• Cerebral venous outflow resistance and interpretation of cervical plethysmography data with respect to the diagnosis of chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency

      Beggs, Clive B.; Shepherd, Simon J.; Zamboni, P. (2014)
      PURPOSE: To investigate cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) dynamics in the aqueduct of Sylvius (AoS) in chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency (CCSVI)-positive and -negative healthy individuals using cine phase contrast imaging. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fifty-one healthy individuals (32 CCSVI-negative and 19 age-matched CCSVI-positive subjects) were examined using Doppler sonography (DS). Diagnosis of CCSVI was established if subjects fulfilled >/=2 venous hemodynamic criteria on DS. CSF flow and velocity measures were quantified using a semiautomated method and compared with clinical and routine 3T MRI outcomes. RESULTS: CCSVI was associated with increased CSF pulsatility in the AoS. Net positive CSF flow was 32% greater in the CCSVI-positive group compared with the CCSVI-negative group (P = 0.008). This was accompanied by a 28% increase in the mean aqueductal characteristic signal (ie, the AoS cross-sectional area over the cardiac cycle) in the CCSVI-positive group compared with the CCSVI-negative group (P = 0.021). CONCLUSION: CSF dynamics are altered in CCSVI-positive healthy individuals, as demonstrated by increased pulsatility. This is accompanied by enlargement of the AoS, suggesting that structural changes may be occurring in the brain parenchyma of CCSVI-positive healthy individuals.
    • CFD as a tool to optimize aeration tank design and operation

      Karpinska, A.M.; Bridgeman, John (2018-02)
      In a novel development on previous computational fluid dynamics studies, the work reported here used an Eulerian two-fluid model with the shear stress transport k–ω turbulence closure model and bubble interaction models to simulate aeration tank performance at full scale and to identify process performance issues resulting from design parameters and operating conditions. The current operating scenario was found to produce a fully developed spiral flow. Reduction of the airflow rates to the average and minimum design values led to a deterioration of the mixing conditions and formation of extended unaerated fluid regions. The influence of bubble-induced mixing on the reactor performance was further assessed via simulations of the residence time distribution of the fluid. Internal flow recirculation ensured long contact times between the phases; however, hindered axial mixing and the presence of dead zones were also identified. Finally, two optimization schemes based on modified design and operating scenarios were evaluated. The adjustment of the airflow distribution between the control zones led to improved mixing and a 20% improvement to the mass transfer coefficient. Upgrading the diffuser grid was found to be an expensive and ineffective solution, leading to worsening of the mixing conditions and yielding the lowest mass transfer coefficient compared with the other optimization schemes studied.
    • CFD modelling of a hollow fibre system for CO2 capture by aqueous amine solutions of MEA, DEA and MDEA

      Gilassi, S.; Rahmanian, Nejat (2016)
      A mass transfer model was developed for CO2 capture from a binary gas mixture of N2/CO2 in hollow fibre membrane contactors under laminar flow conditions. The axial and radial diffusions through membrane and convection in tube and shell sides with chemical reaction were investigated. COMSOL software was used to numerically solve a system of non-linear equations with boundary conditions by use of the finite element method. Three different amine solutions of monoethanolamine (MEA), diethanolamine (DEA) and n-methyldiethanolamine (MDEA) were chosen as absorbent in lumen to consider the mass transfer rate of CO2 and compare their removal efficiency. The modelling results were compared with experimental data available in the literature and a good agreement was observed. The CFD results revealed that MEA had the best performance for CO2 removal as compared to DEA and MDEA under various operating conditions due to the different CO2 loading factor of absorbents. Furthermore, efficiency of CO2 removal was highly dependent on the absorbent concentration and its flow rate, increasing of the gas flow rate caused a reduction in gas residence time in the shell and consequently declined CO2 mass transfer. The modelling results showed the influence of the absorbent concentration on the CO2 mass transfer has improved due to availability of absorbent reactants at the gas-liquid interface.
    • CFD Simulation of Droplet Formation Under Various Parameters in Prilling Process

