Now showing items 1-20 of 10137

    • Computational Face Recognition Using Machine Learning Models

      Ugail, Hassan; Elmahmudi, Ali A.M. (University of BradfordFaculty of Engineering and Informatics, 2021)
      Faces are among the most complex stimuli that the human visual system processes. Growing commercial interest in face recognition is encouraging, but it also turns out to be a challenging endeavour. These challenges arise when the situations are complex and cause varied facial appearance due to e.g., occlusion, low-resolution, and ageing. The problem of computer-based face recognition using partial facial data is still largely an unexplored area of research and how does computer interpret various parts of the face. Another challenge is age progression and regression, which is considered to be the most revealing topic for understanding the human face changes during life. In this research, the various computational face recognition models are investigated to overcome the challenges posed by ageing and occlusions/partial faces. For partial face-based face recognition, a pre-trained VGGF model is employed for feature extraction and then followed by popular classifiers such as SVMs and Cosine Similarity CS for classification. In this framework, parts of faces such as eyes, nose, forehead, are used individually for training and testing. The results showing that there is an improvement in recognition in small parts, such as recognition rate in forehead enhanced form about 0% to nearly 35%, eyes from about 22% to approximately 65%. In the second framework, five sub-models were built based on Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs) and those models are named Eyes-CNNs, Nose-CNNs, Mouth-CNNs, Forehead-CNNs, and combined EyesNose-CNNs. The experimental results illustrate a high recognition rate when it comes to small parts, for example, eyes increased up to about 90.83% and forehead reached about 44.5%. Furthermore, the challenge of face ageing is also approached by proposing an age-template based framework, generating an age-based face template for enhanced face generation and recognition. The results showing that generated new aged faces are more reliable comparing with state-of-the-art.
    • Hospital and care home nurse perspectives on optimising care for people living with dementia who transfer between hospitals and care homes

      Downs, Murna G.; Blenkinsopp, Alison; Mountain, Gail; Lord, Kathryn; Richardson, Angela (University of BradfordFaculty of Health Sciences, Centre for Applied Dementia Studies, 2020)
      Background: Transitions out of hospital result in poor outcomes for older people. Research investigating transitions for care home residents living with dementia is limited, even though such residents often have multi-morbidities and frequently use hospital services. Nurses are key care providers. Yet their perspectives on optimising care for people living with dementia transferring back to their care home remains under explored. Aims: This qualitative descriptive study explores hospital and care home nurses’ perspectives on how they optimise care for people living with dementia who transfer from hospital back to their care home, and the alignment of this care with best practice. Methods: Thirty-three nurses participated in either semi structured interviews or focus groups. Data were analysed using qualitative content analysis. Results: Nurses described four roles: 1) exchanging information, 2) assessing and meeting needs, 3) working with families and 4) checking and organising medication. They described care home residents with dementia as having distinct needs and variation in how they provided care. Nurses described interdependent roles, but care home nurses were often excluded from involvement in planning resident’s care on return and were not fully recognised as members of wider healthcare teams. Facilitators for optimising care include: nurses understanding the principles of dementia care, nurse leadership and autonomy, having positive relationships between hospital and care home nurses and opportunities for joint working. The care practices nurses described broadly aligned with best practice. Implications: Hospital and care home nurses require joint working opportunities to understand their roles and build relationships. Care home nurses’ status needs to be addressed with action to support their integration into the wider healthcare system.
    • Sustainable Renewable Energy Policy on Energy Indicators, Electric Power and Renewable Energy Supply Chains. A study of renewable energy policies, energy indicators and electrical power distribution

