The optimization of multiple antenna broadband wireless communications. A study of propagation, space-time coding and spatial envelope correlation in Multiple Input, Multiple Output radio systems
AuthorDiameh, Yousef A.
SupervisorAbd-Alhameed, Raed A.
Jones, Steven M.R.
KeywordMultiple Output Multiple Input; MIMO
; Orthogonal Frequency-Division Multiplexing; OFDM
; Space Time Block Coding; STBC
; Spatial envelope correlation
; Indoor channel propagation
; IEEE 802.11n
; Mobile wireless communications
; Multi-antenna networks
The University of Bradford theses are licenced under a Creative Commons Licence.
InstitutionUniversity of Bradford
DepartmentSchool of Engineering, Design and Technology
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AbstractThis work concentrates on the application of diversity techniques and space time block coding for future mobile wireless communications. The initial system analysis employs a space-time coded OFDM transmitter over a multipath Rayleigh channel, and a receiver which uses a selection combining diversity technique. The performance of this combined scenario is characterised in terms of the bit error rate and throughput. A novel four element QOSTBC scheme is introduced, it is created by reforming the detection matrix of the original QOSTBC scheme, for which an orthogonal channel matrix is derived. This results in a computationally less complex linear decoding scheme as compared with the original QOSTBC. Space time coding schemes for three, four and eight transmitters were also derived using a Hadamard matrix. The practical optimization of multi-antenna networks is studied for realistic indoor and mixed propagation scenarios. The starting point is a detailed analysis of the throughput and field strength distributions for a commercial dual band 802.11n MIMO radio operating indoors in a variety of line of sight and non-line of sight scenarios. The physical model of the space is based on architectural schematics, and realistic propagation data for the construction materials. The modelling is then extended and generalized to a multi-storey indoor environment, and a large mixed site for indoor and outdoor channels based on the Bradford University campus. The implications for the physical layer are also explored through the specification of antenna envelope correlation coefficients. Initially this is for an antenna module configuration with two independent antennas in close proximity. An operational method is proposed using the scattering parameters of the system and which incorporates the intrinsic power losses of the radiating elements. The method is extended to estimate the envelope correlation coefficient for any two elements in a general (N,N) MIMO antenna array. Three examples are presented to validate this technique, and very close agreement is shown to exist between this method and the full electromagnetic analysis using the far field antenna radiation patterns.
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Investigation, Design and Implementation of MIMO Antennas for Mobile Phones. Simulation and Measurement of MIMO Antennas for Mobile Handsets and Investigations of Channel Capacity of the Radiating Elements Using Spatial and Polarisation Diversity Strategies.Abd-Alhameed, Raed A.; Excell, Peter S.; Usman, Muhammad (University of BradfordSchool of Engineering, Design and Technology, 2010-04-01)The objectives of this work were to investigate, design and implement Multiple-Input Multiple-Output (MIMO) antenna arrays for mobile phones. Several MIMO antennas were developed and tested over various wireless-communication frequency bands. The radiation performance and channel capacity of these antennas were computed and measured: the results are discussed in the context of the frequency bands of interest. A comprehensive study of MIMO antenna configurations such as 2 × 1, 3 × 1, 2 × 2 and 3 × 3, using polarisation diversity as proposed for future mobile handsets, is presented. The channel capacity is investigated and discussed, as applying to Rayleigh fading channels with different power spectrum distributions with respect to azimuth and zenith angles. The channel capacity of 2 × 2 and 3 × 3 MIMO systems using spatial polarisation diversity is presented for different antenna designs. The presented results show that the maximum channel capacity for an antenna contained within a small volume can be reached with careful selection of the orthogonal spatial fields. The results are also compared against planar array MIMO antenna systems, in which the antenna size considered was much larger. A 50% antenna size reduction method is explored by applying magnetic wall concept on the symmetry reference of the antenna structure. Using this method, a triple dual-band inverted-F antenna system is presented and considered for MIMO application. Means of achieving minimum coupling between the three antennas are investigated over the 2.45 GHz and 5.2 GHz bands. A new 2 2 MIMO dual-band balanced antenna handset, intended to minimise the coupling with the handset and human body was proposed, developed and tested. The antenna coupling with the handset and human hand is reported in terms the radiation performance and the available channel capacity. In addition, a dual-polarisation dipole antenna is proposed, intended for use as one of three collocated orthogonal antennas in a polarisation-diversity MIMO communication system. The antenna actually consists of two overlaid electric and magnetic dipoles, such that their radiation patterns are nominally identical but they are cross-polarised and hence only interact minimally.