      Muhammad, A.; Pendyala, R.; Rahmanian, Nejat (2014-09)
      A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model is used to investigate the droplet formation and deformation under the influence of different parameters. Droplet breakup phenomenon depends on several factors such as viscosity, velocity, pressure difference, and geometry. The most important parameter for droplet breakup is the Weber number (We) which is the ratio of disrupting aerodynamics forces to the surface tension forces. Volume of fluid (VOF) model is used in present work to simulate the droplet breakup. This work presents the effect of liquid velocity, viscosity, and orifice diameters on droplet formation and breakup.
    • A CFD strategy to retrofit an anaerobic digester to improve mixing performance in wastewater treatment

      Dapelo, Davide; Bridgeman, John (2020-04-15)
      To date, mixing design practice in anaerobic digestion has focussed on biogas production, but no adequate consideration has been given to energy efficiency. A coherent, comprehensive and generalized strategy based on computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modelling is proposed to improve mixing efficiency of a full-scale, unconfined gas-mixed digester for wastewater treatment. The model consists of an Euler-Lagrange (EL) model where biogas bubbles are modelled as the Eulerian dispersed phase, and non-Newtonian sludge as the Lagrangian continuous phase. Robustness tests show that mixing predictions are independent of bubble size. The CFD strategy comprises the assessment of different mixing geometries and a range of input gas flow rates. Quantitative results show that simple retrofitting measures are able to achieve a significant improvement in the degree of mixing with reduced mixing times, and consequently recommendations for best mixing geometry and gas flow rate are given. A generalization to a generic digester is discussed in a form that is readily usable by professionals and consultants.
    • CFRP strengthened continuous concrete beams.

      El-Refaie, S.A.; Ashour, Ashraf F.; Garrity, S.W. (2003-11)
      This paper reports the testing of five reinforced concrete continuous beams strengthened in flexure with externally bonded carbon-fibre-reinforced polymer (CFRP) laminates. All beams had the same geometrical dimensions and internal steel reinforcement. The main parameters studied were the position and form of the CFRP laminates. Three of the beams were strengthened using different arrangements of CFRP plate reinforcement, and one was strengthened using CFRP sheets. The performance of the CFRP-strengthened beams was compared with that of an unstrengthened control beam. Peeling failure was the dominant mode of failure for all the strengthened beams tested. The beam strengthened with both top and bottom CFRP plates produced the highest load capacity. It was found that the longitudinal elastic shear stresses at the adhesive/concrete interface calculated at beam failure were close to the limiting value recommended in Concrete Society Technical Report 55.
    • Chain Deformation in Entangled Polymer Melts at Re-entrant Corners

      Clarke, N.C.; De Luca, E.; Buxton, G.; Hutchings, L.R.; Gough, Timothy D.; Grillo, I.; Graham, R.S.; Jagannathan, K.; Klein, D.H.; McLeish, T.C.B. (2010)
      Using SANS to map the deformation of individual polymer chains in the vicinity of re-entrant corners in a contraction−expansion flow, we show that stress singularities at such corners, predicted by formulations of fluid dynamics that lack a molecular basis, do not cause extreme deformation of the chains. Multiscale modeling based on a nonlinear tube theory incorporating appropriate relaxation processes quantitatively reproduces the observed scattering, thus providing further evidence for the universality of the tube model for polymer flow.
    • Chain extension of polyamide 6/organoclay nanocomposites

      Tuna, Basak; Benkreira, Hadj (2019-06-03)
      Thermal degradation of polyamide 6 (PA6)/organoclay nanocomposites is a serious impediment to wider applications of these nanocomposites. In this study, a solution is proposed based on the well‐established use of chain extenders. As in PA6, thermal degradation, in the absence of moisture, produces broken polymer chains with amide end groups, a chain extender with anhydride functionalities, known to be strongly reactive with amide groups, was used to reconnect the chains. Experiments conducted using a laboratory twin‐screw extruder were first checked, through transmission electron microscopy observations, to have produced good organoclay intercalation and exfoliation into PA6. Following from this, samples with the chain extender added were produced and characterized. The data obtained were conclusive in the effectiveness of the chain extender: for the chain extended nanocomposites, there is an enhancement in the value of the complex viscosity by 7 times and in the storage modulus by 88 times, while the tensile modulus increased by 57% compared with the neat PA6. The nonchain extended nanocomposite achieved in comparison an enhancement of 2 times the value of the complex viscosity and 19 times the storage modulus while the tensile modulus increased by 53% compared to the neat PA6. These data provide conclusive proof on the rationale that anhydride functionalities should be sought when developing chain extenders for PA6 nanocomposites.
    • Chain extension of recycled PA6