      Carruthers, Andrew; Munive-Hernandez, J. Eduardo; Owaka, Smart O. (University of BradfordFaculty of Engineering and Informatics, 2020)
      Due to the result of the sudden fossil fuels over-night price rises of 1973/1974, coupled with the depletion of the traditional energy resources, many initiatives globally have addressed the efficient use of these resources. Since then, several renewable energy sources have been introduced as alternatives to traditional resources to protect environmental resources and to improve quality of life. Globally, there are more than a quarter of the human population experiencing an energy crisis, particularly those living in the rural areas of developing countries. One typical example of this is Nigeria. This is a country with approximately 80% of her population consistently relying on combustible biomass from wood and its charcoal derivative. Nigeria has an abundant amount of both renewable and fossil fuel resources, but due to the lack of a reasonable energy policy (until recently), it has concentrated on traditional fossil fuels alone. Renewable energy is now Globally considered as a solution for mitigating climate change and environmental pollution. To assess the sustainability of renewable energy systems, the use of sustainability indicators is often necessary. These indicators are not only able to evaluate all the sustainability criteria of the renewable energy sources,1 but also can provide numerical results of sustainability assessment for different objective systems.
    • An Investigation into Human Resource Development (HRD) Needs of Nurses. The Case of Public Health Sector, Pakistan.

      Analoui, Farhad; Shahzad, Rana U. (University of BradfordDepartment of Peace Studies and International Development, Faculty of Management, Law and Social Sciences, 2020)
      The research investigates the health services of Pakistan by exploring current Human Resource Development (HRD) practices and social skills training opportunities for the development of nursing staff. The research aims to explore the best practice in social skills and competency development through HRD activities by detailing a project to identify the learning needs of registered nurses leading to improved quality care services. An exploratory research approach has been adopted to achieve research objectives. This mixed method oriented research, is primarily quantitative case study, supplemented by qualitative interviews to validate and enrich data findings from questionnaires to substantiate the research. The data was collected through 600 questionnaires and 10 interviews from five major public hospitals of Lahore, Pakistan. The research has identified multiple and diverse challenges of inadequate and improper HRD infrastructure, transformational leadership and participative style of management is resulting into degenerating attitudes and negative behaviours thus causing further slump. These counterproductive elements are failing to imbibe positive social skills and abilities in nursing staff resulting in creating impediments in deliverance of quality care services. This clearly indicates that there is no policy in place therefore, based on empirical evidences, as well as critical review of the literature, it proposes a model for achieving critical social skills development through training and development in order to achieve quality care standards based on the broad and long-term perspective of the strategy of input, process, output and outcome to support nursing sector, social skills development in particular to achieve optimum quality care objectives.
    • Evaluation the performance of the tin (IV) oxide (SnO2) in the removal of sulfur compounds via oxidative-extractive desulfurization process for production an eco-friendly fuel

      Humadi, J.I.; Issa, Y.S.; Aqar, D.Y.; Ahmed, M.A.; Ali Alak, H.H.; Mujtaba, Iqbal M. (2022)
      Catalysts play a vital role in petroleum and chemical reactions. Intensified concerns for cleaner air with strict environmental regulations on sulfur content in addition to meet economic requirements have generated significant interests for the development of more efficient and innovative oxidative catalysts recently. In this study, a novel homemade nano catalyst (manganese oxide (MnO2) over tin (IV) oxide (SnO2)) was used for the first time as an effective catalyst in removing dibenzothiophene (DBT) from kerosene fuel using hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) as oxidant in catalytic oxidative-extractive desulfurization process (OEDS). The catalyst was prepared by impregnation method with various amount of MnO2 loaded on SnO2. The oxidation step was carried out at different operating parameters such as reaction temperature and reaction time in batch reactor. The extractive desulfurization step was performed by using acetonitrile as solvent under several operating conditions (agitation speed and mixing time). The activity of MnO2/SnO2 catalyst in removing various sulfur compounds from kerosene fuel at the best operating conditions was investigated in this work. The results of the catalyst characterization proved that a high dispersion of MnO2 over the SnO2 was obtained. The experiments showed that the highest DBT and various sulfur compounds removal efficiency from kerosene fuel under the best operating conditions (oxidation: 5% MnO2/SnO2, reaction temperature of 75 0C, and reaction time of 100 min, extraction: acetonitrile, agitation speed of 900 rpm, and mixing time of 30 min) via the catalytic oxidative-extractive desulfurization process was 92.4% and 91.2%, respectively. Also, the MnO2/SnO2 catalyst activity was studied after six consecutive oxidation cycles at the best operating conditions, and the catalyst prove satisfactory stability in terms of sulfur compounds removal. After that, the spent catalyst were regenerated by utilizing different solvents (methanol, ethanol and iso-octane), and the experimental data explained that iso-octane achieved highest regeneration efficiency.
    • Eight-Element Antenna Array with Improved Radiation Performances for 5G Hand-Portable Devices

