Now showing items 1-20 of 9046

    • Model-based integration analysis revealed presence of novel prognostic miRNA targets and important cancer driver genes in triple-negative breast cancers

      Zaka, M.; Sutton, Chris W.; Peng, Y.; Konur, Savas (2020-03)
      Background: miRNAs (microRNAs) play a key role in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) progression, and its heterogeneity at the expression, pathological and clinical levels. Stratification of breast cancer subtypes on the basis of genomics and transcriptomics profiling, along with the known biomarkers’ receptor status, has revealed the existence of subgroups known to have diverse clinical outcomes. Recently, several studies have analysed expression profiles of matched mRNA and miRNA to investigate the underlying heterogeneity of TNBC and the potential role of miRNA as a biomarker within cancers. However, the miRNA-mRNA regulatory network within TNBC has yet to be understood. Results and Findings: We performed model-based integrated analysis of miRNA and mRNA expression profiles on breast cancer, primarily focusing on triple-negative, to identify subtype-specific signatures involved in oncogenic pathways and their potential role in patient survival outcome. Using univariate and multivariate Cox analysis, we identified 25 unique miRNAs associated with the prognosis of overall survival (OS) and distant metastases-free survival (DMFS) with “risky” and “protective” outcomes. The association of these prognostic miRNAs with subtype-specific mRNA genes was established to investigate their potential regulatory role in the canonical pathways using anti-correlation analysis. The analysis showed that miRNAs contribute to the positive regulation of known breast cancer driver genes as well as the activation of respective oncogenic pathway during disease formation. Further analysis on the “risk associated” miRNAs group revealed significant regulation of critical pathways such as cell growth, voltage-gated ion channel function, ion transport and cell-to-cell signalling. Conclusion: The study findings provide new insights into the potential role of miRNAs in TNBC disease progression through the activation of key oncogenic pathways. The results showed previously unreported subtype-specific prognostic miRNAs associated with clinical outcome that may be used for further clinical evaluation.
    • kPWorkbench: A software suit for membrane systems

      Konur, Savas; Mierla, L.; Ipate, F.; Gheorghe, Marian (2020)
      Membrane computing is a new natural computing paradigm inspired by the functioning and structure of biological cells, and has been successfully applied to many different areas, from biology to engineering. In this paper, we present kPWorkbench, a software framework developed to support membrane computing and its applications. kPWorkbench offers unique features, including modelling, simulation, agent-based high performance simulation and verification, which allow modelling and computational analysis of membrane systems. The kPWorkbench formal verification component provides the opportunity to analyse the behaviour of a model and validate that important system requirements are met and certain behaviours are observed. The platform also features a property language based on natural language statements to facilitate property specification.
    • MicroRNAs and Cancer

      Maher, S.G.; Bibby, B.A.S.; Moody, Hannah L.; Reid, G. (2015)
      MicroRNAs are a relatively new class of small, noncoding RNA species that represent a cornerstone of cell biology, with diverse roles ranging from embryonic development to aging. miRNAs function to regulate posttranscriptional gene expression, are critical to the normal function of cells, and as such are frequently dysregulated during disease processes. In this chapter, we discuss the biogenesis and mechanism of action of miRNA and their role in cancer initiation, promotion, and progression. In addition, we discuss the most recently identified dual roles of miRNA in epigenetic gene regulation; how they are both regulators and regulated. Finally, we discuss the emerging roles of miRNA as epigenetic anti-cancer therapeutics, the current research examining inhibition of oncogenic miRNAs, and studies now establishing the potential of replacing lost, tumor-suppressive miRNA.
    • MicroRNA-31 Regulates Chemosensitivity in Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma

