growing rapidly. As autonomous vehicles operate in dynamic environments, the risk that they can face an unknown observation is relatively high due to insufficient training data, distributional shift, or cyber-security attack. Thus, AI-based algorithms should make dependable decisions to improve their interpretation of the environment, lower the risk of autonomous driving, and avoid catastrophic accidents. This paper proposes an approach named SafeML II, which applies empirical cumulative distribution function (ECDF)-based statistical distance measures in a designed human-in-the-loop procedure to ensure the safety of machine learning-based classifiers in autonomous vehicle software. The approach is model-agnostic and it can cover various machine learning and deep learning classifiers. The German Traffic Sign Recognition Benchmark (GTSRB) is used to illustrate the capabilities of the proposed approach.
    • Investor Sentiment and Stock Returns: Global Evidence

      Wang, Wenzhao; Su, C.; Duxberry, D. (2021-09)
      We assess the impact of investor sentiment on future stock returns in 50 global stock markets. Using the consumer confidence index (CCI) as the sentiment proxy, we document a negative relationship between investor sentiment and future stock returns at the global level. While the separation between developed and emerging markets does not disrupt the negative pattern, investor sentiment has a more instant impact in emerging markets, but a more enduring impact in developed markets. Individual stock markets reveal heterogeneity in the sentiment-return relationship. This heterogeneity can be explained by cross-market differences in culture and institutions, along with intelligence and education, to varying degrees influenced by the extent of individual investor market participation.
    • Sustainable Food Supply Chains: Overcoming the Challenges with Digital Technologies

      Mahroof, Kamran; Omar, Amizan; Kucukaltan, B. (Emerald Publishing, 2021)
      The purpose of this paper is to offer a consolidative approach in exploring the potential contribution of digital technologies in sustainable supply chain management (SSCM) for the sustainable performance of food supply chain business, through the circular economy concepts. As a single case study, this qualitative, interpretivist research was based on one of the largest food producers in the United Kingdom. The research utilises semi-structured interviews and applies thematic analysis to offer rich insights into SSCM challenges and their relationship with the business performance, through ten in-depth interviews. Findings derived from thematic analysis of the interview transcripts suggest four main critical success factors underpinning SSCM practices and businesses performance – i.e. business continuity, waste reduction, performance measurement approach, and organisational learning, which could use the help of digital technologies to improve. This led to seven propositions to be addressed in the future research. This research offers real, practical insights into SSCM challenges, within the context of food supply chain and explores the potential of digital technologies in overcoming them. Accordingly, the primary contribution of this work is grounded in the identification of critical success factors in SSCM for Food Supply Chains (FSC). Hence, this work contributes further to the literature on SSCM, as well as circular economy, by providing a study of a business in the context of the highly pertinent and valuable food industry.
    • Flyback photovoltaic micro-inverter with a low cost and simple digital-analog control scheme

      Yaqoob, S.J.; Obed, A.; Zubo, R.; Al-Yasir, Yasir; Fadhel, H.; Mokryani, Geev; Abd-Alhameed, Raed A. (MDPI, 2021-07)
      The single-stage flyback Photovoltaic (PV) micro-inverter is considered as a simple and small in size topology but requires expensive digital microcontrollers such as Field-Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) or Digital Signal Processor (DSP) to increase the system efficiency, this would increase the cost of the overall system. To solve this problem, based on a single-stage flyback structure, this paper proposed a low cost and simple analog-digital control scheme. This control scheme is implemented using a low cost ATMega microcontroller built in the Arduino Uno board and some analog operational amplifiers. First, the single-stage flyback topology is analyzed theoretically and then the design consideration is obtained. Second, a 120 W prototype was developed in the laboratory to validate the proposed control. To prove the effectiveness of this control, we compared the cost price, overall system efficiency, and THD values of the proposed results with the results obtained by the literature. So, a low system component, single power stage, cheap control scheme, and decent efficiency are achieved by the proposed system. Finally, the experimental results present that the proposed system has a maximum efficiency of 91%, with good values of the total harmonic distortion (THD) compared to the results of other authors
    • Probing the role of Val228 on the catalytic activity of Scytalidium catalase

