• A novel explicit-implicit coupled solution method of SWE for long-term river meandering process induced by dam break

      Zheng, X-G.; Pu, Jaan H.; Chen, R-D.; Liu, X-N.; Shao, Songdong (2016)
      Large amount of sediment deposits in the reservoir area can cause dam break, which not only leads to an immeasurable loss to the society, but also the sediments from the reservoir can be transported to generate further problems in the downstream catchment. This study aims to investigate the short-to-long term sediment transport and channel meandering process under such a situation. A coupled explicit-implicit technique based on the Euler-Lagrangian method (ELM) is used to solve the hydrodynamic equations, in which both the small and large time steps are used separately for the fluid and sediment marching. The main feature of the model is the use of the Characteristic-Based Split (CBS) method for the local time step iteration to correct the ELM traced lines. Based on the solved flow field, a standard Total Variation Diminishing (TVD) finite volume scheme is applied to solve the sediment transportation equation. The proposed model is first validated by a benchmark dambreak water flow experiment to validate the efficiency and accuracy of ELM modelling capability. Then an idealized engineering dambreak flow is used to investigate the long-term downstream channel meandering process with nonuniform sediment transport. The results showed that both the hydrodynamic and morphologic features have been well predicted by the proposed coupled model.
    • Novel extrusion dies with rotating rollers for CO2-plastic foams applications

      Benkreira, Hadj; Gale, Martin; Patel, Rajnikant; Cox, M.; Paragreen, J. (2004)
    • Novel Fractional Wavelet Transform with Closed-Form Expression

      Anoh, Kelvin O.O.; Abd-Alhameed, Raed A.; Jones, Steven M.R.; Ochonogor, O.; Dama, Yousef A.S. (2014-08)
      A new wavelet transform (WT) is introduced based on the fractional properties of the traditional Fourier transform. The new wavelet follows from the fractional Fourier order which uniquely identifies the representation of an input function in a fractional domain. It exploits the combined advantages of WT and fractional Fourier transform (FrFT). The transform permits the identification of a transformed function based on the fractional rotation in time-frequency plane. The fractional rotation is then used to identify individual fractional daughter wavelets. This study is, for convenience, limited to one-dimension. Approach for discussing two or more dimensions is shown.
    • Novel genetic algorithm for scheduling of appliances

      Anuebunwa, U.R.; Rajamani, Haile S.; Pillai, Prashant; Okpako, O. (2016-09-01)
      The introduction of smart metering has brought more detailed information on the actual load profile of a house. With the ability to measure, comes the desire to control the load profile. Furthermore, advances in renewable energy have made the consumer to become supplier, known as Prosumer, who therefore also becomes interested in the detail of his load, and also his energy production. With the lowering cost of smart plugs and other automation units, it has become possible to schedule electrical appliances. This makes it possible to adjust the load profiles of houses. However, without a market in the demand side, the use of load profile modification techniques are unlikely to be adapted by consumers on the long term. In this research, we will be presenting work on scheduling of energy appliances to modify the load profiles within a market environment. The paper will review the literature on algorithms used in scheduling of appliances in residential areas. Whilst many algorithms presented in the literature show that scheduling of appliances is feasible, many issues arise with respect to user interaction, and hence adaptation. Furthermore, the criteria used to evaluate the algorithms is often related only to reducing energy consumption, and hence CO2. Whilst this a key factor, it may not necessarily meet the demands of the consumer. In this paper we will be presenting work on a novel genetic algorithm that will optimize the load profile while taking into account user participation indices. A novel measure of the comfort of the customer, derived from the standard deviation of the load profile, is proposed in order to encourage the customer to participate more actively in demand response programs. Different scenarios will also be tested.
    • Novel heuristic for low-batch manufacturing process scheduling optimisation with reference to process engineering

      Maqsood, Shahid; Khan, M. Khurshid; Wood, Alastair S. (2011)
      Scheduling is an important element that has a major impact on the efficiency of all manufacturing processes. It plays an important role in optimising the manufacturing times and costs resulting in energy efficient processes. It has been estimated that more than 75% of manufacturing processes occur in small batches. In such environments, processes must be able to perform a variety of operations on a mix of different batches. Batch-job scheduling optimisation is the response to such low batch manufacturing problems. The optimisation of batch-job process scheduling problem is still a challenge to researchers and is far from being completely solved due to its combinatorial nature. In this paper, a novel hybrid heuristic (HybH) solution approach for batch-job scheduling problem is presented with the objective of optimising the overall Makespan (Cmax). The proposed HybH is the combination of Index Based Heuristic (IBH) and the Finished Batch-Job (FBJ) process schedule. The heuristic assigns the first operation to a batch-job using IBH and the remaining operations on the basis FBJ process schedule. The FBJ process schedule gives priority to the batch-job with early finished operations, without violating the constraints of process order. The proposed HybH is explained with the help of a detailed example. Several benchmark problems are solved from the literature to check the validity and effectiveness of the proposed heuristic. The presented HybH has achieved batch-job process schedules which have outperformed the traditional heuristics. The results are encouraging and show that the proposed heuristic is a valid methodology for batch process scheduling optimisation.
    • A Novel Heuristic Rule for Job Shop Scheduling