      Moody, Hannah L.; Lind, M.; Maher, S.G. (2017-09-15)
      Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is associated with an extremely poor prognosis, and most patients initially are or rapidly become unresponsive to platinum-based chemotherapy. MicroRNA-31 (miR-31) is encoded on a genomic fragile site, 9p21.3, which is reportedly lost in many MPM tumors. Based on previous findings in a variety of other cancers, we hypothesized that miR-31 alters chemosensitivity and that miR-31 reconstitution may influence sensitivity to chemotherapeutics in MPM. Reintroduction of miR-31 into miR-31 null NCI-H2452 cells significantly enhanced clonogenic resistance to cisplatin and carboplatin. Although miR-31 re-expression increased chemoresistance, paradoxically, a higher relative intracellular accumulation of platinum was detected. This was coupled to a significantly decreased intranuclear concentration of platinum. Linked with a downregulation of OCT1, a bipotential transcriptional regulator with multiple miR-31 target binding sites, we subsequently identified an indirect miR-31-mediated upregulation of ABCB9, a transporter associated with drug accumulation in lysosomes, and increased uptake of platinum to lysosomes. However, when overexpressed directly, ABCB9 promoted cellular chemosensitivity, suggesting that miR-31 promotes chemoresistance largely via an ABCB9-independent mechanism. Overall, our data suggest that miR-31 loss from MPM tumors promotes chemosensitivity and may be prognostically beneficial in the context of therapeutic sensitivity.
    • Ultrasonic micromoulding: Process characterisation using extensive in-line monitoring for micro-scaled products

      Gülçür, Mert; Brown, Elaine; Gough, Tim; Romano, J.-M.; Penchev, P.; Dimov, Stefan; Whiteside, Benjamin R. (2020-10)
      Industry-standard quality management systems such as Six Sigma and emerging Industry 4.0 compliant production processes demonstrate the importance of in-line condition monitoring of manufacturing methods for achieving the highest levels of product quality. Measurement data collected as the process is running can inform the operator about unexpected changes in machine operation or raw materials that could negatively impact production; and offer an opportunity for a process control intervention to stabilise production. However, micro-manufacturing production lines can pose a challenging environment for deploying such systems, since processing events can occur extremely rapidly and in harsh environments. Moreover, the small scale of micro-nano featured components can make sensor installation even more problematic. Recently, ultrasonic micromoulding has drawn attention in niche markets due to its unique advantages for processing thermoplastics as a new micro-manufacturing technology. The process differs from conventional moulding significantly by eliminating the need for a plasticising screw and using direct application of ultrasonic energy to melt the polymer. This offers numerous benefits such as decrease in energy usage, moulding at lower pressures, easier cleaning, and reduced material residence times, the latter which could be beneficial for pharma-grade polymers or polymers with active ingredients. However, very little work has been reported attempting to monitor the process using in-line measurements. This work aims to evaluate the characteristics of the ultrasonic micromoulding process for microinjection moulding of a microneedle array using a range of sensor technologies including: data recorded by the machine controller; a high-speed thermal camera and a cavity pressure transducer. The data has captured the highly dynamic process environment with a high degree of accuracy. The relationship between the process data and dimensional quality of the ultrasonically micromoulded products has been quantified and subsequently implemented as a cost-effective in-line quality assurance method.
    • Digital payments adoption research: A review of factors influencing consumer’s attitude, intention and usage

      Patil, P.P; Rana, Nripendra P.; Dwivedi, Y.K. (2018-01)
      © IFIP International Federation for Information Processing 2018. Digital payment methods (DPMs) are evolving fast but they are yet to be widely adopted particularly in the developing countries. An initial review of literature suggests that several studies have already been conducted on this topic for understanding antecedents of digital payments adoption. However, only a few studies have examined this emerging topic in the context of developing countries. The aim of this submission is to identify antecedents of consumer adoption and usage of digital payments methods. The results of this literature analysis suggest that constructs related to technology acceptance model (TAM) and unified theory of acceptance and use of technology (UTAUT) along with trust and risk are the most frequently examined constructs for determining consumer’s behavioural intention to use and usage of DPMs. The findings from this work can help researchers selecting factors for inclusion in the future empirical works on this topic.
    • Digital payments adoption research: A meta-analysis for generalising the effects of attitude, cost, innovativeness, mobility and price value on behavioural intention

