• Investigation of Disc/Pad Interface Temperatures in Friction Braking

      Qi, Hong Sheng; Day, Andrew J. (2007-02)
      Maintaining appropriate levels of disc-pad interface temperature is critical for the overall operating effectiveness of disc brakes and implicitly the safety of the vehicle. Measurement and prediction of the distribution and magnitude of brake friction interface temperatures are difficult. A thermocouple method with an exposed hot junction configuration is used for interface temperature measurement in this study. Factors influencing the magnitude and distribution of interface temperature are discussed. It is found that there is a strong correlation between the contact area ratio and the interface maximum temperature. Using a designed experiment approach, the factors affecting the interface temperature, including the number of braking applications, sliding speed, braking load and type of friction material were studied. It was found that the number of braking applications affects the interface temperature the most. The real contact area between the disc and pad, i.e. pad regions where the bulk of the kinetic energy is dissipated via friction, has significant effect on the braking interface temperature. For understanding the effect of real contact area on local interface temperatures and friction coefficient, Finite Element Analysis (FEA) is conducted. It is found that the maximum temperature at the friction interface does not increase linearly with decreasing contact area ratio. This finding is potentially significant in optimising the design and formulation of friction materials for stable friction and wear performance.
    • Investigation of dynamic characteristics of suspension parameters on a vehicle experiencing steering drift during braking

      Mirza, N.; Hussain, Khalid; Day, Andrew J.; Klaps, J. (2005)
      This paper presents a simulation study into the characteristics of a vehicle experiencing steering drift under straight line braking. Simulation modelling has been performed using a multi-body dynamics analysis based on a model of an actual vehicle. Front and rear suspension parameters have been modelled as rigid links joined with flexible bushes so as to assess their effect on a vehicle while braking. Suspension geometry and alignment settings, which define characteristic responses such as lateral acceleration, yaw velocity, toe, and caster angles of a vehicle in a transient manoeuvre, are primary to a vehicle¿s directional stability. Any symmetric inconsistencies in these settings will potentially affect a vehicle¿s performance. The findings from this research have increased the understanding of the causes of steering drift during braking conditions.
    • Investigation of Effect of Aluminium Oxide Nanoparticles on the Thermal Properties of Water-Based Fluids in a Double Tube Heat Exchanger

      Porgar, S.; Rahmanian, Nejat (2021-06-24)
      The thermal behavior of aluminium oxide-water nanofluid in a double pipe carbon steel heat exchanger was investigated in the present study. The overall heat transfer coefficient, Nusselt, and heat transfer coefficient of nanofluid were compared with the base fluid. The volume fraction of the nanoparticles was 1%. By adding nanoparticles to the fluid, the thermal properties of the base fluid improved significantly. The hot and cold fluid flow was considered counter-current, and the nanofluid was pumped into the inner tube and once into the outer tube, and the flow rate of each fluid was 0.05 kg/s. The convective heat transfer and the overall heat transfer coefficient enhanced 94% and 253% for the hot fluid flow in the outer tube and 308 % and 144% for the hot fluid flow in the inner tube, respectively. The pressure drop calculations also showed that the pressure drop would not change significantly when using nanofluid.
    • Investigation of harmonic rejection for triangular patch microstrip antenna

      Bin-Melha, Mohammed S.; Jan, Naeem A.; Usman, Muhammad; Elmegri, Fauzi; See, Chan H.; Abd-Alhameed, Raed A.; Excell, Peter S. (2013)
      A coplanar edge-fed triangular patch antenna with an integrated stubline is proposed for harmonic rejection application. The design is aimed to achieve a good impedance matching to 50 ω at the fundamental frequency while suppressing radiation of the first and second harmonics. The antenna is attended to operate around 1GHz, with acceptable power gain above 1dBi and less than -15dBi at the harmonics. Simulated and measured results show a reasonable agreement.
    • Investigation of noise and disturbance from vehicles crossing cattle grids and examination of options for mitigation

      Watts, Gregory R.; Pheasant, Robert J.; Khan, Amir (2017)
      Cattle grids are used on roads and tracks to prevent grazing animals from leaving an open space without fencing onto a more controlled area where access to the road from surrounded land is more limited. They are widely used in the UK at the entrances to common and moorland areas where animals are free to roam, but also on private drive entrances. Typically, they consist of a series of metal bars across the road that are spaced so that an animal’s legs would fall through the gaps if it attempted to cross. Below the grid is a shallow pit that is intended to further deter livestock from using that particular crossing point. The sound produced as vehicles cross these devices is a characteristic low frequency “brrrr” where the dominant frequencies relates to the bar passage frequency under the tyres. The sound can be disturbing to riders and their horses and walkers and residents living close by as evidenced by press reports and the need to consider noise aspects in planning for new installations. For this reason and due to the lack of available information on the size and nature of the problem measurements and recordings have been made at a number of sites in Yorkshire in the UK. In addition, questionnaire surveys of residents living close by and façade measurements have also been used to gauge impact. Results show that there is a wide variation in the maximum noise level produced by cattle grids of apparently similar design. This can be related to impact noise produced by the movement of all or part of the grid as the frame comes under impulsive loading as the vehicle crosses. It was further established that some residents living close to the cattle grids were disturbed by the noise, and in some cases vibration, and wanted them removed or suitably modified. Means of reducing the problem are proposed.
    • Investigation of nonlinear wave-induced seabed response around mono-pile foundation