      Maqsood, Shahid; Khan, M. Khurshid; Wood, Alastair S.; Hussain, I. (2013)
      Scheduling systems based on traditional heuristic rules, which deal with the complexities of manufacturing systems, have been used by researchers for the past six decades. These heuristics rules prioritise all jobs that are waiting to be processed on a resource. In this paper, a novel Index Based Heuristic (IBH) solution for the Job Shop Scheduling Problem (JSSP) is presented with the objective of minimising the overall Makespan (Cmax). The JSSP is still a challenge to researchers and is far from being completely solved due to its combinatorial nature. JSSP suits the challenges of current manufacturing environments. The proposed IBH calculates the indices of candidate jobs and assigns the job with the lower index value to the available machine. To minimise the gap between jobs, a swap technique is introduced. The swap technique takes candidate jobs for a machine and swaps them without violating the precedence constraint. Several benchmark problems are solved from the literature to test the validity and effectiveness of the proposed heuristic. The results show that the proposed IBH based algorithm outperforms the traditional heuristics and is a valid methodology for JSSP optimization.
    • Novel rekeying approach for secure multiple multicast groups over wireless mobile networks

      Mapoka, Trust T.; Shepherd, Simon J.; Abd-Alhameed, Raed A.; Anoh, Kelvin O.O. (2014)
      Abstract: Mobile multicast is recently becoming a hot research in the convergence of wireless and mobile technologies. With the emergence of various multicast-based services, multiple multicast groups are possible to exist within a single network, and mobile subscribers could subscribe to multiple groups concurrently. However, the existing group key management (GKM) protocols intend to secure group communication for just a single group service. The GKM approaches involve inefficient use of keys and huge rekeying overheads, hence unsuitable for multiple multicast group environments. In this paper, we propose a novel GKM protocol for multiple multicast groups, called slot based multiple group key management (SMGKM) scheme. SMGKM supports the movement of single and multiple members across a homogeneous or heterogeneous wireless network while participating in multiple group services with minimized rekeying transmission overheads. Unlike conventional GKM protocols, SMGKM protocol mitigates 1-affect-n phenomenon, single point of failure and investment pressure of signaling load at the core network. The results of the proposed protocol show resource economy in terms of communication bandwidth and storage overheads.
    • Novel rhodium on carbon catalysts for the oxidation of benzyl alcohol to benzaldehyde: A study of the modification of metal/support interactions by acid pre-treatments

      Wilde, C.A.; Ryabenkova, Yulia; Firth, I.M.; Pratt, L.; Railton, J.; Bravo-Sanchez, M.; Sano, N.; Cumpson, P.J.; Coates, Philip D.; Liu, X.; et al. (2019-01-25)
      Rhodium nanoparticles or rhodium organometallic complexes are mainly used in catalysis for reduction or hydroformylation reactions. In this work instead, we explored the capabilities of Rh nanoparticles as an oxidation catalyst, applied to the oxidation of benzyl alcohol to benzaldehyde under very mild conditions (100 °C, and atmospheric pressure) as a model reaction. Here we report the preparation of novel Rh/C catalysts by using an impregnation protocol, with particular emphasis on the pre-treatment of the carbon supports by using HNO3 and HCl, as well as the characterization of these materials by using an array of methods involving TEM, XPS and XRPD. Our preparation method led to a wide Rh particle size distribution ranging from 20 to 100 nm, and we estimate an upper limit diameter of Rh nanoparticles for their activity towards benzyl alcohol oxidation to be ca. 30 nm. Furthermore, a HNO3 pre-treatment of the activated carbon support was able to induce a smaller and narrower particle size distribution of Rh nanoparticles, whereas a HCl pre-treatment had no effect or sintered the Rh nanoparticles. We rationalise these results by HNO3 as an acid able to create new nucleation sites for Rh on the carbon surface, with the final effect of smaller nanoparticles, whereas for HCl the effect of sintering was most likely due to site blocking of the nucleation sites over the carbon surface. The roles of acid centres on the carbon surfaces for the oxidation reaction was also investigated, and the larger their amounts the larger the amounts of by-products. However, by treatment with HNO3 we were able to convert neutral or basic carbons into supports capable to enhance the catalytic activity of Rh, and yet minimised detrimental effects on the selectivity of the oxidation to benzaldehyde.
    • A novel split-reflux policy in batch reactive distillation for the optimum synthesis of a number of methyl esters