      Goc, G.; Balci, B.A.; Yorke, Briony A.; Pearson, Y.; Yuzugullu Karakus, Y. (2021-08)
      Scytalidium catalase is a homotetramer including heme d in each subunit. Its primary function is the dismutation of H2O2 to water and oxygen, but it is also able to oxidase various small organic compounds including catechol and phenol. The crystal structure of Scytalidium catalase reveals the presence of three linked channels providing access to the exterior like other catalases reported so far. The function of these channels has been extensively studied, revealing the possible routes for substrate flow and product release. In this report, we have focussed on the semi-conserved residue Val228, located near to the vinyl groups of the heme at the opening of the lateral channel. Its replacement with Ala, Ser, Gly, Cys, Phe and Ile were tested. We observed a significant decrease in catalytic efficiency in all mutants with the exception of a remarkable increase in oxidase activity when Val228 was mutated to either Ala, Gly or Ser. The reduced catalytic efficiencies are characterized in terms of the restriction of hydrogen peroxide as electron acceptor in the active centre resulting from the opening of lateral channel inlet by introducing the smaller side chain residues. On the other hand, the increased oxidase activity is explained by allowing the suitable electron donor to approach more closely to the heme. The crystal structures of V228C and V228I were determined at 1.41 and 1.47 Å resolution, respectively. The lateral channels of the V228C and V228I presented a broadly identical chain of arranged waters to that observed for wild-type enzyme.
    • Hypertension in older adults in Africa: A systematic review and meta-analysis

      Bosu, W.K.; Reilly, Siobhan T.; Aheto, J.M.K.; Zucchelli, E. (2019-04)
      Background: Hypertension is the leading driver of cardiovascular disease deaths in Africa. Its prevalence is highest in older populations. Yet, this group has received little attention in many African countries. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis (PROSPERO registration: CRD42017056474) to estimate the prevalence of hypertension in older adults living in Africa. Methods: We searched grey literature and major electronic databases including PubMed and Embase for population-based studies and published between 1 January 1980 to 28 May 2018 reporting the prevalence of hypertension for adults aged ≥50 years living in Africa. We employed a random effects model to estimate the pooled prevalence across included studies. Findings: We screened 10,719 articles and retrieved 103 full-text articles to evaluate for inclusion in the review. Thirty-four unique studies providing 37 data points on 43,025 individuals in 15 African countries were analyzed. The prevalence of hypertension ranged from 22.3% to 90.0% from the individual studies while the overall pooled prevalence was 57.0% (95% CI 52%-61%). The prevalence was not statistically significantly different by sex, residence, or African sub-region. In individual studies, older age and overweight/obesity were independently associated with hypertension. Twenty-nine (78%) data points were deemed to be of low- or moderate-risk of bias. Eliminating high-risk bias studies made little difference to the pooled estimate of hypertension. Sensitivity analyses, omitting one study at a time, identified three studies with significant but relatively small impact on the pooled estimate. We observed substantial heterogeneity (I2 = 98.9%) across the studies which was further explored by meta-regression analyses. Overall, the GRADE assessment suggested moderate quality evidence in the results. Conclusion: The persistent high prevalence of hypertension among older adults in Africa, even in rural populations warrants more attention to the cardiovascular health of this group by public health authorities
    • A core outcome set for nonpharmacological community-based interventions for people living with dementia at home: A systematic review of outcome measurement instruments

