Intellectual property rights and innovation: A panel analysis
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KeywordsInnovation; Intellectual property rights; Patent strength; Patent enforcement
Permissions© 2016 Elsevier B.V. Reproduced in accordance with the publisher's selfarchiving policy. This manuscript version is made available under the CC-BY-NC-ND 4.0 license(http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/)
We investigate the relationship between intellectual property rights (IPR) and innovation, for a panel of 48 countries between 1998-2011. Prior empirical studies mainly focus on strength of patent regulations largely ignoring the enforcement of such laws in practice. We employ a new index that accounts for the enforcement related component of the patent system and the Ginarte and Park (1997) index of patent regulatory strength. We thus include two crucial elements of a national patent system, the de jure position relating to book law and IPR regulations, and the de facto position relating to IPR enforcement. We consider nonlinearities between IPR and innovation, and we find that both nonlinearities and the enforcement aspect are significant in explaining the relationship between innovation and IPR systems.