      Tuna, Basak; Benkreira, Hadj (2018-07)
      Recycling of polymers is a necessity in our intensively consuming polymer world but the nature of polymers is such that they are prone to thermal degradation when re-extruded and this poses technical challenges to recycling. This article describes research that seeks to rebuild the structure of degraded PA6. We present data from controlled experiments with pristine pPA6 extruded to form a base recycle rPA6 to which we added two chain extenders, separately: one with anhydride multifunctionality (ANHY), highly reactive with amide groups and one with epoxy multifunctionality (EPOX), less reactive. We found from rheological data carried out in the linear viscoelastic region (so as to study structural changes) a striking difference in the ability of the chain extenders to rebuild structure: 306% increase in the complex viscosity of rPA6/ANHY compared to 25% in that of rPA6/EPOX of the base rPA6. Mechanical and thermal (DSC and TGA) tests confirmed the superior efficacy of the multifunctional anhydride chain extender. Beside the practical benefit that ensues from this research, it also provides a strategic platform to develop chain extenders for other degrading polymers on the basis of understanding the degradation chemical reaction and targeting the most reactive end group of the split chains.
    • Changes in foot and lower limb coupling due to systematic variations in step width

      Pohl, M.B.; Messenger, N.; Buckley, John G. (2006-02)
      Motion at the midfoot joints can contribute significantly to overall foot motion during gait. However, there is little information regarding the kinematic coupling relationship at the midfoot. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether the coupling relationship at the midfoot and subtalar joints was affected when step width was manipulated during running. Twelve subjects ran over-ground at self-selected speeds using three different step widths (normal, wide, cross-over). Coupling at the midfoot (forefoot relative to rearfoot) and subtalar (rearfoot relative to shank) joints was assessed using cross-correlation techniques. Rearfoot kinematics were significantly different from normal running in cross-over running (P < 0.05) but not in wide running. However, coupling between rearfoot eversion/inversion and shank rotation was consistently high (r > 0.917), regardless of step width. This was also the case for coupling between rearfoot frontal plane motion and forefoot sagittal plane (r < 0.852) and forefoot transverse plane (r > 0.946) motion. There was little evidence of coupling between rearfoot frontal plane motion and forefoot frontal plane motion in any of the conditions. Forefoot frontal plane motion appeared to have little effect on rearfoot frontal plane motion and thus, had no effect on motion at the subtalar joint. The strong coupling of forefoot sagittal and transverse plane motions with rearfoot frontal plane motion suggests that forefoot motion exerts an important influence on subtalar joint kinematics.
    • Changes in foot and shank coupling due to alterations in foot strike pattern during running

      Pohl, M.B.; Buckley, John G. (2008-03)
      The purpose of this article is determining if and how the kinematic relationship between adjacent body segments changes when an individual’s gait pattern is experimentally manipulated can yield insight into the robustness of the kinematic coupling across the associated joint(s). The aim of this study was to assess the effects on the kinematic coupling between the forefoot, rearfoot and shank during ground contact of running with alteration in foot strike pattern. Twelve subjects ran over-ground using three different foot strike patterns (heel strike, forefoot strike, toe running). Kinematic data were collected of the forefoot, rearfoot and shank, which were modelled as rigid segments. Coupling at the ankle-complex and midfoot joints was assessed using cross-correlation and vector coding techniques. In general good coupling was found between rearfoot frontal plane motion and transverse plane shank rotation regardless of foot strike pattern. Forefoot motion was also strongly coupled with rearfoot frontal plane motion. Subtle differences were noted in the amount of rearfoot eversion transferred into shank internal rotation in the first 10–15% of stance during heel strike running compared to forefoot and toe running, and this was accompanied by small alterations in forefoot kinematics. These findings indicate that during ground contact in running there is strong coupling between the rearfoot and shank via the action of the joints in the ankle-complex. In addition, there was good coupling of both sagittal and transverse plane forefoot with rearfoot frontal plane motion via the action of the midfoot joints.
    • Changes in global groundwater organic carbon driven by climate change and urbanization