      Harding, A.J.E.; Morbey, H.; Ahmed, F.; Opdebeeck, C.; Elvish, R.; Leroi, I.; Williamson, P.R.; Keady, J.; Reilly, Siobhan T. (2021)
      It is questionable whether existing outcome measurement instruments (OMIs) in dementia research reflect what key stakeholders' value. We attained consensus from over 300 key stakeholders, including people living with dementia, and identified 13 core outcome items for use in nonpharmacological and community-based interventions for people with dementia living at home. In this systematic review we review OMIs that have previously been used in dementia care research to determine how, or even if, the 13 core outcome items can be measured. We extracted self-reported OMIs from trials, reviews and reports of instrument development. Searches were undertaken in the ALOIS database, Medline, PsycINFO, CINAHL, socINDEX and COSMIN database. We aimed to assess the psychometric properties of OMI items for face validity with the core outcome items, content validity, internal consistency and responsiveness. We held a co-research workshop involving people living with dementia and care partners in order to ratify the findings. In total 347 OMIs were located from 354 sources. Of these 76 OMIs met the inclusion criteria. No OMIs were deemed to have sufficient face validity for the COS items, and no OMIs proceeded to further assessment. The 'best' available OMI is the Engagement and Independence in Dementia Questionnaire (EID-Q). This study provides a practical resource for those designing dementia research trials. Being able to measure the COS items would herald a paradigm shift for dementia research, be responsive to what key stakeholders value and enhance the ability to make comparisons.
    • What is important to people with dementia living at home? A set of core outcome items for use in the evaluation of non-pharmacological community-based health and social care interventions

      Reilly, Siobhan T.; Harding, A.J.E.; Morbey, H.; Ahmed, F.; Williamson, P.R.; Swarbrick, C.; Leroi, I.; Davies, L.; Reeves, D.; Holland, F.; et al. (2020-07)
      Objectives: Inconsistency in outcome measurement in dementia care trials impedes the comparisons of effectiveness between trials. The key aim of this study is to establish an agreed standardised core outcome set (COS) for use when evaluating non-pharmacological health and social care interventions for people with dementia living at home. Method: We used a mixed-methods research design, including substantive qualitative research with five key stakeholders groups. We consulted with people living with dementia for many aspects of this research. We applied a modified two-round 54 item Delphi approach to attain consensus on core outcomes. The COS was finalised in a face-to-face consensus meeting in 2018. Results: Of the 288 who completed round 1 (21 people living with dementia, 58 care partners, 137 relevant health and social care professionals, 60 researchers, 12 policy makers), 246 completed round 2 (85% response rate). Twenty participants attended the consensus meeting. We reached consensus for the inclusion of 13 outcome items. Conclusion: We identified 13 outcome items which are considered core; many relate to social health. Providing there are adequate measures, measuring these core outcome items will enhance comparisons for effectiveness making trial evidence more useful. The items will provide commissioners and service planners with information on what types of interventions are most likely to be valued highly by people living with dementia.
    • A worked example of initial theory-building: PARTNERS2 collaborative care for people who have experienced psychosis in England

      Gwernan-Jones, R.; Britten, N.; Allard, J.; Baker, E.; Gill, L.; Lloyd, H.; Rawcliffe, T.; Sayers, R.; Plappert, H.; Gibson, J.; et al. (2020-01)
      In this article, we present an exemplar of the initial theory-building phase of theory-driven evaluation for the PARTNERS2 project, a collaborative care intervention for people with experience of psychosis in England. Initial theory-building involved analysis of the literature, interviews with key leaders and focus groups with service users. The initial programme theory was developed from these sources in an iterative process between researchers and stakeholders (service users, practitioners, commissioners) involving four activities: articulation of 442 explanatory statements systematically developed using realist methods; debate and consensus; communication; and interrogation. We refute two criticisms of theory-driven evaluation of complex interventions. We demonstrate how the process of initial theory-building made a meaningful contribution to our complex intervention in five ways. Although time-consuming, it allowed us to develop an internally coherent and well-documented intervention. This study and the lessons learnt provide a detailed resource for other researchers wishing to build theory for theory-driven evaluation.
    • Evaluation of a primary care-based collaborative care model (PARTNERS2) for people with diagnoses of schizophrenia, bipolar, or other psychoses: study protocol for a cluster randomised controlled trial