      Ullah, Atta; Ojaroudi Parchin, Naser; Amar, Ahmed S.I.; Abd-Alhameed, Raed A. (MDPI, 2022-09-19)
      This study aims to introduce a new phased array design with improved radiation properties for future cellular networks. The procedure of the array design is simple and has been accomplished on a low-cost substrate material while offering several interesting features with high performance. Its schematic involves eight air-filled slot-loop metal-ring elements with a 1 × 8 linear arrangement at the top edge of the 5G smartphone mainboard. Considering the entire board area, the proposed antenna elements occupy an extremely small area. The antenna elements cover the range of 21–23.5 GHz sub-mm-wave 5G bands. Due to the air-filled function in the configurations of the elements, low-loss and high-performance radiation properties are observed. In addition, the fundamental characteristics of the introduced array are insensitive to various types of substrates. Moreover, its radiation properties have been compared with conventional arrays and better results have been observed. The proposed array appears with a simple design, a low complexity profile, and its attractive broad impedance bandwidth, end-fire radiation mode, wide beam steering, high radiation coverage, and stable characteristics meet the needs of 5G applications in future cellular communications. Additionally, the smartphone array design offers sufficient efficiency when it comes to the appearance and integration of the user’s components. Thus, it could be used in 5G hand-portable devices.
    • Evaluation of solar energy powered seawater desalination pro-cesses: A review

      Al-Obaidi, Mudhar A.A.R.; Zubo, R.H.A.; Rashid, F.L.; Dakkama, H.J.; Abd-Alhameed, Raed A.; Mujtaba, Iqbal M. (2022-09-08)
      Solar energy, amongst all renewable energies, has attracted inexhaustible attention all over the world as a supplier of sustainable energy. The energy requirement of major seawater desalination processes such as multistage flash (MSF), multi-effect distillation (MED) and reverse osmosis (RO) are fulfilled by burning fossil fuels, which impact the environment significantly due to the emission of greenhouse gases. The integration of solar energy systems into seawater desalination processes is an attractive and alternative solution to fossil fuels. This study aims to (i) assess the progress of solar energy systems including concentrated solar power (CSP) and photovoltaic (PV) to power both thermal and membrane seawater desalination processes including MSF, MED, and RO and (ii) evaluate the economic considerations and associated challenges with recommendations for further improvements. Thus, several studies on a different combination of seawater desalination processes of solar energy systems are reviewed and analysed concerning specific energy consumption and freshwater production cost. It is observed that although solar energy systems have the potential of reducing carbon footprint significantly, the cost of water production still favours the use of fossil fuels. Further research and development on solar energy systems are required to make their use in desalination economically viable. Alternatively, the carbon tax on the use of fossil fuels may persuade desalination industries to adopt renewable energy such as solar.
    • Applying a new technique, the interferon gamma liposomal delivery system to improve drug delivery in the treatment of Lung Cancer