      McDonough, L.K.; Santo, I.R.; Andersen, M.S.; O'Carroll, D.M.; Rutlidge, H.; Meredith, K.; Oudone, P.; Bridgeman, John; Gooddy, D.C.; Sorensen, J.P.R.; et al. (2020-03-09)
      Climate change and urbanization can increase pressures on groundwater resources, but little is known about how groundwater quality will change. Here, we rely on a global synthesis (n = 9,404) to reveal the drivers of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), which is an important component of water chemistry and substrate for microorganisms which control many biogeochemical reactions. Groundwater ions, local climate and land use explained ~ 31% of observed variability in groundwater DOC, whilst aquifer age explained an additional 16%. We identify a 19% increase in DOC associated with urban land cover. We predict major groundwater DOC increases following changes in precipitation and temperature in key areas relying on groundwater. Climate change and conversion of natural or agricultural areas to urban areas will decrease groundwater quality and increase water treatment costs, compounding existing threats to groundwater resources.
    • Changes of cine cerebrospinal fluid dynamics in patients with multiple sclerosis treated with percutaneous transluminal angioplasty: a case-control study

      Zivadinov, R.; Magnano, C.R.; Galeotti, R.; Schirda, C.V.; Menegatti, E.; Weinstock-Guttman, B.; Marr, K.; Bartolomei, I.; Hagemeier, J.; Malagoni, A.M.; et al. (2013)
      The purpose of this article is to investigate characteristics of cine phase contrast-calculated cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) flow and velocity measures in patients with relapsing-remitting (RR) multiple sclerosis (MS) receiving standard medical treatment who had been diagnosed with chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency (CCSVI) and underwent percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA). This case-controlled, magnetic resonance (MR) imaging-blinded study included 15 patients with RR MS who presented with significant stenoses (>/=50% lumen reduction on catheter venography) in the azygous or internal jugular veins. Eight patients underwent PTA in addition to medical therapy immediately following baseline assessments (case group) and seven had delayed PTA after 6 months of medical therapy alone (control group). CSF flow and velocity measures were quantified over 32 phases of the cardiac cycle by a semiautomated method. Outcomes were compared between groups at baseline and at 6 and 12 months of the study by mixed-effect model analysis. At baseline, no significant differences in CSF flow or velocity measures were detected between groups. At month 6, significant improvement in flow (P<.001) and velocity (P = .013) outcomes were detected in the immediate versus the delayed group, and persisted to month 12 (P = .001 and P = .021, respectively). Within-group flow comparisons from baseline to follow-up showed a significant increase in the immediate group (P = .033) but a decrease in the delayed group (P = .024). Altered CSF flow and velocity measures were associated with worsening of clinical and MR outcomes in the delayed group. PTA in patients with MS with CCSVI increased CSF flow and decreased CSF velocity, which are indicative of improved venous parenchyma drainage.
    • Channel estimation for stationary fading channels: orthogonal versus superimposed pilots

      Asyhari, A.Taufiq; ten Brink, S. (2014)
      Two training schemes namely the orthogonal pilot scheme (OPS) and the superimposed pilot scheme (SPS) are compared in terms of achievable rates in multiple-antenna fading channels with memory. For both schemes, we show that the achievable rate depends on the number of antennas, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and fading speed via the channel estimation error variance and the fraction of time for data transmission. To guarantee positive achievable rates, we show that for the OPS the number of transmit antennas that can be accommodated is limited by the fading speed whereas for the SPS the number of antennas can be arbitrary. For most antenna configurations, we observe that while the SPS is superior in the low-SNR and fastfading regimes, the OPS is superior in other regimes. However, for a few number of antennas (e.g., single antenna), the SPS may also be superior in the low-SNR and slow-fading regimes.
    • Characterisation and Performance of three Kenaf coagulation products under different operating conditions

