• Synthesis of caffeine/maleic acid co-crystal by ultrasound assisted slurry co-crystallization

      Apshingekar, Prafulla P.; Aher, Suyog; Kelly, Adrian L.; Brown, Elaine C.; Paradkar, Anant R. (2017-01)
      A green approach has been used for co-crystallization of non-congruent co-crystal pair of caffeine – maleic acid using water. Ultrasound is known to affect crystallization hence the effect of high power ultrasound on the ternary phase diagram has been investigated in detail using a slurry co-crystallization approach. A systematic investigation was performed to understand how the accelerated conditions during ultrasound assisted co-crystallization will affect different regions of the ternary phase diagram. Application of ultrasound showed considerable effect on the ternary phase diagram; principally on caffeine/maleic acid 2:1 (disappeared) and 1:1 co-crystal (narrowed) regions. Also, the stability regions for pure caffeine and maleic acid in water were narrowed in the presence of ultrasound, expanding the solution region. The observed effect of ultrasound on the phase diagram was correlated with solubility of caffeine and maleic acid and stability of co-crystal forms in water.
    • Synthesis of functional models from use cases using the system state flow diagram: A nested systems approach

      Campean, I. Felician; Yildirim, Unal; Henshall, Edwin (2018-05)
      The research presented in this paper addresses the challenge of developing functional models for complex systems that have multiple modes of operation or use cases. An industrial case study of an electric vehicle is used to illustrate the proposed methodology, which is based on a systematic modelling of functions through nested systems using the system state flow diagram (SSFD) method. The paper discusses the use of SSFD parameter based state definition to identify physical and logical conditions for joining function models, and the use of heuristics to construct complex function models.
    • Synthesis of Indolo[3,2-b]carbazoles via an Anomeric-Based Oxidation Process: A Combined Experimental and Computational Strategy

      Zolfigol, M.A.; Khazaei, A.; Karimitabar, F.; Hamidi, M.; Maleki, F.; Aghabarari, B.; Sefat, Farshid; Mozafari, M. (2018-04)
      Indolo[3,2-b]carbazole is a molecule of great biological significance, as it is formed in vivo after consumption of cruciferous vegetables. The reaction of 1H-indole and various aldehydes in the presence of a catalytic amount of N,2-dibromo-6-chloro-3,4-dihydro-2H-benzo[e][1,2,4]thiadiazine-7-sulfonamide 1,1-dioxide as an efficient and homogeneous catalyst in acetonitrile at 50°C produces 6,12-disubstituted 5,7-dihydroindolo[2,3-b]carbazole with an in good to excellent yield. The presented technique offers a fast and robust method, by the use of inexpensive commercially available starting materials toward 6,12- disubstituted 5,7-dihydroindolo[2,3-b]carbazole. A new anomeric-based oxidation was kept in mind for the final step of the indolo[2,3-b]carbazoles synthesis. The suggested anomeric-based oxidation mechanism was supported by experimental and theoretical evidences.
    • A synthesis of logic and bio-inspired techniques in the design of dependable systems

      Papadopoulos, Y.; Walker, M.; Parker, D.; Sharvia, S.; Bottaci, L.; Kabir, Sohag; Azevedo, L.; Sorokos, I. (2016-01)
      Much of the development of model-based design and dependability analysis in the design of dependable systems, including software intensive systems, can be attributed to the application of advances in formal logic and its application to fault forecasting and verification of systems. In parallel, work on bio-inspired technologies has shown potential for the evolutionary design of engineering systems via automated exploration of potentially large design spaces. We have not yet seen the emergence of a design paradigm that effectively combines these two techniques, schematically founded on the two pillars of formal logic and biology, from the early stages of, and throughout, the design lifecycle. Such a design paradigm would apply these techniques synergistically and systematically to enable optimal refinement of new designs which can be driven effectively by dependability requirements. The paper sketches such a model-centric paradigm for the design of dependable systems, presented in the scope of the HiP-HOPS tool and technique, that brings these technologies together to realise their combined potential benefits. The paper begins by identifying current challenges in model-based safety assessment and then overviews the use of meta-heuristics at various stages of the design lifecycle covering topics that span from allocation of dependability requirements, through dependability analysis, to multi-objective optimisation of system architectures and maintenance schedules.
    • Synthesis of methyl decanoate using different types of batch reactive distillation systems