      Anderson, Diana; Najafzadeh, Mojgan; Alhawamdeh, Maysa F.J. (University of BradfordSchool of Chemistry & Biosciences, Faculty of Life Sciences, 2021)
      Lung cancer is one of the main causes of death worldwide, with most patients suffering from an advanced unresectable or metastatic non-small cell lung cancer. The mortality trends are mostly related to patterns of tobacco use, specifically from cigarettes. Tobacco is the basic etiological agent found as a consequence of the inhalation of tobacco smoke. Published data show the use of interferons (IFNs) in the treatment of lung tumours due to their potential in displaying antiproliferative, anti-angiogenic, immunoregulatory, and proapoptotic effects. Type1 IFNs have been employed as treatments for many types of cancer, both for haematological cancers and solid tumours. The IFN-γ (naked) functions as an anticancer agent against various forms of cancer. Hence, this study aimed to investigate the genoprotective and genotoxic effects of IFN-γ liposome (nano) on 42 blood samples from lung cancer patients, compared to the same sample size from healthy individuals. The effectiveness of IFN- γ liposome against oxidative stress was also evaluated in this study. A concentration of 100U/ml of IFN-γ liposome was used to treat the lymphocytes in: Comet and micronucleus assays, Comet repair, Western blotting and real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) were based on a preliminary test for the optimal dose. The lymphocytes from lung cancer patients presented with higher DNA damage levels than those of healthy individuals. IFN-γ liposome was not found to induce any DNA damage in the lymphocytes. Also, it caused a significant reduction in DNA damage in the lymphocytes from lung cancer patients in; Comet, Comet repair and micronucleus assays. Furthermore, the 100U/ml of IFN-γ liposome significantly reduced the oxidative stress caused by H2O2 and appeared to be effective in both groups using the Comet and micronucleus assays. Results from; Comet, Comet repair and micronucleus assays were consistent. The data obtained indicated that IFN-γ in both forms (naked INF-γ and INF-γ nano-liposome) may potentially be effective for the treatment of lung cancer and showed the ability of IFN-γ liposome to reduce the DNA damage more than the naked form. The IFN-γ in both forms has also shown anti-cancer potential in the lymphocytes from lung cancer patients by regulating the expression of p53, p21, Bcl-2 at mRNA and protein levels by up-regulating the p53 and p21 to mediate cell cycle arrest and DNA repair in lung cancer patients. The findings of this study are consistent with the view that the naked IFN-γ and liposome could have a significant role in cancer treatment, including lung cancer.
    • An Investigation into the Role of Local Government in Enhancing the Public Participation in Sindh, Pakistan: Policy and Practice in Service Delivery

      Analoui, Farhad; Arora, Rashmi; Ali, Aijaz (University of BradfordPeace Studies and International Development, Faculty of Management Law and Social Sciences, 2020)
      It is generally recognised that the primary role of the decentralise local governance is to establish closer relationship between rural communities and the governing authorities in local development. In Pakistan, the system of local governments has always been introduced by the non-democratic forces. The decentralised governments have often been discontinued by the civilian governments of Pakistan. This study has sought to examine the role of the decentralised local governance in initiating the local community participation in local development in the province of Sindh, Pakistan. This thesis responds the questions about the initiatives taken by the local government authorities and the genuine local community participation in local community development programs. It further explores the main barriers to local public participation in the local policy making and implementation in Sindh. The findings suggest that the challenges to participation have been ever increasing. The military establishment’s hold on the central state policies has weakened the public empowering national laws. Furthermore, the local government’s role to initiate meaningful local community involvement in development projects of the decentralised local governance has been engrossed by the hold of feudal lords, corruption, favouritism, and the attitude of indifference on the part of provincial and national governments. Thus, it is argued that, in such dominant military state and feudal lords’ system, there is no positive link between the local government reforms and the democratic participation in the local decision-making. Based on these findings, a realistic model for participation is introduced and relevant implications are considered.
    • Spring-mass behavioural adaptations to acute changes in prosthetic blade stiffness during submaximal running in unilateral transtibial prosthesis users

