The optimization of multiple antenna broadband wireless communications. A study of propagation, space-time coding and spatial envelope correlation in Multiple Input, Multiple Output radio systems
AuthorDiameh, Yousef A.
SupervisorAbd-Alhameed, Raed A.
Jones, Steven M.R.
KeywordMultiple Output Multiple Input; MIMO
; Orthogonal Frequency-Division Multiplexing; OFDM
; Space Time Block Coding; STBC
; Spatial envelope correlation
; Indoor channel propagation
; IEEE 802.11n
; Mobile wireless communications
; Multi-antenna networks
The University of Bradford theses are licenced under a Creative Commons Licence.
InstitutionUniversity of Bradford
DepartmentSchool of Engineering, Design and Technology
MetadataShow full item record
AbstractThis work concentrates on the application of diversity techniques and space time block coding for future mobile wireless communications. The initial system analysis employs a space-time coded OFDM transmitter over a multipath Rayleigh channel, and a receiver which uses a selection combining diversity technique. The performance of this combined scenario is characterised in terms of the bit error rate and throughput. A novel four element QOSTBC scheme is introduced, it is created by reforming the detection matrix of the original QOSTBC scheme, for which an orthogonal channel matrix is derived. This results in a computationally less complex linear decoding scheme as compared with the original QOSTBC. Space time coding schemes for three, four and eight transmitters were also derived using a Hadamard matrix. The practical optimization of multi-antenna networks is studied for realistic indoor and mixed propagation scenarios. The starting point is a detailed analysis of the throughput and field strength distributions for a commercial dual band 802.11n MIMO radio operating indoors in a variety of line of sight and non-line of sight scenarios. The physical model of the space is based on architectural schematics, and realistic propagation data for the construction materials. The modelling is then extended and generalized to a multi-storey indoor environment, and a large mixed site for indoor and outdoor channels based on the Bradford University campus. The implications for the physical layer are also explored through the specification of antenna envelope correlation coefficients. Initially this is for an antenna module configuration with two independent antennas in close proximity. An operational method is proposed using the scattering parameters of the system and which incorporates the intrinsic power losses of the radiating elements. The method is extended to estimate the envelope correlation coefficient for any two elements in a general (N,N) MIMO antenna array. Three examples are presented to validate this technique, and very close agreement is shown to exist between this method and the full electromagnetic analysis using the far field antenna radiation patterns.
Showing items related by title, author, creator and subject.
Investigation, Design and Implementation of MIMO Antennas for Mobile Phones. Simulation and Measurement of MIMO Antennas for Mobile Handsets and Investigations of Channel Capacity of the Radiating Elements Using Spatial and Polarisation Diversity Strategies.Abd-Alhameed, Raed A.; Excell, Peter S.; Usman, Muhammad (University of BradfordSchool of Engineering, Design and Technology, 2010-04-01)The objectives of this work were to investigate, design and implement Multiple-Input Multiple-Output (MIMO) antenna arrays for mobile phones. Several MIMO antennas were developed and tested over various wireless-communication frequency bands. The radiation performance and channel capacity of these antennas were computed and measured: the results are discussed in the context of the frequency bands of interest. A comprehensive study of MIMO antenna configurations such as 2 × 1, 3 × 1, 2 × 2 and 3 × 3, using polarisation diversity as proposed for future mobile handsets, is presented. The channel capacity is investigated and discussed, as applying to Rayleigh fading channels with different power spectrum distributions with respect to azimuth and zenith angles. The channel capacity of 2 × 2 and 3 × 3 MIMO systems using spatial polarisation diversity is presented for different antenna designs. The presented results show that the maximum channel capacity for an antenna contained within a small volume can be reached with careful selection of the orthogonal spatial fields. The results are also compared against planar array MIMO antenna systems, in which the antenna size considered was much larger. A 50% antenna size reduction method is explored by applying magnetic wall concept on the symmetry reference of the antenna structure. Using this method, a triple dual-band inverted-F antenna system is presented and considered for MIMO application. Means of achieving minimum coupling between the three antennas are investigated over the 2.45 GHz and 5.2 GHz bands. A new 2 2 MIMO dual-band balanced antenna handset, intended to minimise the coupling with the handset and human body was proposed, developed and tested. The antenna coupling with the handset and human hand is reported in terms the radiation performance and the available channel capacity. In addition, a dual-polarisation dipole antenna is proposed, intended for use as one of three collocated orthogonal antennas in a polarisation-diversity MIMO communication system. The antenna actually consists of two overlaid electric and magnetic dipoles, such that their radiation patterns are nominally identical but they are cross-polarised and hence only interact minimally.