      Patil, P.P.; Rana, Nripendra P.; Dwivedi, Y.K. (2019-01)
      The rapid evolution of mobile-based technologies and applications has led to the development of several different forms of digital payment methods (DPMs) but with limited enthusiasm in consumers for adopting them. Hence, several academic studies have already been conducted to examine the role of various antecedents that determines consumers’ intention to adopt DPMs. The degree of effect and significance of several antecedents found to be inconsistent across different studies. This provided us a basis for undertaking a meta-analysis of existing research for estimating the cumulative effect of such antecedents. Therefore, this study aims to perform a meta-analysis of five antecedents (i.e. attitude, cost, mobility, price value and innovativeness) for confirming their overall influence on intentions to adopt DPMs. The results of this study suggest that the cumulative effect of four out of five antecedents found to be significant while influence of price value was found insignificant on behavioural intentions. The recommendations drawn from this research would help to decide if and when to use such antecedents for predicting consumer intention to adopt DPMs.
    • Use of ‘Habit’ is not a habit in understanding individual technology adoption: A review of UTAUT2 based empirical studies

      Tamilmani, K.; Rana, Nripendra P.; Dwivedi, Y.K. (2019-01)
      ‘Habit’ was the most important theoretical addition into UTAUT2 to challenge the role of behavioural intention as a lone predictor of technology use. However, systematic review and meta-analysis of Price value the other UTAUT2 additional construct revealed major inconsistency of the model with just 41% UTAUT2 based studies including the construct in their research. Thus, the aim of this research is to understand the appropriateness of ‘habit’ construct usage among UTAUT2 based empirical studies and their reason for omission or inclusion. The findings from 66 empirical studies revealed only 23 studies a meagre (35%) utilised ‘habit’ construct and the remaining massive 43 studies (65%) excluded the construct from their research model. The major reason for studies not including “habit” construct was they were examining users of new technology at early stage of adoption where sufficient time hasn’t elapsed for users to form habit. Moreover this study caution the use of experience as an alternative for habit. Since experience can be gained under mandatory settings which is not sufficient enough to form habit that occurs more naturally under voluntary settings. This study also provided number of recommendations for theory and practice based on the findings.
    • Use of social media in citizen-centric electronic government services: A literature analysis

      Mohammad, A.A.A.; Rana, Nripendra P.; Sahu, Ganesh P.; Dwivedi, Yogesh K.; Tajvidi, M. (2017-07)
      This article undertakes a literature review on such articles on social media and citizen-centric e-government services. This research uses 139 articles to perform the intended literature review. The keywords analysis of these articles indicates that Web 2.0, participation and open government/ open data were some of the frequently used keywords in addition to the two major themes of e-government and social media on which all the articles were searched for. The analysis of research methods indicated that majority of the studies were analytical, conceptual, descriptive, or theoretical in nature. The theoretical analysis however indicated that there is a lack of theory-based research in this area. The review of literature indicated that research themes such as electronic participation, engagement, transparency, communication/interaction, trust, security and collaboration are some of the most frequently used categories under this area of research. A research framework has also been proposed from the key themes emerging from the review.
    • Investigating gender differences in consumers’ experience of guilt: A comparative study

      Kayal, G.G.; Simintiras, A.C.; Rana, Nripendra P. (2017-11)
      The literature of guilt in the context of consumer behavior is notably limited. It is particularly limited with respect to examining gender differences across nations. Existing studies have only evaluated gender differences, in terms of consumer guilt, in the United States. In addition, those studies evaluated gender differences in specific consumption situations such as consumer boycotting and food consumption. Thus, they do not give a comprehensive understanding of gender variations in consumer guilt. Notably, gender differences with regard to consumer guilt were shown to be limited in countries other than the United States. These studies provided contradictory results to established findings in social psychology. In view of this, by using quantitative techniques, numerous consumption settings, and samples from two distinct countries, this study provides a holistic assessment of gender differences in consumer guilt across nations. The findings indicate that gender differences, with respect to consumer guilt, are predominately present in individualistic countries and notably absent in collectivist countries. Hence, marketers should consider gender as an influential variable when devising guilt related strategies in individualistic countries. In contrast, marketers may reconsider allocating resources, with respect to gender related marketing strategies, in collectivist countries.
    • Involvement in emergency supply chain for disaster management: a cognitive dissonance perspective