      Barnett, C.T.; De Asha, A.R.; Skervin, T.K.; Buckley, John G.; Foster, R.J. (Elsevier, 2022-10)
      Background: Individuals with lower-limb amputation can use running specific prostheses (RSP) that store and then return elastic energy during stance. However, it is unclear whether varying the stiffness category of the same RSP affects spring-mass behaviour during self-selected, submaximal speed running in individuals with unilateral transtibial amputation. Research question: The current study investigates how varying RSP stiffness affects limb stiffness, running performance, and associated joint kinetics in individuals with a unilateral transtibial amputation. Methods: Kinematic and ground reaction force data were collected from eight males with unilateral transtibial amputation who ran at self-selected submaximal speeds along a 15 m runway in three RSP stiffness conditions; recommended habitual stiffness (HAB) and, following 10-minutes of familiarisation, stiffness categories above (+1) and below (-1) the HAB. Stance-phase centre of mass velocity, contact time, limb stiffness’ and joint/RSP work were computed for each limb across RSP stiffness conditions. Results: With increased RSP stiffness, prosthetic limb stiffness increased, whilst intact limb stiffness decreased slightly (p
    • Factors affecting neuropsychological assessment in a group of South Asian older adults

      Walters, Elizabeth R.; Lesk, Valerie E.; Parveen, F. Choudhry (University of BradfordFaculty of Management Law and Social Sciences, 2021)
      The accuracy of neuropsychological assessment is critical in the diagnosis of cognitive impairments in older adults. However, existing neuropsychological tests may not be suitable for minority populations. This thesis aimed to address this issue by recruiting cognitively-healthy South Asian older adults and assessing cognitive function in this group. Results showed that typically used assessments, despite being translated, were not suitable for this cohort. Furthermore, skills required for test completion such as mathematics and writing/hand dexterity (which are related to education levels) influenced test scores. Therefore, new assessments of general cognitive function and associative memory were developed to improve the accuracy of neuropsychological test scores. The new tests were not affected by education and they achieved high internal and test re-test reliability. Time of day (TOD) that testing takes place is also known to affect cognition. Interestingly, no TOD effects were observed in this cohort. It was hypothesised that engagement in the daily five Islamic prayers may have contributed to this lack of a TOD effect. However, the results did not confirm this. The thesis then looked at overall prayer engagement and cognition. Results showed that engagement in the daily five prayers and Quran recitation significantly increased scores on assessments of processing speed. This thesis demonstrates that accurately assessing cognition in South Asian older adults is challenging and that the cognitive tests used must be suitable for this cohort. Interesting findings emerged for prayer engagement which may have wider implications for the field of cognitive reserve.
    • The Impact of moisture and clay content on the unconfined compressive strength of lime treated highly reactive clays

      Muhmed, A.; Mohamed, Mostafa H.A.; Khan, A. (2022-09)
      This study aims to provide a thorough evaluation for the changes in the microstructure and evolution of strength of highly reactive clays that were treated with 7 % lime over a period of curing time as a function of the mixing moisture content. Three series of testing were carried out on specimens with 100 %, 85 % and 75 % of bentonite content and prepared with different moisture content of 10, 20, 30 and 40 % above the corresponding optimum moisture content. Specimens of 100 % bentonite were treated with 7 % of lime, compacted to achieve a predetermined dry unit weight and cured at temperatures of 20 OC and 40 OC for up to 28 days whereas the specimens with 85 % and 75 % of bentonite content were prepared by the addition of sand and were cured at 20 oC for up to 7 days. Unconfined Compressive Strength tests and Scanning Electron Microscopy were conducted to observe the strength and the microstructural changes resulting from increasing mixing moisture content. California Bearing Ratio and Resilient Modulus were correspondingly determined based on correlations with the Unconfined Compressive Strength. The failure pattern was also studied to better understand the ultimate behaviour of lime stabilised clays. The results revealed that the strength of treated bentonite increased with the increase in the moisture content up to 30 % above the corresponding optimum moisture content and with increasing the curing time and temperature. Nevertheless, substituting bentonite with sand on the specimen resulted in a significant reduction on the attained strength. Furthermore, the results of California Bearing Ratio and Resilient Modulus showed that values for both parameters are significantly enhanced with lime treatment. The microstructural analysis provided visual evidence to the improved strength in which the pozzolanic reaction was found to be significantly affected by the amount of moisture in the mixture. The results suggested that compacting lime treated expansive clays with moisture content moderately higher than the optimum moisture content would result in a significant enhancement to the attained strength over the period of curing.
    • Concordance of objectively-detected retinal nerve fiber bundle defects in en face OCT images with conventional structural and functional changes in glaucoma.