      Okoro, B.U.; Sharifi, S.; Jesson, M.; Bridgeman, John; Moruzzi, R. (2021-01-01)
      The Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) 6.1, established by the United Nations General Assembly in 2015, targets universal and equitable access to safe and affordable drinking water for all by 2030. An essential factor in achieving this goal is the harnessing of “green” coagulants – naturally occurring, environmentally friendly materials which are effective coagulants for use in water treatment, with good availability in developing countries, inherent renewable properties and ease of biodegradation. In order to gain from these benefits, it is essential to fully understand how such coagulants may best be utilised, particularly concerning their practical application in developing countries. In this study, three different plant-based coagulation products (PCPs), namely Hexane (HxKP), saline (StKP) and crude (CrKP) extracts of Kenaf plant seed (Hibiscus cannabinus, a species of the Hibiscus plant), were applied to high (HTW), medium (MTW) and low (LTW) turbidity water in order to determine their performance and coagulation ability. The ability of the three Kenaf coagulant products (KCPs) to remove hydrophobic fractions of natural organic matter (NOM) was measured. The impact of KCPs on the treated water organic matter content (a known disinfection by-product (DBP) precursor) was examined using known surrogates of natural organic matter (NOM) i.e. the dissolved organic carbon (DOC), ultraviolet absorbance at 254 (UV254) and specific ultraviolet absorbance (SUVA254). Results obtained quantify the implications of using these coagulants during the water disinfection process. A parametric study, measuring the effect of different operating parameters, such as untreated water turbidity, pH, dosages, retention time, and KCP storage time, was completed. Turbidity removal performance for HxKP and StKP was very good with > 90% removal recorded for HTW and MTW, respectively, at pH seven within 2 hours retention time. Images obtained from scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis revealed a high likelihood of the coagulation mechanism of KCPs to be adsorption-interparticle bridging brought about by their flake-like structures and surfaces charges. Varying pH had no measurable influence on the coagulation performance of the KCPs. Comparing their efficiency with Moringa Oleifera (MO, a previously researched PCP) and alum showed that HxKP had a negligibly different particle removal as MO. StKP turbidity removal performance was below HxKP by 1% for HTW and LTW and 2% for MTW but performed higher than the CrKP by 5% and 7% in HTW and MTW, respectively. The optimum dosage of HxKP and StKP reduced DBP surrogate values, indicating that its precursor is also minimized, although a slight shift from this optimum dosage showed a significant rise in their concentration thus signifying a potential increase in DBPs during disinfection.
    • Characterisation of demoulding parameters in micro-injection moulding

      Griffiths, C.A.; Tosello, G.; Dimov, S.S.; Scholz, S.G.; Rees, A.; Whiteside, Benjamin R. (2015-08)
      Condition monitoring of micro injection moulding is an effective way of understanding the processing effects of variable parameter settings. This paper reports an experimental study that investigates the characteristics of the demoulding behaviour in micro injection moulding (A mu-IM) with a focus on the process factors that affect parts' quality. Using a Cyclic Olefin Copolyme (COC) microfluidics demonstrator, the demoulding performance was studied as a function of four process parameters (melt temperature, mould temperature, holding pressure and injection speed), employing the design of experiment approach. The results provide empirical evidences on the effect that processing parameters have on demoulding conditions in A mu-IM, and identifies combinations of parameters that can be used to achieve the optimal processing conditions in regards to demoulding behaviour of micro parts. It was concluded that there was a direct correlation between the applied pressure during part filling, holding phases and the demoulding characteristic factors of the A mu-IM cycle such as ejection force, integral and time.
    • Characterisation of dissolved organic matter to optimise powdered activated carbon and clarification removal efficiency