      Dwivedi, Y.K.; Shareef, M.A.; Mukerji, B.; Rana, Nripendra P.; Kapoor, K.K. (2018-01)
      An integrated process, interlinked operation and interoperable communication network amongst operating agencies are critical for developing an effective disaster management supply chain. The traditional managerial problems observed across disaster management operations are: non-cooperation among members, disrupted chain of commands, misuse of relief items, lack of information sharing, mistrust and lack of coordination. This study aims to understand the issues affiliated with negative attitude towards disaster management operations using theory of cognitive dissonance. A qualitative investigation was undertaken across 64 districts in Bangladesh. Five constructs were examined for their influences on attitude and behavioural intention of members participating in government emergency supply chain for disaster management. The results indicate that administrative conflict, political biasness and professional growth have significant effects on attitude. Impact of insecurity is non-significant on attitude. This research offers substantial theoretical contribution to the cognitive dissonance theory in the context of disaster management supply chain.
    • Citizens’ adoption of an electronic government system: towards a unified view

      Rana, Nripendra P.; Dwivedi, Y.K.; Lal, B.; Williams, M.D.; Clement, M. (2017-06)
      Sluggish adoption of emerging electronic government (eGov) applications continues to be a problem across developed and developing countries. This research tested the nine alternative theoretical models of technology adoption in the context of an eGov system using data collected from citizens of four selected districts in the state of Bihar in India. Analysis of the models indicates that their performance is not up to the expected level in terms of path coefficients, variance in behavioural intention, or the fit indices of the models. In response to the underperformance of the alternative theoretical models to explain the adoption of an eGov system, this research develops a unified model of electronic government adoption and tests it using the same data. The results indicate that the proposed research model outperforms all alternative models of technology adoption by explaining 77 % of variance in behavioural intention, with acceptable values of fit indices and significant relationships between each pair of hypothesised factors.
    • Effects of mould wear on hydrophobic polymer surfaces replicated using plasma treated and laser-textured stainless steel inserts

      Dimov, Stefan; Romano, J.-M.; Sarasa, J.F.; Concheso, C.; Gülçür, Mert; Dashtbozorg, B.; Garcia-Giron, A.; Penchev, P.; Dong, H.; Whiteside, Benjamin R. (2020)
      The mass production of polymeric parts with functional surfaces requires economically viable manufacturing routes. Injection moulding is a very attractive option however wear and surface damage can be detrimental to the lifespan of replication masters. In this research, the replication of superhydrophobic surfaces is investigated by employing a process chain that integrates surface hardening, laser texturing and injection moulding. Austenitic stainless steel inserts were hardened by low temperature plasma carburising and three different micro and nano scale surface textures were laser fabricated, i.e. submicron triangular LaserInduced Periodic Surface Structures (LIPSS), micro grooves and Lotus-leaf like topographies. Then, a commonly available talc-loaded polypropylene was used to produce 5000 replicas to investigate the evolution of surface textures on both inserts and replicas together with their functional response. Any wear orsurface damage progressively built up on the inserts during the injection moulding process had a clear impact on surface roughness and peak-to-peak topographies of the replicas. In general, the polymer replicas produced with the carburised inserts retained the wetting properties of their textured surfaces for longer periods compared with those produced with untreated replication masters.
    • Examining the success of the online public grievance redressal systems: an extension of the IS success model

      Rana, Nripendra P.; Dwivedi, Y.K.; Williams, M.D.; Lal, B. (2015-01)
      The purpose of this article is to examine the success of the online public grievance redressal system from the perspective of the citizens of India. The empirical outcomes provided the positive significant connections between all 13 hypothesized relationships among the seven constructs. The empirical evidence and discussion presented in the study can help the Indian government to improve upon and fully utilize the potential of the online public grievance redressal system for transparent and corruption free country.
    • An Empirical Validation of a Unified Model of Electronic Government Adoption (UMEGA)