      Cheloni, Riccardo; Denniss, Jonathan (2022)
      To assess how objectively-detected defects of retinal nerve fibre bundle (RNFB) reflectance in en face OCT images relate to circumpapillary retinal nerve fibre layer thickness (cpRNFLT) and visual field defects. Cross-sectional study. 16 participants with early-glaucoma and 29 age-similar healthy controls, among which 22 had usable en face images to establish normative levels of RNFB reflectance. All participants underwent cpRNFLT scans, visual field examination and wide-field OCT. En face reflectivity was assessed objectively using the Summary of Multiple Anatomically-Adjusted Slabs (SMAS) method. En face defects were deemed concordant with cpRNFLT when they had at least one cpRNFLT point with p
    • Psychological and overall well-being of Italian young adults in transition to adulthood: Evidence from a sequential explanatory mixed-methods study

      Di Napoli, I.; Di Martino, Salvatore; Agueli, B.; Arcidiancono, C.; Esposito, C. (2022)
      Transitioning to adulthood is a fundamental yet challenging phase in human development. Despite its relevance, the literature has paid little attention to the impact that transitioning to adulthood has on multiple aspects of individual well-being. This is one of the few attempts that has employed a sequential explanatory mixed-methods study to explore how the path to adulthood impacted on the psychological and overall well-being of Italian young adults. In the quantitative phase, we employed two-step cluster analysis to assign 45 young adults, who had completed the Italian I COPPE scale of multidimensional well-being, to three clusters based on their level of change in psychological and overall well-being. Results from mixed design ANCOVA revealed that participants belonging to the high change cluster showed the highest significant positive change over time with respect to well-being. In the qualitative phase, 17 individuals took part in focalized narrative interviews, which aimed at exploring significant events, barriers, and facilitators, which had impacted on their well-being during the transition to adulthood. The textual material was analysed through the Grounded Theory Methodology. It emerged that the state of transition was associated with some triggering events and a temporary negative impact on the interviewees' well-being. However, findings also revealed that people assigned to different clusters had put in place or learned several resources, skills, and copying strategies, which led to different transitional and well-being outcomes.
    • Perceptions of Dental Health Professionals (DHPs) on job satisfaction in Fiji: A qualitative study

      Kumar, S.; Mohammadnezhad, Masoud (2022-08-29)
      Reviewing factors that affect work challenges is crucial for any organization as it has an impact of organizational commitment for a better service delivery and job satisfaction. This study aimed to explore the perceptions of dental health professionals (DHPs) on work challenges and the impact it has on job satisfaction in Fiji. Materials and Methods: A descriptive, qualitative method approach (nationwide) was done commencing from August to November, 2021. DHPs who provide prosthetic services in Fiji were selected using purposive selection located at Nakasi Dental Clinic, Lautoka Dental Clinic, Labasa Dental Clinic, and Fiji National University. A total of 29 DHPs participated in the in-depth interview, and the responses were grouped into nine themes: working conditions, the location of practice, equipment and material, a lack of specialization, service delivery, organizational support, remuneration, career development, and promotions. A semi-structured open-ended questionnaire in the form of an interview via a virtual platform—Zoom was used for data collection. Thematic analysis was used to transcribe and analyze the audio recordings. Results: The findings from the study indicated that factors such as working conditions, the location of practice, equipment and material, a lack of specialization, service delivery, organizational support, remuneration, career development, and promotions were associated with work challenges. Conclusion: Gaps and areas for the improvement of work challenges and its impact on job satisfaction were identified for DHPs who provide prosthetic services in Fiji such as a need for more career and professional development pathways, improved infrastructure to support prosthetic service delivery, and better remuneration.
    • Frontline Health Care Workers’ (HCWs) perception of barriers to managing COVID-19 in Fiji