      Plappert, H.; Hobson-Merrett, C.; Gibbons, B.; Baker, E.; Bevan, S.; Clark, M.; Creanor, S.; Davies, L.; Denyer, R.; Frost, J.; et al. (2021-06)
      Current NHS policy encourages an integrated approach to provision of mental and physical care for individuals with long term mental health problems. The 'PARTNERS2' complex intervention is designed to support individuals with psychosis in a primary care setting. The trial will evaluate the clinical and cost-effectiveness of the PARTNERS2 intervention. This is a cluster randomised controlled superiority trial comparing collaborative care (PARTNERS2) with usual care, with an internal pilot to assess feasibility. The setting will be primary care within four trial recruitment areas: Birmingham & Solihull, Cornwall, Plymouth, and Somerset. GP practices are randomised 1:1 to either (a) the PARTNERS2 intervention plus modified standard care ('intervention'); or (b) standard care only ('control'). PARTNERS2 is a flexible, general practice-based, person-centred, coaching-based intervention aimed at addressing mental health, physical health, and social care needs. Two hundred eligible individuals from 39 GP practices are taking part. They were recruited through identification from secondary and primary care databases. The primary hypothesis is quality of life (QOL). Secondary outcomes include: mental wellbeing, time use, recovery, and process of physical care. A process evaluation will assess fidelity of intervention delivery, test hypothesised mechanisms of action, and look for unintended consequences. An economic evaluation will estimate its cost-effectiveness. Intervention delivery and follow-up have been modified during the COVID-19 pandemic. The overarching aim is to establish the clinical and cost-effectiveness of the model for adults with a diagnosis of schizophrenia, bipolar, or other types of psychoses.
    • Status of primary and secondary mental healthcare of people with severe mental illness: an epidemiological study from the UK PARTNERS2 programme

      Reilly, Siobhan T.; McCabe, C.; Marchevsky, N.; Green, M.; Davies, L.; Ives, N.; Plappert, H.; Allard, J.; Rawcliffe, T.; Gibson, J.; et al. (2021-03)
      There is global interest in the reconfiguration of community mental health services, including primary care, to improve clinical and cost effectiveness. This study seeks to describe patterns of service use, continuity of care, health risks, physical healthcare monitoring and the balance between primary and secondary mental healthcare for people with severe mental illness in receipt of secondary mental healthcare in the UK. We conducted an epidemiological medical records review in three UK sites. We identified 297 cases randomly selected from the three participating mental health services. Data were manually extracted from electronic patient medical records from both secondary and primary care, for a 2-year period (2012-2014). Continuous data were summarised by mean and s.d. or median and interquartile range (IQR). Categorical data were summarised as percentages. The majority of care was from secondary care practitioners: of the 18 210 direct contacts recorded, 76% were from secondary care (median, 36.5; IQR, 14-68) and 24% were from primary care (median, 10; IQR, 5-20). There was evidence of poor longitudinal continuity: in primary care, 31% of people had poor longitudinal continuity (Modified Modified Continuity Index ≤0.5), and 43% had a single named care coordinator in secondary care services over the 2 years. The study indicates scope for improvement in supporting mental health service delivery in primary care. Greater knowledge of how care is organised presents an opportunity to ensure some rebalancing of the care that all people with severe mental illness receive, when they need it. A future publication will examine differences between the three sites that participated in this study.
    • Diagnostics and prognostics for complex systems: A review of methods and challenges