      Dwivedi, Y.K.; Rana, Nripendra P.; Janssen, M.; Lal, B.; Williams, M.D.; Clement, M. (2017-04)
      In electronic government (hereafter e-government), a large variety of technology adoption models are employed, which make researchers and policymakers puzzled about which one to use. In this research, nine well-known theoretical models of information technology adoption are evaluated and 29 different constructs are identified. A unified model of e-government adoption (UMEGA) is developed and validated using data gathered from 377 respondents from seven selected cities in India. The results indicate that the proposed unified model outperforms all other theoretical models, explaining the highest variance on behavioral intention, acceptable levels of fit indices, and significant relationships for each of the seven hypotheses. The UMEGA is a parsimonious model based on the e-government-specific context, whereas the constructs from the original technology adoption models were found to be inappropriate for the e-government context. By using the UMEGA, relevant e-government constructs were included. For further research, we recommend the development of e-government-specific scales.E-
    • Consumer adoption of internet banking in Jordan: Examining the role of hedonic motivation, habit, self-efficacy and trust

      Alalwan, A.; Dwivedi, Y.K.; Rana, Nripendra P.; Lal, B.; Williams, M.D. (2015-06-02)
      Despite the rapid growth of Internet banking (IB), customers in developing countries still hesitate to adopt this technology and its use in the Middle East remains low. This study aims to identify and examine the factors that predict behavioural intention and adoption of IB in Jordan. Four factors – hedonic motivation, habit, self-efficacy and trust – are proposed in a conceptual model. Data was collected by means of a survey with bank customers in Jordan. Structural equation modelling (SEM) was used to analyse the data. The results strongly supported the conceptual model. Further, hedonic motivation, habit, self-efficacy and trust were all confirmed to have a significant influence on behavioural intention. Trust was found to be strongly predicted by both hedonic motivation and self-efficacy. This study provides both academics and practitioners with an insight into the factors that can be used to encourage customer adoption of IB specifically in a Middle East context.
    • Systematic review of acute physically active learning and classroom movement breaks on children's physical activity, cognition, academic performance and classroom behaviour: understanding critical design features.

      Daly-Smith, Andrew; Zwolinsky, S; McKenna, J.; Tomporowski, P.D.; Defeyter, M.A.; Manley, A. (2018)
      To examine the impact of acute classroom movement break (CMB) and physically active learning (PAL) interventions on physical activity (PA), cognition, academic performance and classroom behaviour. Systematic review. PubMed, EBSCO, Academic Search Complete, Education Resources Information Center, PsycINFO, SPORTDiscus, SCOPUS and Web of Science. Studies investigating school-based acute bouts of CMB or PAL on (PA), cognition, academic performance and classroom behaviour. The Downs and Black checklist assessed risk of bias. Ten PAL and eight CMB studies were identified from 2929 potentially relevant articles. Risk of bias scores ranged from 33% to 64.3%. Variation in study designs drove specific, but differing, outcomes. Three studies assessed PA using objective measures. Interventions replaced sedentary time with either light PA or moderate-to-vigorous PA dependent on design characteristics (mode, duration and intensity). Only one study factored individual PA outcomes into analyses. Classroom behaviour improved after longer moderate-to-vigorous (>10 min), or shorter more intense (5 min), CMB/PAL bouts (9 out of 11 interventions). There was no support for enhanced cognition or academic performance due to limited repeated studies. Low-to-medium quality designs predominate in investigations of the acute impacts of CMB and PAL on PA, cognition, academic performance and classroom behaviour. Variable quality in experimental designs, outcome measures and intervention characteristics impact outcomes making conclusions problematic. CMB and PAL increased PA and enhanced time on task. To improve confidence in study outcomes, future investigations should combine examples of good practice observed in current studies. CRD42017070981.
    • Implementing physically active learning: Future directions for research, policy, and practice