      Aqar, D.Y.; Rahmanian, Nejat; Mujtaba, Iqbal M. (2017)
      Methyl Decanoate (MeDC) is a Fatty Acid Methyl Ester (FAME) and is an important chemical compound with global production of 31 million tons per year. However, synthesis of methyl decanoate (MeDC) via esterification of Decanoic Acid (DeC) with methanol by reactive distillation is operationally challenging due to difficulty of keeping the reactants together in the reaction zone as methanol being the lightest component in the mixture can separate itself easily form the other reactant deteriorating significantly the conversion of DeC using either conventional batch or continuous distillation column. This is probably the main reason for not applying the conventional route for MeDC synthesis. Whether Semi-batch Distillation column (SBD) and the recently developed Integrated Conventional Batch Distillation column (i-CBD) offer the possibility of revisiting such chemical reactions for the synthesis of MeDC is the focus of this paper. The minimum energy consumption (Qtot) as the performance measure is used to evaluate the performances of each of these reactive column configurations for different range of methyl decanoate purity and the amount of product. It is observed that the use of i-CBD column provides much better performance than SBD column in terms of the production time and the maximum energy savings when excess methanol is used in the feed. However, the SBD column is found to perform better than the i-CBD column when both reactants in the feed are in equal amount. Also, the optimization results for a given separation task show that the performance of two-reflux intervals strategy is superior to the single-reflux interval in terms of operating batch time, and energy usage rate in the SBD process at equimolar ratio.
    • A System Dynamics Model for Risk Assessment of Strategic Customer Performance Perspective in Power Plants

      Almashaqbeh, Sahar; Munive-Hernandez, J. Eduardo; Khan, M. Khurshid (2019-07)
      The energy sector is a dynamic business environment, power plants have to deal with several complex risks, including both technical and non-technical risks. Thus, unexpected risks can disrupt the energy generation processes, with a negative long-term impact. Furthermore, these risks are not isolated, as their impact may affect a series of interrelated risks. To add to this complexity, the assessment of those risks may change with time in a dynamic business environment. This situation makes strategic decision making less effective regarding the successful design of a risk management system. Understanding the dynamic behaviour of a complex system of interrelated risks in the energy sector is very important to achieve a more sustainable overall performance of the power plants. This paper presents a System Dynamics (SD) approach to capture the interdependencies of strategic non-technical risks associated to the customer performance perspective in a risk management system for the energy sector. Several approaches for risk assessment focus on technical risks related to equipment but fail to consider the complex interactions with other risks and neither consider the dynamic nature of the business environment. A system dynamics model with 15 risk factors was built to assist decision makers in understanding the behaviour for such risks affecting the customer performance perspective. The model was validated in a power plant in the Middle East. The model allowed to highlight the impact of mitigating the risk of policy and regulations on the availability risk of the power plant and on the risk factor related to operational and maintenance cost.
    • A system dynamics simulation model for environmental risk assessment at strategic level in power plants

      Al Mashaqbeh, S.M.; Munive-Hernandez, J. Eduardo; Khan, M. Khurshid; Al Khazaleh, A. (2020-03-11)
      In a constantly changing business environment, a systematic approach is needed for risk assessment in order to allow for a more long-term strategic view. The System Dynamics (SD) modelling technique can be applied as an effective approach to understand the dynamic behaviour of a system over time. This understanding can be subsequently explicitly reflected on policies, strategic plans and operational procedures. This paper presents a SD model to assess environmental risks in power plants. The model helps to understand the long-term behaviour of the system under study. A questionnaire and focus group interviews have been conducted to understand the relationship among various risks. The SD model has been validated with two power plants in the Middle East. The developed model highlighted the impact of environmental risks on the performance of power plants. Although the SD model focuses on risk assessment in power plants, it can be easily adapted to other industry sectors.
    • Systematic associations between germ-line mutations and human cancers