Satellite multiple access protocols for land mobile terminals. A study of the multiple access environment for land mobile satellite terminals, including the design analysis and simulation of a suitable protocol and the evaluation of its performance in a U.K. system.Watson, P.A.; Gardiner, John G.; Fenech, Hector T. (University of BradfordPostgraduate School of Studies in Information Systems Engineering, 2011-08-26)This thesis is a study of multiple access schemes for satellite land mobile systems that provide a domestic or regional service to a large number of small terminals. Three orbit options are studied, namely the geostationary, elliptical (Molniya) and inclined circular orbits. These are investigated for various mobile applications and the choice of the Molniya orbit is justified for a U. K. system. Frequency, Time and Code Division Multiple Access (FDMA, TDMA and CDMA) are studied and their relative merits in the mobile environment are highlighted. A hybrid TDMA/FDMA structure is suggested for a large system. Reservation ALOHA schemes are appraised in a TDMA environment and an adaptive reservation multiple access protocol is proposed and analysed for a wide range of mobile communication traffic profiles. The system can cope with short and long data messages as well as voice calls. Various protocol options are presented and a target system having 100,000 users is considered. Analyses are presented for the steady state of protocols employing pure and slotted ALOHA and for the stabilty of the slotted variant, while simulation techniques were employed to validate the steady state analysis of the slotted ALOHA protocol and to analyse the stability problem of the pure ALOHA version. An innovative technique is put forward to integrate the reservation and the acquisition processes. It employs the geographical spread of the users to form part of the random delay in P-ALOHA. Finally an economic feasibility study is performed for the spacesegment. For costs of capital (r) less than 23 % the discounted payback period is less than the project's lifetime (10 years). At r- 8% the payback period is about 5.6 years, while the internal-rate-of-return is 22.2 %. The net present value at the end of the projects lifetime is £M 70 at r-8%.
Adaptive and Robust Multi-Gigabit Techniques Based MmWave Massive MU-MIMO Beamforming For 5G Wireless and Mobile Communications Systems. A Road Map for Simple and Robust Beamforming Scheme and Algorithms Based Wideband MmWave Massive MU-MIMO for 5G Wireless and Mobile Communications SystemsAbd-Alhameed, Raed A.; Alabdullah, Ali AbdulMohsin S. (University of BradfordFaculty of Engineering and Informatics, 2021)Over recent years, the research and studies have focused on innovative solutions in various aspects and phases related to the high demands on data rate and energy for fifth-generation and beyond (B5G). This thesis aims to improve the energy efficiency, error rates, low-resolution ADCs/DACs, antenna array structures and sum-rate performances of a single cell downlink broadband millimetre-wave (mmWave) systems with orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) modulation and deploying multi-user massive multiple inputs multiple outputs (MU mMIMO) by applying robust beamforming techniques and detection algorithms that support multiple streams per user (UE) in various environments and scenarios to achieve low complexity system design with reliable performance and significant improvement in users perceived quality of service (QoS). The performance of the four 5G candidate mmWave frequencies, 28 GHz, 39 GHz, 60 GHz, and 73 GHz, are investigated for indoor/outdoor propagation scenarios, including path loss models and multipath delay spread values. Results are compared to confirm that the received power and delay spread is decreased with increasing frequency. The results were also validated with the measurement findings for 60 GHz. Then several proposed design models of beamforming are studied and implemented modified algorithms of Hybrid Beamforming (HBF) approaches in indoor/outdoor scenarios over large scale fading wideband mmWave /Raleigh channels. Firstly, three beamforming based diagonalize the Equivalent Virtual Channel Matrix (EVCM) schemes with the optimal linear combining methods are presented to overcoming the self-interference problems in Quasi-Orthogonal-Space Time Block Code (QO-STBC) systems over narrowband mmWave Single-User mMIMO (SU mMIMO). The evaluated results show that the proposed beamforming based- Single Value Decomposition (SVD) outperforms the conventional beamforming and standard QO-STBC techniques in terms of BER and spectrum efficiency. Next, the proposed HBF algorithm approaches with the fully/ partially connected structures are developed and applied for sum-rate and symbol error rate (SER) performance maximization MU mMIMO-OFDM system, including HBF based on block diagonalization (BD) method Constraint/Unconstraint RF Power, Codebook, Kalman schemes. In addition, the modified near optimal linear HBF-Zero Forcing (HBF-ZF) and HBF-Minimum Mean Square Error (HBF MMSE) schemes, considering both fully-connected and partially-connected structures. Finally, Simulation results using MATLAB platform, demonstrate that the proposed HBF based codebook and most likely HBF based-unconstraint RF power algorithms achieve significant performance gains in terms SER and sum-rate efficiency as well as show high immunity against the deformities and disturbances in the system compared with other HBF algorithm schemes.