      Daly-Smith, Andrew; Quarmby, T.; Archbold, V.S.J.; Routen, A.C.; Morris, J.L.; Gammon, C.; Bartholomew, J.B.; Resaland, G.K.; Llewellyn, B.; Allman, R.; et al. (2020-01)
      To identify co-produced multi-stakeholder perspectives important for successful widespread physically active learning (PAL) adoption and implementation. A total of 35 stakeholders (policymakers n = 9; commercial education sector, n = 8; teachers, n = 3; researchers, n = 15) attended a design thinking PAL workshop. Participants formed 5 multi-disciplinary groups with at least 1 representative from each stakeholder group. Each group, facilitated by a researcher, undertook 2 tasks: (1) using Post-it Notes, the following question was answered: within the school day, what are the opportunities for learning combined with movement? and (2) structured as a washing-line task, the following question was answered: how can we establish PAL as the norm? All discussions were audio-recorded and transcribed. Inductive analyses were conducted by 4 authors. After the analyses were complete, the main themes and subthemes were assigned to 4 predetermined categories: (1) PAL design and implementation, (2) priorities for practice, (3) priorities for policy, and (4) priorities for research. The following were the main themes for PAL implementation: opportunities for PAL within the school day, delivery environments, learning approaches, and the intensity of PAL. The main themes for the priorities for practice included teacher confidence and competence, resources to support delivery, and community of practice. The main themes for the policy for priorities included self-governance, the Office for Standards in Education, Children's Services, and Skill, policy investment in initial teacher training, and curriculum reform. The main themes for the research priorities included establishing a strong evidence base, school-based PAL implementation, and a whole-systems approach. The present study is the first to identify PAL implementation factors using a combined multi-stakeholder perspective. To achieve wider PAL adoption and implementation, future interventions should be evidence based and address implementation factors at the classroom level (e.g., approaches and delivery environments), school level (e.g., communities of practice), and policy level (e.g., initial teacher training).
    • ‘You get some very archaic ideas of what teaching is … ’: primary school teachers’ perceptions of the barriers to physically active lessons

      Quarmby, T.; Daly-Smith, Andrew; Kime, N. (2019-04)
      Physically active lessons present a key paradigm shift in educational practice. However, little is known about the barriers to implementing physically active lessons. To address this, 31 practising primary teachers (23 = female) from 9 primary schools across West Yorkshire, England, were engaged in focus group interviews. Drawing on the socio-ecological model, findings revealed that barriers influencing the implementation of physically active lessons are multifaceted. Teacher’s confidence and competence, concerns over classroom space, preparation time and resources, coupled with the wider school culture that is influenced by governors and parents, reinforce a didactic approach and act as barriers to physically active lessons.
    • Using a multi-stakeholder experience-based design process to co-develop the Creating Active Schools Framework

      Daly-Smith, Andrew; Quarmby, T.; Archbold, V.S.J.; Corrigan, N.; Wilson, D.; Resaland, G.K.; Bartholomew, J.B.; Singh, A.; Tjomsland, H.E.; Sherar, L.B.; et al. (2020-02)
      UK and global policies recommend whole-school approaches to improve childrens' inadequate physical activity (PA) levels. Yet, recent meta-analyses establish current interventions as ineffective due to suboptimal implementation rates and poor sustainability. To create effective interventions, which recognise schools as complex adaptive sub-systems, multi-stakeholder input is necessary. Further, to ensure 'systems' change, a framework is required that identifies all components of a whole-school PA approach. The study's aim was to co-develop a whole-school PA framework using the double diamond design approach (DDDA). Fifty stakeholders engaged in a six-phase DDDA workshop undertaking tasks within same stakeholder (n = 9; UK researchers, public health specialists, active schools coordinators, headteachers, teachers, active partner schools specialists, national organisations, Sport England local delivery pilot representatives and international researchers) and mixed (n = 6) stakeholder groupings. Six draft frameworks were created before stakeholders voted for one 'initial' framework. Next, stakeholders reviewed the 'initial' framework, proposing modifications. Following the workshop, stakeholders voted on eight modifications using an online questionnaire. Following voting, the Creating Active Schools Framework (CAS) was designed. At the centre, ethos and practice drive school policy and vision, creating the physical and social environments in which five key stakeholder groups operate to deliver PA through seven opportunities both within and beyond school. At the top of the model, initial and in-service teacher training foster teachers' capability, opportunity and motivation (COM-B) to deliver whole-school PA. National policy and organisations drive top-down initiatives that support or hinder whole-school PA. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first time practitioners, policymakers and researchers have co-designed a whole-school PA framework from initial conception. The novelty of CAS resides in identifying the multitude of interconnecting components of a whole-school adaptive sub-system; exposing the complexity required to create systems change. The framework can be used to shape future policy, research and practice to embed sustainable PA interventions within schools. To enact such change, CAS presents a potential paradigm shift, providing a map and method to guide future co-production by multiple experts of PA initiatives 'with' schools, while abandoning outdated traditional approaches of implementing interventions 'on' schools.