      Al-Shammari, Mohamad H.; Tobin, Desmond J.; Peng, Yonghong (2016)
      The revolution in Big Data has opened the gate for new research challenges in biomedical science. The aim of this study was to investigate whether germ-line gene mutations are a significant factor in 29 major primary human cancers. Using data obtained from multiple biological databases, we identified 424 genes from 8879 cancer mutation records. By integrating these gene mutation records a human cancer map was constructed from which several key results were obtained. These include the observations that missense/nonsense and regulatory mutations might play central role in connecting cancers/genes, and tend to be distributed in all chromosomes. This suggests that, of all mutation classes missense/nonsense and regulatory mutation classes are over-expressed in human genome and so are likely to have a significant impact on human cancer aetiology and pathomechanism. This offers new insights into how the distribution and interconnections of gene mutations influence the development of cancers.
    • Systematic Digitized Treatment of Engineering Line-Diagrams

      Sui, T.Z.; Qi, Hong Sheng; Qi, Q.; Wang, L.; Sun, J.W. (2015-05)
      In engineering design, there are many functional relationships which are difficult to express into a simple and exact mathematical formula. Instead they are documented within a form of line graphs (or plot charts or curve diagrams) in engineering handbooks or text books. Because the information in such a form cannot be used directly in the modern computer aided design (CAD) process, it is necessary to find a way to numerically represent the information. In this paper, a data processing system for numerical representation of line graphs in mechanical design is developed, which incorporates the process cycle from the initial data acquisition to the final output of required information. As well as containing the capability for curve fitting through Cubic spline and Neural network techniques, the system also adapts a novel methodology for use in this application: Grey Models. Grey theory have been used in various applications, normally involved with time-series data, and have the characteristic of being able to handle sparse data sets and data forecasting. Two case studies were then utilized to investigate the feasibility of Grey models for curve fitting. Furthermore, comparisons with the other two established techniques show that the accuracy was better than the Cubic spline function method, but slightly less accurate than the Neural network method. These results are highly encouraging and future work to fully investigate the capability of Grey theory, as well as exploiting its sparse data handling capabilities is recommended.
    • Systematic identification of thermal degradation products of HPMCP during hot melt extrusion process

      Karandikar, Hrushikesh M.; Ambardekar, Rohan; Kelly, Adrian L.; Gough, Timothy D.; Paradkar, Anant R. (2015)
      A systematic identification of the degradation products of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose phthalate (HPMCP) during hot melt extrusion (HME) has been performed. A reverse phase HPLC method was developed for the extrudates of both hydroxypropyl methylcellulose acetate succinate (HPMCAS) and HPMCP polymers to quantify their thermal hydrolytic products: acetic acid (AA), succinic acid (SA) for HPMCAS and phthalic acid (PA) for HPMCP, without hydrolysing the polymers in strong alkaline solutions. The polymers were extruded in the temperature range of 160-190 degrees C at different screw rotation speeds and hydrolytic impurities were analysed. Investigation of extruded HPMCP showed an additional thermal degradation product, who is structural elucidation revealed to be phthalic anhydride (PAH). Moreover, two environmental analytical impurities, dimethyl phthalate and methyl benzoate formed in situ were recorded on GC-MS and their origin was found to be associated with PAH derivatization. Using the experimental data gathered during this study, a degradation mechanism for HPMCP is proposed.
    • A Systems Approach to the Development of Enhanced Learning for Engineering Systems Design Analysis

      Henshall, Edwin; Campean, I. Felician; Rutter, B. (2017)
      This paper considers the importance of applying sound instructional systems design to the development of a learning intervention aimed at developing skills for the effective deployment of an enhanced methodology for engineering systems design analysis within a Product Development context. The leading features of the learning intervention are summarised including the content and design of a training course for senior engineering management which is central to the intervention. The importance of promoting behavioural change by fostering meaningful learning as a collaborative process is discussed. Comparison is made between the instructional design of the corporate learning intervention being developed and the systems engineering based product design process which is the subject of the intervention.
    • Tall Buildings: The New Space Race: Introduction