      Soleimani, Morteza; Campean, I. Felician; Neagu, Daniel (2021)
      Diagnostics and prognostics have significant roles in the reliability enhancement of systems and are focused topics of active research. Engineered systems are becoming more complex and are subjected to miscellaneous failure modes that impact adversely their performability. This everincreasing complexity makes fault diagnostics and prognostics challenging for the system-level functions. A significant number of successes have been achieved and acknowledged in some review papers; however, these reviews rarely focused on the application of complex engineered systems nor provided a systematic review of diverse techniques and approaches to address the related challenges. To bridge the gap, this paper firstly presents a review to systematically cover the general concepts and recent development of various diagnostics and prognostics approaches, along with their strengths and shortcomings for the application of diverse engineered systems. Afterward, given the characteristics of complex systems, the applicability of different techniques and methods that are capable to address the features of complex systems are reviewed and discussed, and some of the recent achievements in the literature are introduced. Finally, the unaddressed challenges are discussed by taking into account the characteristics of automotive systems as an example of complex systems. In addition, future development and potential research trends are offered to address those challenges. Consequently, this review provides a systematic view of the state of the art and case studies with a reference value for scholars and practitioners.
    • Hidden labour: The skilful work of clinical audit data collection and its implications for secondary use of data via integrated health IT

      McVey, Lynn; Alvarado, Natasha; Greenhalgh, J.; Elshehaly, Mai; Gale, C.P.; Lake, J.; Ruddle, R.A.; Dowding, D.; Mamas, M.; Feltbower, R.; et al. (Springer/Biomed Central, 2021-07-16)
      Background: Secondary use of data via integrated health information technology is fundamental to many healthcare policies and processes worldwide. However, repurposing data can be problematic and little research has been undertaken into the everyday practicalities of inter-system data sharing that helps explain why this is so, especially within (as opposed to between) organisations. In response, this article reports one of the most detailed empirical examinations undertaken to date of the work involved in repurposing healthcare data for National Clinical Audits. Methods: Fifty-four semi-structured, qualitative interviews were carried out with staff in five English National Health Service hospitals about their audit work, including 20 staff involved substantively with audit data collection. In addition, ethnographic observations took place on wards, in ‘back offices’ and meetings (102 hours). Findings were analysed thematically and synthesised in narratives. Results: Although data were available within hospital applications for secondary use in some audit fields, which could, in theory, have been auto-populated, in practice staff regularly negotiated multiple, unintegrated systems to generate audit records. This work was complex and skilful, and involved cross-checking and double data entry, often using paper forms, to assure data quality and inform quality improvements. Conclusions: If technology is to facilitate the secondary use of healthcare data, the skilled but largely hidden labour of those who collect and recontextualise those data must be recognised. Their detailed understandings of what it takes to produce high quality data in specific contexts should inform the further development of integrated systems within organisations.
    • Green and Highly Efficient MIMO Transceiver System for 5G Heterogenous Networks

      Al-Yasir, Yasir; Abdulkhaleq, Ahmed M.; Parchin, Naser O.; Elfergani, I.T.; Rodriguez, J.; Noras, James M.; Abd-Alhameed, Raed A.; Rayit, A.; Qahwaji, Rami (IEEE, 2021-07-27)
      The paper presents the general requirements and an exemplary design of the RF front-end system that in today´s handset is a key consumer of power. The design is required to minimize the carbon footprint in mobile handsets devices, whilst facilitating cooperation, and providing the energy-efficient operation of multi-standards for 5G communications. It provides the basis of hardware solutions for RF front-end integration challenges and offers design features covering energy efficiency for power amplifiers (PAs), Internet of Things (IoT) controlled tunable filters and compact highly isolated multiple-input and multiple-output (MIMO) antennas. An optimum design requires synergetic collaboration between academic institutions and industry in order to satisfy the key requirements of sub-6 GHz energy-efficient 5G transceivers, incorporating energy efficiency, good linearity and the potential for low-cost manufacturing. A highly integrated RF transceiver was designed and implemented to transmit and receive a picture using compact MIMO antennas integrated with efficient tunable filters and high linearity PAs. The proposed system has achieved a bit error rate (BER) of less than 10-10 at a data rate of 600 Mb/s with a wireless communication distance of more than 1 meter and power dissipation of 18-20 mW using hybrid beamforming technology and 64-QAM modulation.