      Deo, A.; Mohammadnezhad, Masoud (2022-08-29)
      Background: Health Care Workers (HCWs) are at higher risk of COVID-19 infection with their efforts while protecting the greater community and also exposed to hazards, such as psychological distress, fatigue, and stigma. This study aimed to explore the perception of frontline HCWs on barriers of managing COVID-19 in Fiji. Methods: A qualitative study method was approached to conduct this study among the HCWs who worked on the frontline during the COVID-19 pandemic based at ten purposively selected health facilities in the Suva subdivision in the Central Division of Fiji. The Colonial War Memorial Hospital (CWMH), the Fiji Centre for Communicable Diseases (Fiji CDC), Twomey hospital laboratory, and CWMH laboratory did the main control and most of the operations of other divisions were monitored from these settings. A semi-structured open-ended questionnaire was used to collect data using in-depth interviews. The participants' responses were audio-recorded and were later transcribed and analyzed using thematic analysis. Results: A total of twenty-nine HCWs took part in the in-depth interview and the responses were grouped into four themes, which include: workload, poor communication, lack of resources, and hindrance to education. It was also found through this study that some of the HCWs felt tired, frustrated, got rude to patients, and found it difficult to handle situations, which affected them mentally and physically stressed. Conclusion: Managing the COVID-19 cases has been attributed to the presence of many barriers, such as workload, tiredness, frustration, and sometimes difficult-to-handle situations, and the HCWs were indeed affected mentally and physically. Regular training for HCWs and more awareness programs would help the general public to follow the preventive measures, which reduces the cases and would help the HCWs manage COVID-19 well.
    • New Media and Social Movements. How the Indigenous People of Biafra Movement Has Used the Internet to Mobilise for an Independent Biafran State

      Goodall, Mark D.; Reeve, Carlton; Thornton, Karen D.; Nwofe, Emmanuel S. (University of BradfordSchool of Media, Design and Technology, Faculty of Engineering and Informatics, 2019)
      This study has examined the implications of the internet for the IPOB movement, focusing on the extent to which it has empowered the movement to engage in collective action mobilisation, enhance identity construction, framing and discourses for an independent Biafran state against multiple forms of state repressions. The thesis adopted a flexible approach that incorporated three level analysis including a macro-level analysis, which looked at the socio political and institutional environment; a meso-level, which examined the organisational infrastructure; and a micro-level exploring how the social movement made sense of their reality. The thesis addresses the debate between technology and society, and between the agency and political opportunity structures in Nigeria. It discussed the radical and agnostic democratic potential of the internet for African social movements and the dialectic between Biafra activism and the socio-political rootedness of Nigerian democracy. This approach allowed for providing analogies and new perspectives from the research and interpreting implications of human action. The thesis has found inconsistent, sometimes contradicting, data on the implication of internet technology for the IPOB movement. While there is some clear and robust evidence suggesting that new media technology has enhanced the movement's capabilities to organise, coordinate and mobilise for Biafran cause on many levels. The study reveals some severe limitations in the appropriation of internet technology in IPOB’s collective action objectives. The implication of the findings is discussed.
    • Investigation and Design of New, Efficient and Compact Load Modulation Amplifiers for 5G Base Stations. Design, Simulation, Implementation and Measurements of Radio Frequency Power Amplifiers Using Active Load Modulation Technique for More Compact and Efficient 5G Base Stations Amplifiers