      Aqar, D.Y.; Rahmanian, Nejat; Mujtaba, Iqbal M. (2019-08-15)
      The production of a number of methyl esters such as methyl decanoate (MeDC), methyl salicylate (MeSC), and methyl benzoate (MeBZ) by esterification reactions of several carboxylic acids such as decanoic acid (DeC), salicylic acid (ScA), and benzoic acid (BeZ) with methanol, respectively, through a reactive distillation system (batch or continuous) is cost-intensive and operationally challenging operation. It is difficult to keep the reaction species together in the reaction section due to wide boiling point differences between the reactants. Methanol (in those esterification processes) having the lowest boiling temperature in the reaction mixture can separate easily from carboxylic acid as the distillation progresses, resulting in a severe drop in the reaction conversion ratio of the acid employing batch/continuous distillation system. In order to overcome this type of challenge and to increase the overall reaction conversion, a novel split-reflux conventional batch reactive distillation configuration (sr-BRD) is proposed/studied in detail in this investigation. The optimal performance of BRD/ sr-BRD column is determined in terms of maximum achievable conversion of acids, and highest concentration of the esters produced for each chemical reaction scheme. The results for given separation tasks are compared with those obtained using conventional batch distillation (BRD) process. The optimization results clearly show that the sr-BRD process significantly improves the process efficiency, the conversion ratio of acid, and the product purity of methyl esters compared to that obtained via the BRD process.
    • A novel transflectance near infrared spectroscopy technique for monitoring hot melt extrusion

      Kelly, Adrian L.; Halsey, S.A.; Bottom, R.A.; Korde, Sachin A.; Gough, Timothy D.; Paradkar, Anant R. (2015-12-30)
      A transflectance near infra red (NIR) spectroscopy approach has been used to simultaneously measure drug and plasticiser content of polymer melts with varying opacity during hot melt extrusion. A high temperature reflectance NIR probe was mounted in the extruder die directly opposed to a highly reflective surface. Carbamazepine (CBZ) was used as a model drug, with polyvinyl pyrollidone-vinyl acetate co-polymer (PVP-VA) as a matrix and polyethylene glycol (PEG) as a plasticiser. The opacity of the molten extrudate varied from transparent at low CBZ loading to opaque at high CBZ loading. Particulate amorphous API and voids formed around these particles were found to cause the opacity. The extrusion process was monitored in real time using transflectance NIR; calibration and validation runs were performed using a wide range of drug and plasticiser loadings. Once calibrated, the technique was used to simultaneously track drug and plasticiser content during applied step changes in feedstock material. Rheological and thermal characterisations were used to help understand the morphology of extruded material. The study has shown that it is possible to use a single NIR spectroscopy technique to monitor opaque and transparent melts during HME, and to simultaneously monitor two distinct components within a formulation.
    • A novel triangulation procedure for thinning hand-written text

      Melhi, M.; Ipson, Stanley S.; Booth, W. (2001)
      This paper describes a novel procedure for thinning binary text images by generating graphical representations of words within the image. A smoothed polygonal approximation of the boundaries of each word is first decomposed into a set of contiguous triangles. Each triangle is then classified into one of only three possible types from which a graph is generated that represents the topological features of the object. Joining graph points with straight lines generates a final polygon skeleton that, by construction, is one pixel wide and fully connected. Results of applying the procedure to thinning Arabic and English handwriting are presented. Comparisons of skeleton structure and execution time with results from alternative techniques are also presented. The procedure is considerably faster than the alternatives tested when the image resolution is greater than 600 dpi and the graphical representation often needed in subsequent recognition steps is available without further processing.
    • Novel Wide Harmonic Suppression Antenna Designed Using Adaptive Meshing and Genetic Algorithms.