      Georgopoulos, C.; Lam, Dennis (2010)
    • Tangential slip noise of V-ribbed belts

      Dalgarno, K.W.; Moore, R.B.; Day, Andrew J. (1999)
      This paper reports the results of a study into V-ribbed belt noise generated as a result of tangential belt slip. The results of experimental studies to identify the belt operating conditions associated with belt noise are presented, together with the results of analytical studies to identify the mechanism of noise generation. It is concluded that tangential slip V-ribbed belt noise generation is controlled only by the amount of slip, and that the mechanism of noise generation is harmonic excitation of the fundamental vibration mode of the belt, with stick¿slip frictional behaviour providing the impetus for the vibration
    • Tattoo ink nanoparticles in skin tissue and fibroblasts

      Grant, Colin A.; Twigg, Peter C.; Baker, Richard; Tobin, Desmond J. (2015-05-20)
      Tattooing has long been practised in various societies all around the world and is becoming increasingly common and widespread in the West. Tattoo ink suspensions unquestionably contain pigments composed of nanoparticles, i.e., particles of sub-100 nm dimensions. It is widely acknowledged that nanoparticles have higher levels of chemical activity than their larger particle equivalents. However, assessment of the toxicity of tattoo inks has been the subject of little research and ink manufacturers are not obliged to disclose the exact composition of their products. This study examines tattoo ink particles in two fundamental skin components at the nanometre level. We use atomic force microscopy and light microscopy to examine cryosections of tattooed skin, exploring the collagen fibril networks in the dermis that contain ink nanoparticles. Further, we culture fibroblasts in diluted tattoo ink to explore both the immediate impact of ink pigment on cell viability and also to observe the interaction between particles and the cells.
    • Teaching Creative Digital Hardware Design

      Zainee, N.B.M.; Noras, James M. (2013)
      Engineering undergraduates not only need to learn facts, but also how to be creative in the open-ended situations they will encounter in their professional careers. Our final year Honours module gives students a grounding in digital systems design, mainly using VLSI for design entry and simulation. The second half of our module is a design exercise, which has straightforward aspects, but which allows motivated students to undertake progressively open-ended investigations. Our educational framework is guided by recommendations of professional bodies promoting excellence and encouragement of creativity in engineering development. (C) 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
    • Technology demonstrator of a novel software defined radio-based aeronautical communications system

      Cheng, Yongqiang; Xu, Kai J.; Hu, Yim Fun; Pillai, Prashant; Baddoo, J.; Smith, A.; Ali, Muhammad; Pillai, Anju (2014-11)
      This paper presents the architectural design, software implementation, the validation and flight trial results of an aeronautical communications system developed within the Seamless Aeronautical Networking through integration of Data links Radios and Antennas (SANDRA) project funded by the European 7th Framework Aeronautics and Transport Programme. Based on Software Defined Radio (SDR) techniques, an Integrated Modular Radio (IMR) platform was developed to accommodate several radio technologies. This can drastically reduce the size, weight and cost in avionics with respect to current radio systems implemented as standalone equipment. In addition, the modular approach ensures the possibility to dynamically reconfigure each radio element to operate on a specific type of radio link. A radio resource management (RRM) framework is developed in the IMR consisting of a communication manager for the resource allocation and management of the different radio links and a radio adaptation manager to ensure protocol convergence through IP. The IMR has been validated though flight trials held at Oberpfaffenhofen, Germany in June 2013. The results presented in the paper validate the flexibility and scalability of the IMR platform and demonstrate seamless service coverage across different airspace domains through interworking between the IMR and other components of the SANDRA network.
    • Technology impact on agricultural productivity: a review of precision agriculture using unmanned aerial vehicles

      Abdullahi, H.S.; Mahieddine, F.; Sheriff, Ray E. (2015)
      Technology application to agricultural productivity is thought to be the solution to meet food demand of the growing population. In a rapidly changing world, with the prospect of decreasing arable land due to urbanization and industrialization, agricultural output requires a 70 % increase in production levels and efficient growth in the harvesting, distribution and consumption of the resources, to meet demand. There are innovations in Information and Communications Technology that can be applied to the agricultural sector in areas of precision farming, use of farm management software, wireless sensors, and use of agricultural machinery. Remote sensing technology is playing a key role through precision agriculture. This paper highlights ways in which precision agriculture is impacting on agriculture with the use of unmanned aerial vehicles for image capturing, processing and analysis.
    • Telecommunication Network Security

