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dc.contributor.authorMacaulay, Fiona*
dc.date.accessioned2015-04-22T14:22:01Z
dc.date.available2015-04-22T14:22:01Z
dc.date.issued2012
dc.identifier.citationMacaulay, F. (2012) Cycles of Police Reform in Latin America. In: Francis, D. J. (ed). Policing in Africa. Palgrave Macmillan, pp. 165-190. ISBN 978-0-230-33947-7en_US
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10454/7162
dc.descriptionyesen_US
dc.description.abstractOver the last quarter century post-conflict and post-authoritarian transitions in Latin America have been accompanied by a surge in social violence, acquisitive crime, and insecurity. These phenomena have been driven by an expanding international narcotics trade, by the long-term effects of civil war and counter-insurgency (resulting in, inter alia, an increased availability of small arms and a pervasive grammar of violence), and by structural stresses on society (unemployment, hyper-inflation, widening income inequality). Local police forces proved to be generally ineffective in preventing, resolving, or detecting such crime and forms of “new violence”3 due to corruption, frequent complicity in criminal networks, poor training and low pay, and the routine use of excessive force without due sanction. Why, then, have governments been slow to prioritize police reform and why have reform efforts borne largely “limited or nonexistent” long-term results? This chapter highlights a number of lessons suggested by various efforts to reform the police in Latin America over the period 1995-2010 . It focuses on two clusters of countries in Latin America. One is Brazil and the Southern Cone countries (Chile, Argentina, and Uruguay), which made the transition to democracy from prolonged military authoritarian rule in the mid- to late 1980s. The other is Central America and the Andean region (principally El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Peru, and Colombia), which emerged/have been emerging from armed conflict since the mid- 1990s. The chapter examines first the long history of international involvement in police and security sector reform in order to identify long-run tropes and path dependencies. It then focuses on a number of recurring themes: cycles of de- and re-militarization of the policing function; the “security gap” and “democratization dilemmas” involved in structural reforms; the opportunities offered by decentralization for more community-oriented police; and police capacity to resist reform and undermine accountability mechanisms.en_US
dc.language.isoenen_US
dc.rights© 2012 Taylor & Francis. Reproduced in accordance with the publisher's self-archiving policy. 'This extract is taken from the author's original manuscript before publication. The definitive, published, version of record is available here: http://www.palgrave.com/page/detail/policing-in-africa-david-jfrancis/? sf1=barcode&st1=9780230339477en_US
dc.subjectPolice reform, Latin America, Social violence, Crime, Insecurity, Societal stresses, Local police forces, Democratization, International involvementen_US
dc.titleCycles of Police Reform in Latin Americaen_US
dc.status.refereedn/aen_US
dc.typeBook chapteren_US
dc.type.versionfinal draft paperen_US
dc.identifier.doihttps://doi.org/10.1057/9781137010582_8
refterms.dateFOA2018-07-19T14:01:14Z


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