      Zhou, Dawei; Abd-Alhameed, Raed A.; See, Chan H.; Excell, Peter S. (22/09/2010)
      Microstrip patch antennas with harmonic suppression are designed and optimised, using a genetic algorithm and applying a novel adaptive meshing program to generate a wire-grid simulation. A coaxially-fed air-dielectric patch antenna design with a folded patch was investigated. It was confirmed that antennas with excellent performances could be designed by this method.
    • Nucleation and Condensation Modeling of Metal Vapor in Laval Nozzle

      Zhalehrajabi, E.; Rahmanian, Nejat (2014)
      Nucleation and condensation of mercury vapor has been investigated in various divergent angle and operating condition. Divergent angle has a great effect on droplet size at the end of nozzle. Influence of operating condition such as pressure and temperature on the size of droplet has been investigated. A one-dimensional mathematical model based on classical nucleation and growth has been developed to calculate the nucleation and condensation of mercury vapor. A mercury vapour turbine has been used in conjunction with a steam turbine for generating electricity. The mercury cycle offers an efficiency increase compared to a steam-only cycle because energy can be injected into the Rankine Cycle at higher temperature. The target of modeling is predicting the droplet size of mercury nano-particles during rapid expansion. The results are verified by accurate experimental data available in the literature. The governing equations were solved using Runge-Kutta third-order numerical method in MATLAB software.
    • Numerical analysis of slender elliptical concrete filled columns under axial compression

      Dai, Xianghe; Lam, Dennis; Jamaluddin, N.; Ye, J. (2014)
      This paper presents a non-linear finite element model (FEM) used to predict the behaviour of slender concrete filled steel tubular (CFST) columns with elliptical hollow sections subjected to axial compression. The accuracy of the FEM was validated by comparing the numerical prediction against experimental observation of eighteen elliptical CFST columns which carefully chosen to represent typical sectional sizes and member slenderness. The adaptability to apply the current design rules provided in Eurocode 4 for circular and rectangular CFST columns to elliptical CFST columns were discussed. A parametric study is carried out with various section sizes, lengths and concrete strength in order to cover a wider range of member cross-sections and slenderness which is currently used in practices to examine the important structural behaviour and design parameters, such as column imperfection, non-dimension slenderness and buckling reduction factor, etc. It is concluded that the design rules given in Eurocode 4 for circular and rectangular CFST columns may be adopted to calculate the axial buckling load of elliptical CFST columns although using the imperfection of length/300 specified in the Eurocode 4 might be over-conservative for elliptical CFST columns with lower non-dimensional slenderness.
    • Numerical and experimental analysis of shallow turbulent flow over complex roughness beds

      Zhang, Y.; Rubinato, M.; Kazemi, E.; Pu, Jaan H.; Huang, Y.; Lin, P. (2019)
      A set of shallow-water equations (SWEs) based on a k-epsilon Reynold stress model is established to simulate the turbulent flows over a complex roughness bed. The fundamental equations are discretized by the second-order finite-difference method (FDM), in which spatial and temporal discretization are conducted by staggered-grid and leap-frog schemes, respectively. The turbulent model in this study stems from the standard k-epsilon model, but is enhanced by replacing the conventional vertical production with a more rigorous and precise generation derived from the energy spectrum and turbulence scales. To verify its effectiveness, the model is applied to compute the turbulence in complex flow surroundings (including a rough bed) in an abrupt bend and in a natural waterway. The comparison of the model results against experimental data and other numerical results shows the robustness and accuracy of the present model in describing hydrodynamic characteristics, especially turbulence features on the complex roughness bottom.
    • A numerical and experimental study on the factors that influence heat partitioning in disc brakes

      Loizou, Andreas; Qi, Hong Sheng; Day, Andrew J. (Scientific Society of Mechanical Engineering (GTE), 2010-06)
      To investigate the heat partition on a vehicle disc brake, a small scale test rig with one contact interface was used. This allowed the disc/pad contact temperatures to be measured with fast-response foil thermocouples and a rubbing thermocouple. Based on the experimental conditions a 3D symmetric disc brake FE model has been created. Frictional heat generation was modelled using the ABAQUS finite element analysis software. The interface tribo-layer which affects heat partitioning was modelled using an equivalent thermal conductance value obtained from the authors¿ previous work. A 10 second drag braking was simulated and the history and distribution of temperature, heat flux multiplied by the nodal contact area, heat flux leaving the surface and contact pressure was recorded. Test rig and FE model temperatures were compared to evaluate the two methods. Results show that heat partitioning varies in space and time, and at the same time contact interface temperatures do not match. It is affected by the instantaneous contact pressure distribution, which tends to be higher on the pad leading edge at the inner radius side. They are also affected by the thermal contact resistance at the components contact interface.
    • Numerical and experimental turbulence studies on shallow open channel flows