      Adeka, Muhammad I.; Shepherd, Simon J.; Abd-Alhameed, Raed A. (2015)
      Our global age is practically defined by the ubiquity of the Internet; the worldwide interconnection of cyber networks that facilitates accessibility to virtually all ICT and other elements of critical infrastructural facilities, with a click of a button. This is regardless of the user’s location and state of equilibrium; whether static or mobile. However, such interconnectivity is not without security consequences. A telecommunication system is indeed a communication system with the distinguishing key word, the Greek tele-, which means "at a distance," to imply that the source and sink of the system are at some distance apart. Its purpose is to transfer information from some source to a distant user; the key concepts being information, transmission and distance. These would require a means, each, to send, convey and receive the information with safety and some degree of fidelity that is acceptable to both the source and the sink. Chapter K begins with an effort to conceptualise the telecommunication network security environment, using relevant ITU-T2* recommendations and terminologies for secure telecommunications. The chapter is primarily concerned with the security aspect of computer-mediated telecommunications. Telecommunications should not be seen as an isolated phenomenon; it is a critical resource for the functioning of cross-industrial businesses in connection with IT. Hence, just as information, data or a computer/local computer-based network must have appropriate level of security, so also a telecommunication network must have equivalent security measures; these may often be the same as or similar to those for other ICT resources, e.g., password management. In view of the forgoing, the chapter provides a brief coverage of the subject matter by first assessing the context of security and the threat-scape. This is followed by an assessment of telecommunication network security requirements; identification of threats to the systems, the conceivable counter or mitigating measures and their implementation techniques. These bring into focus various cryptographic/crypt analytical concepts, vis a vis social engineering/socio-crypt analytical techniques and password management. The chapter noted that the human factor is the most critical factor in the security system for at least three possible reasons; it is the weakest link, the only factor that exercises initiatives, as well as the factor that transcends all the other elements of the entire system. This underscores the significance of social 2*International Telecommunications Union - Telecommunication Standardisation Sector 12 engineering in every facet of security arrangement. It is also noted that password security could be enhanced, if a balance is struck between having enough rules to maintain good security and not having too many rules that would compel users to take evasive actions which would, in turn, compromise security. The chapter is of the view that network security is inversely proportional to its complexity. In addition to the traditional authentication techniques, the chapter gives a reasonable attention to locationbased authentication. The chapter concludes that security solutions have a technological component, but security is fundamentally a people problem. This is because a security system is only as strong as its weakest link, while the weakest link of any security system is the human infrastructure. A projection for the future of telecommunication network security postulates that, network security would continue to get worse unless there is a change in the prevailing practice of externality or vicarious liability in the computer/security industry; where consumers of security products, as opposed to producers, bear the cost of security ineffectiveness. It is suggested that all transmission devices be made GPS-compliant, with inherent capabilities for location-based mutual authentication. This could enhance the future of telecommunication security.
    • Temperature dependent stiffness and visco-elastic behaviour of lipid coated microbubbles using atomic force microscopy.

      Grant, Colin A.; McKendry, J.E.; Evans, S.D. (03/11/2011)
      The compression stiffness of a phospholipid microbubble was determined using force-spectroscopy as a function of temperature. The stiffness was found to decrease by approximately a factor of three from 0.08 N m 1, at 10 C, down to 0.03 N m 1 at 37 C. This temperature dependence indicates that the surface tension of lipid coating is the dominant contribution to the microbubble stiffness. The timedependent material properties, e.g. creep, increased non-linearly with temperature, showing a factor of two increase in creep-displacement, from 24 nm, at 10 C, to 50 nm, at 37 C. The standard linear solid model was used to extract the visco-elastic parameters and their determination at different temperatures allowed the first determination of the activation energy for creep, for a microbubble, to be determined.