      Shutova, Y.; Rao, N.R.H.; Zamyadi, A.; Baker, A.; Bridgeman, John; Lau, B.; Henderson, R.K. (2020)
      The character of dissolved organic matter (DOM) present in drinking water treatment systems greatly impacts its treatability by coagulation–flocculation. Powdered activated carbon dosing has been suggested to enhance DOM removal when combined with coagulation–flocculation. However, optimising powdered activated carbon (PAC) dosing requires further research. In this study, fluorescence spectroscopy combined with parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC) and liquid chromatography with organic carbon detection (LC–OCD) has been used to characterise DOM removal in three ways: (a) coagulation–flocculation–sedimentation without PAC dosing, (b) PAC dosing prior to- and (c) PAC dosing during coagulation–flocculation–sedimentation treatment. It was shown that only coagulation–flocculation–sedimentation preferentially removed biopolymer and humic substance chromatographic fractions and fluorescent DOM, whereas dosing PAC preferentially removed building blocks and low molecular weight neutral chromatographic fractions. The DOM treatability that was achieved when PAC was dosed both prior to- and during coagulation–flocculation–sedimentation was comparable, but higher than what was achieved without any PAC dosing. Introduction of PAC to the coagulation–flocculation–sedimentation process significantly improved DOM removal, with fluorescent components removed by 97%. This study also highlights that a combination of fluorescence spectroscopy and LC–OCD is essential to track the removal of both, fluorescent and non-fluorescent DOM fractions and understand their impacts on DOM treatability when using different treatment processes. Overall, lower residual DOM concentrations were obtained in the treated water when PAC adsorption and the coagulation–flocculation–sedimentation processes were combined when compared to treating the water with only one of the processes, despite differences in source water character of DOM.
    • Characterisation of granule structure and strength made in a high shear granulator

      Rahmanian, Nejat; Ghadiri, M.; Jia, X.; Stepanek, F. (2009)
      Results of a study of the influence of impeller speed on the strength, structure and morphology of granules produced in a type of high shear mixer granulators are reported. Calcium carbonate particles (Durcal 65) have been granulated in a Cyclomix with a capacity of 5 L. An aqueous solution of polyethylene glycol was used as the binder. The granules produced have been dried and their structure visualized using X-ray micro-tomography equipment, Nanotom, with a resolution of less than 1 μm. It is shown that the operation of the granulator at high impeller tip speeds produces granules with a higher strength and lower porosity than those produced at medium and low impeller speeds. Two different granule micro-structures and morphologies are produced at high and low impeller speeds. Structure descriptors such as phase volume fraction (as representative of porosity), chord length distribution and auto-correlation function (as indices of homogeneity of structure) are used to quantify the internal structure of granules in 3D, which in turn affects the granule strength.
    • Characterization of horn antenna loaded with CLL unit cell

      Lashab, M.; Zebiri, C-E.; Djouablia, L.; Belattar, M.; Saleh, Alam; Benabdelaziz, F.; Abd-Alhameed, Raed A. (2018-08)
      In this paper, a pyramidal horn antenna loaded with unit cell of metamaterial is proposed, designed and realized for L-band that including terrestrial digital audio broadcasting TDAB, GPS and GSM. The proposed antenna operates in the frequency range from 1.722 GHz to 1.931 GHz. The metamaterial is fabricated on a printed circuit board as Capacitive Loaded Loop (CLL). The work aims to exhibit the advantage of metamaterial loaded inside the horn antenna in terms of the gain enhancement of the radiation pattern and the resonant frequency shift towards lower frequency. The retrieval technique used show that the constitutive parameters of the unit cell as CLL have a zero index metamaterial (ZIM) from 1.34 GHz to 1.49 GHz and a near zero index of refraction from 1.495 GHz to 2 GHz, which is within the operating frequency of the horn antenna. The achieved results show that the total gain is improved over the frequency range. The simulation and the measurement are in good agreement.
    • Characterization of micro-scale surface features using Partial Differential Equations

      Gonzalez Castro, Gabriela; Spares, Robert; Ugail, Hassan; Whiteside, Benjamin R.; Sweeney, John (2010)