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dc.contributor.authorBrettell, Rhea C.*
dc.contributor.authorMartin, William H.C.*
dc.contributor.authorAtherton-Woolham, S.*
dc.contributor.authorStern, Ben*
dc.contributor.authorMcKnight, L.*
dc.date.accessioned2016-08-09T12:55:19Z
dc.date.available2016-08-09T12:55:19Z
dc.date.issued2016-06
dc.identifier.citationBrettell R, Martin W, Atherton-Woolham et al. (2016) Organic residue analysis of Egyptian votive mummies and their research potential. Studies in Conservation. 62(2): 68-82.en_US
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10454/8764
dc.descriptionYesen_US
dc.description.abstractVast numbers of votive mummies were produced in Egypt during the Late Pharaonic, Ptolemaic, and Roman periods. Although millions remain in situ, many were removed and have ultimately entered museum collections around the world. There they have often languished as uncomfortable reminders of antiquarian practices with little information available to enhance their value as artefacts worthy of conservation or display. A multi-disciplinary research project, based at the University of Manchester, is currently redressing these issues. One recent aspect of this work has been the characterization of natural products employed in the mummification of votive bundles. Using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry and the well-established biomarker approach, analysis of 24 samples from 17 mummy bundles has demonstrated the presence of oils/fats, natural waxes, petroleum products, resinous exudates, and essential oils. These results confirm the range of organic materials employed in embalming and augment our understanding of the treatment of votives. In this first systematic initiative of its kind, initial findings point to possible trends in body treatment practices in relation to chronology, geography, and changes in ideology which will be investigated as the study progresses. Detailed knowledge of the substances used on individual bundles has also served to enhance their value as display items and aid in their conservation.en_US
dc.description.sponsorshipRCB is supported by a PhD studentship from the Art and Humanities Research Council (43019R00209). L.M. and S.A.W. are supported by a Leverhulme Trust Research Project Award (RPG-2013-143).en_US
dc.language.isoenen_US
dc.rights© 2016 The Author(s). Published by Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/), which permits non-commercial re-use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited, and is not altered, transformed, or built upon in any way.en_US
dc.subjectOrganic residue analysis; ATR–FTIR; GC–MS; Mummification practices; Votive animal mummies; Ancient Egypten_US
dc.titleOrganic residue analysis of Egyptian votive mummies and their research potentialen_US
dc.status.refereedYesen_US
dc.date.Accepted2015-08-01
dc.date.application2016-06-15
dc.typeArticleen_US
dc.type.versionpublished version paperen_US
dc.identifier.doihttps://doi.org/10.1179/2047058415Y.0000000027
refterms.dateFOA2018-07-25T12:26:02Z


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