Advanced MIMO-OFDM technique for future high speed braodband wireless communications. A study of OFDM design, using wavelet transform, fractional fourier transform, fast fourier transform, doppler effect, space-time coding for multiple input, multiple output wireless communications systemsAbd-Alhameed, Raed A.; Jones, Steven M.R.; Anoh, Kelvin O.O. (University of BradfordSchool of Engineering and Informatics, 2015)This work concentrates on the application of diversity techniques and space time block coding for future high speed mobile wireless communications on multicarrier systems. At first, alternative multicarrier kernels robust for high speed doubly-selective fading channel are sought. They include the comparisons of discrete Fourier transform (DFT), fractional Fourier transform (FrFT) and wavelet transform (WT) multicarrier kernels. Different wavelet types, including the raised-cosine spectrum wavelets are implemented, evaluated and compared. From different wavelet families, orthogonal wavelets are isolated from detailed evaluations and comparisons as suitable for multicarrier applications. The three transforms are compared over a doubly-selective channel with the WT significantly outperforming all for high speed conditions up to 300 km/hr. Then, a new wavelet is constructed from an ideal filter approximation using established wavelet design algorithms to match any signal of interest; in this case under bandlimited criteria. The new wavelet showed better performance than other traditional orthogonal wavelets. To achieve MIMO communication, orthogonal space-time block coding, OSTBC, is evaluated next. First, the OSTBC is extended to assess the performance of the scheme over extended receiver diversity order. Again, with the extended diversity conditions, the OSTBC is implemented for a multicarrier system over a doubly-selective fading channel. The MIMO-OFDM systems (implemented using DFT and WT kernels) are evaluated for different operating frequencies, typical of LTE standard, with Doppler effects. It was found that, during high mobile speed, it is better to transmit OFDM signals using lower operating frequencies. The information theory for the 2-transmit antenna OSTBC does not support higher order implementation of multi-antenna systems, which is required for the future generation wireless communications systems. Instead of the OSTBC, the QO-STBC is usually deployed to support the design of higher order multi-antenna systems other than the 2-transmit antenna scheme. The performances of traditional QO-STBC methods are diminished by some off-diagonal (interference) terms such that the resulting system does not attain full diversity. Some methods for eliminating the interference terms have earlier been discussed. This work follows the construction of cyclic matrices with Hadamard matrix to derive QO-STBC codes construction which are N-times better than interference free QO-STBC, where N is the number of transmit antenna branches.
Improved multi-antenna system capacity using beamformer weightsAnoh, Kelvin O.O.; Elkhazmi, Elmahdi A.; Abd-Alhameed, Raed A.; Madubuko, O.; Bin-Melha, Mohammed S.; Jones, Steven M.R.; Ghazaany, Tahereh S. (2013)Beamforming is used to achieve diversity gain. It is a technique in diversity to remedy power penalty due to channel fading. The beam-weights for multi-antenna system are evaluated for two different approaches. These weights are then used to weight the signal beams of each transmit antenna branch. Results reveal that by exploiting the transmit channel substructures exposed by the singular vector decomposition algorithm, the capacity of a multi-antenna system can be enhanced.