      Pu, Jaan H.; Shao, Songdong; Huang, Y. (2014-03)
      Based on the previous studies, the shallow water equations (SWEs) model was proven to be insufficient to consider the flow turbulence due to its simplified Reynolds-averaged form. In this study, the k-ε model was used to improve the ability of the SWEs model to capture the flow turbulence. In terms of the numerical source terms modelling, the combined k-ε SWEs model was improved by a recently proposed surface gradient upwind method (SGUM) to facilitate the extra turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) source terms in the simulation. The laboratory experiments on both the smooth and rough bed flows were also conducted under the uniform and non-uniform flow conditions for the validation of the proposed numerical model. The numerical simulations were compared to the measured data in the flow velocity, TKE and power spectrum. In the power spectrum comparisons, a well-studied Kolmogorov’s rule was also employed to complement both the numerical and experimental results and to demonstrate that the energy cascade trend was well-held by the investigated flows.
    • Numerical behaviour of buried flexible pipes in geogrid-reinforced soil under cyclic loading

      Elshesheny, Ahmed; Mohamed, Mostafa H.A.; Nagy, N.M.; Sheehan, Therese (2020-06)
      Three-dimensional finite element models were executed and validated to investigate the performance of buried flexible high-density Polyethylene (HDPE) pipes, in unreinforced and multi-geogrid-reinforced sand beds, while varying pipe burial depth, number of geogrid-layers, and magnitude of applied cyclic loading. Geogrid-layers were simulated considering their geometrical thickness and apertures, where an elasto-plastic constitutive model represented its behaviour. Soil-geogrid load transfer mechanisms due to interlocked soil in-between the apertures of the geogrid-layer were modelled. In unreinforced and reinforced cases, pipe burial depth increase contributed to decreasing deformations of the footing and pipe, and the crown pressure until reaching an optimum value of pipe burial depth. On the contrary, the geogrid-layers strain increased with increasing pipe burial depth. A flexible slab was formed due to the inclusion of two-geogrid-layers, leading to an increase in the strain in the lower geogrid-layer, despite its lower deformation. Inclusion of more than two geogrid-layers formed a heavily reinforced system of higher stiffness, and consequently, strain distribution in the geogrid-layers varied, where the upper layer experienced the maximum strain. In heavily reinforced systems, increasing the amplitude of cyclic loading resulted in a strain redistribution process in the reinforced zone, where the second layer experienced the maximum strain.
    • Numerical Investigation of Conjugate Natural Convection Heat Transfer from Discrete Heat Sources in Rectangular Enclosure

      Gdhaidh, Farouq A.S.; Hussain, Khalid; Qi, Hong Sheng (2014)
      The coupling between natural convection and conduction within rectangular enclosure was investigated numerically. Three separate heat sources flush mounted on a vertical wall and an isoflux condition was applied at the back of heat sources. Continuity, momentum and energy conservation equations were solved by using control volume formulation and the coupling of velocity and pressure was treated by using the “SIMPLE” algorithm. The modified Rayleigh number and the substrate/fluid thermal conductivity ratio were used in the range 𝑹𝒂𝒍𝒛∗=𝟏𝟎^𝟒−𝟏𝟎^𝟕 and 𝑹𝒔=𝟏𝟎−𝟏𝟎𝟎𝟎 respectively. The investigation was extended to compare results of FC-77 with Air and also for high values of 𝑹𝒔>𝟏𝟎𝟎𝟎. The results illustrated that, when the modified Rayleigh number increases, dimensionless heat flux and local Nusselt number increases for both fluids. Opposite behaviour for the thermal spreading in the substrate and the dimensionless temperature 𝜽, they were decreased when 𝑹𝒂𝒍𝒛∗ is increased. Also with increasing the substrate/fluid thermal conductivity ratio for a given value of the modified Rayleigh number the thermal spreading in the substrate increased which is the reason of the decrease in the maximum temperature value. The present study concluded that, for high values of 𝑹𝒔>𝟏𝟓𝟎𝟎, the effect of the substrate is negligible.
    • A numerical investigation of hot spotting origin of ventilated disc brakes

      Tang, Jinghan; Bryant, David; Qi, Hong Sheng (2015)
      Hot spots are high thermal gradients on the disc surface during brake events which can cause the undesired phenomena of thermal judder and drone. The origin of hot spotting has been presented by various theories such as Thermo elastic instability (TEI) and progressive waviness distortions (PWD). However, majority of the numerical models based on these theories mainly concentrated on solid disc rather than ventilated disc which is the most commonly used nowadays. According to the experimental work done by the authors, disc geometry factors such as vents and pins also have correlations with hot spot distribution; these phenomena are difficult to be predicted analytically. Thus a convenient 2D asymmetric finite element simulation has been performed in order to obtain the correlations observed in experiments. Further parameter studies investigated factors such as uneven initial temperature, vents, pins and pad length. The results have been correlated with the experimental data and demonstrate the contribution of geometric factors in the generation of hot spots and hot judder.