      Abd-Alhameed, Raed A.; Noras, James M.; McEwan, Neil J.; Abdulkhaleq, Ahmed M. (University of BradfordFaculty of Engineering and Informatics, 2020)
      High efficiency is an essential requirement for any system, where the energy can be saved with full retention of system performance. The power amplifier in modern mobile communications system consumes most of the supplied power through the dissipated power and the required cooling systems. However, as new services were added as features for the developed mobile generations, the required data rate has increased to fulfil the new requirements. In this case, the data should be sent with the allocated bandwidth, so complex modulation schemes are used to utilise the available bandwidth efficiently. Nevertheless, the modulated signal will have a Peak to Average Power Ratio (PAPR) which increases as the modulation complexity is increasing. In this case, the power amplifier should be backed off and designed to provide good linearity and efficiency over high PAPR. Among the efficiency enhancement techniques, the Doherty technique (Load modulation technique) is the simplest one, where no additional circuity nor signal processing is required. In this work, the theory of load modulation amplifiers is investigated through two asymmetrical Doherty Power Amplifiers (DPA) targeting 3.3-3.5 GHz were designed and fabricated using two transistors (25 W and 45 W). In addition, more compact load modulation amplifiers targeting sub 6-GHz bandwidth of 5G specifically 3.4-3.8 GHz is discussed including the theory of implementing these amplifiers, where different amplifier capabilities are explored. Each amplifier design was discussed in detail, in which the input and output matching networks were designed and tested in addition to the design of the stability circuit to make sure that the amplifier is stable and working according to the specified requirements. The fabricated circuits were evaluated practically using the available instrument test, whereas Microwave Office software was used for the simulation purpose, each amplifier was designed separately, where all the designed amplifiers were able to provide the targeted efficiency at different back-off power points. Besides, some additional factors that affect the designed load modulation amplifiers such as the effect of the harmonics at the back-off and mismatching the amplifier is discussed.
    • Investigating the factors affecting the net benefits and change in user behaviour in technology push scenarios in Smart cities

      Weerakkody, Vishanth J.P.; Alkhaldi, Afnan N.M.N.A. (University of BradfordFaculty of Social Sciences and Humanities, 2021)
      Purpose – The aim of this study is to investigate the factors affecting the net benefits and change in user behaviour in a technology push scenario in Smart Cities. Design/methodology/approach –The research was conducted using a quantitative approach. Hence, quantitative data was obtained by devising and distributing a questionnaire adapted from the literature to serve the purpose of this research. Data was analysed by using SmartPLS software, since this tool allowed for the creation of a Structural Equation Modelling (SEM). Contributions –The research is expected to help foster an understanding of the factors affecting citizens’ satisfaction with technology-supporting smart cities. The focus of this research was on the scenario where technology was introduced by the government to support the development of smart cities, and where citizens ‘do not have a choice’ and are ‘pushed’ to use them. The research contributes a model for assessing the role of satisfaction in enhancing the net benefits of smart city technologies on the lives of citizens, as well as the change in individuals’ behaviour towards smart city technologies when they are ‘pushed’ for use. The findings provided insights to enable policy makers to implement smart cities in developing countries while ensuring the satisfaction of the users. Originality/value – The originality of this research is centred around determining how satisfied citizens are with smart cities and the net benefit of smart cities within a developing country (Kuwait) context. The research is also unique in that it examines the role of citizens’ satisfaction in changing their behaviour towards ‘push’ technology within smart cities. Theoretical Contributions – This study examined the factors that led to acceptance of smart cities in Kuwait. Hence, this study used the theories related to user acceptance of technology and added to its trust in provider. Previous studies have examined trust as a broad concept. Moreover, this study incorporated the push theory and also examined the change in user behavior, which was not examined in earlier studies.
    • Transient liquid phase (TLP) bonding as reaction–controlled diffusion

      Atieh, A.M.; Cooke, Kavian O.; Epstein, M. (Elsevier, 2022-12)
      The transient liquid phase bonding process has long been dealt with as a pure diffusion process at the joint interface, that is, as a mass phenomenon. In spite of the advances in the application of this technique to bond complex engineering alloys, the available models have failed to incorporate the effect of surface phenomena on the joining process. In this work, a new reaction–controlled diffusion formulation model is proposed, and the observation of experimental results of joining Al6061 alloy using thin single (50, 100 micron) and double Cu foils is recorded. This work directly unveils the unique role played by surface reaction–controlled diffusion rather than purely mass diffusion bonding process. Our experimental and modeling results reveal a conceptually new understanding that may well explain the joint formation in TLP bonding process.