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dc.contributor.authorFoster, Richard J.
dc.contributor.authorWhitaker, David J.
dc.contributor.authorScally, Andy J.
dc.contributor.authorBuckley, John G.
dc.contributor.authorElliott, David B.
dc.date.accessioned2016-04-28T15:00:43Z
dc.date.available2016-04-28T15:00:43Z
dc.date.issued2015-05
dc.identifier.citationFoster RJ, Whitaker D, Scally AJ, Buckley JG and Elliott DB (2015) What you see is what you step: the horizontal-vertical illusion increases toe clearance in older adults during stair ascent. Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, 56(5): 2950-7.en_US
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10454/8227
dc.descriptionyesen_US
dc.description.abstractPurpose.: Falls on stairs are a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in elderly people. A simple safety strategy to avoid tripping on stairs is increasing foot clearance. We determined whether a horizontal–vertical illusion superimposed onto stairs to create an illusory perceived increase in stair-riser height would increase stair ascent foot clearance in older participants. Methods.: Preliminary experiments determined the optimum parameters for the horizontal–vertical illusion. Fourteen older adults (mean age ± 1 SD, 68.5 ± 7.4 years) ascended a three-step staircase with the optimized version of the horizontal–vertical illusion (spatial frequency: 12 cycles per stair riser) positioned either on the bottom or top stair only, or on the bottom and top stair simultaneously. These were compared to a control condition, which had a plain stair riser with edge highlighters positioned flush with each stair-tread edge. Foot clearance and measures of postural stability were compared across conditions. Results.: The optimized illusion on the bottom and top stair led to a significant increase in foot clearance over the respective stair edge, compared to the control condition. There were no significant decreases in postural stability. Conclusions.: An optimized horizontal–vertical visual illusion led to significant increases in foot clearance in older adults when ascending a staircase, but the effects did not destabilize their postural stability. Inclusion of the horizontal–vertical illusion on raised surfaces (e.g., curbs) or the bottom and top stairs of staircases could improve stair ascent safety in older adults.en_US
dc.language.isoenen_US
dc.relation.isreferencedbyhttp://dx.doi.org/10.1167/iovs.14-16018en_US
dc.rights© 2015, Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology (ARVO). Reproduced in accordance with the publisher's self-archiving policy. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License. (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/)en_US
dc.subjectFalls, Stair safety, Horizontal–vertical illusion, Stair ascent, Tread-edge highlighter, Older adultsen_US
dc.titleWhat you see is what you step: the horizontal-vertical illusion increases toe clearance in older adults during stair ascent.en_US
dc.status.refereedyesen_US
dc.typeArticleen_US
dc.type.versionpublished version paperen_US
refterms.dateFOA2018-07-25T14:23:31Z


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