      Lin, Z.; Pokrajac, D.; Guo, Yakun; Jeng, D-S.; Tang, T.; Rey, N.; Zheng, J.; Zhang, J. (2017-03)
      Stability and safety of offshore wind turbines with mono-pile foundations, affected by nonlinear wave effect and dynamic seabed response, are the primary concerns in offshore foundation design. In order to address these problems, the nonlinear wave effect on dynamic seabed response in the vicinity of mono-pile foundation is investigated using an integrated model, developed using OpenFOAM, which incorporates both wave model (waves2Foam) and Biot’s poro-elastic model. The present model was validated against several laboratory experiments and promising agreements were obtained. Special attention was paid to the systematic analysis of pore water pressure as well as the momentary liquefaction in the proximity of mono-pile induced by nonlinear wave effects. Various embedment depths of mono-pile relevant for practical engineering design were studied in order to attain the insights into nonlinear wave effect around and underneath the mono-pile foundation. By comparing time-series of water surface elevation, inline force, and wave-induced pore water pressure at the front, lateral, and lee side of mono-pile, the distinct nonlinear wave effect on pore water pressure was shown. Simulated results confirmed that the presence of mono-pile foundation in a porous seabed had evident blocking effect on the vertical and horizontal development of pore water pressure. Increasing embedment depth enhances the blockage of vertical pore pressure development and hence results in somewhat reduced momentary liquefaction depth of the soil around the mono-pile foundation.
    • Investigation of open channel flow with unsubmerged rigid vegetation by the lattice Boltzmann method

      Jing, H.; Cai, Y.; Wang, W.; Guo, Yakun; Li, C.; Bai, Y. (2020)
      Aquatic vegetation can significantly affect flow structure, sediment transport, bed scour and water quality in rivers, lakes, reservoirs and open channels. In this study, the lattice Boltzmann method is applied for performing the two dimensional numerical simulation of the flow structure in a flume with rigid vegetation. A multi-relaxation time model is applied to improve the stability of the numerical scheme for flow with high Reynolds number. The vegetation induced drag force is added in lattice Boltzmann equation model with the algorithm of multi-relaxation time in order to improve the simulation accuracy,. Numerical simulations are performed for a wide range of flow and vegetation conditions and are validated by comparing with the laboratory experiments. Analysis of the simulated and experimentally measured flow field shows that the numerical simulation can satisfactorily reproduce the laboratory experiments, indicating that the proposed lattice Boltzmann model has high accuracy for simulating flow-vegetation interaction in open channel.
    • Investigation of Plasma Treatment on Micro-Injection Moulded Microneedle for Drug Delivery

      Nair, Karthik Jayan; Whiteside, Benjamin R.; Grant, Colin A.; Patel, Rajnikant; Tuinea-Bobe, Cristina-Luminita; Norris, Keith; Paradkar, Anant R. (2015-10-30)
      Plasma technology has been widely used to increase the surface energy of the polymer surfaces for many industrial applications; in particular to increase in wettability. The present work was carried out to investigate how surface modification using plasma treatment modifies the surface energy of micro-injection moulded microneedles and its influence on drug delivery. Microneedles of polyether ether ketone and polycarbonate and have been manufactured using micro-injection moulding and samples from each production batch have been subsequently subjected to a range of plasma treatment. These samples were coated with bovine serum albumin to study the protein adsorption on these treated polymer surfaces. Sample surfaces structures, before and after treatment, were studied using atomic force microscope and surface energies have been obtained using contact angle measurement and calculated using the Owens-Wendt theory. Adsorption performance of bovine serum albumin and release kinetics for each sample set was assessed using a Franz diffusion cell. Results indicate that plasma treatment significantly increases the surface energy and roughness of the microneedles resulting in better adsorption and release of BSA.
    • Investigation of Pulse electric field effect on HeLa cells alignment properties on extracellular matrix protein patterned surface

      Jamil, M. Mahadi Abdul; Zaltum, M.A.M.; Rahman, N.A.A.; Ambar, R.; Denyer, Morgan C.T.; Javed, F.; Sefat, Farshid; Mozafari, M.; Youseffi, Mansour (2018)
      Cell behavior in terms of adhesion, orientation and guidance, on extracellular matrix (ECM) molecules including collagen, fibronectin and laminin can be examined using micro contact printing (MCP). These cell adhesion proteins can direct cellular adhesion, migration, differentiation and network formation in-vitro. This study investigates the effect of microcontact printed ECM protein, namely fibronectin, on alignment and morphology of HeLa cells cultured in-vitro. Fibronectin was stamped on plain glass cover slips to create patterns of 25μm, 50μm and 100μm width. However, HeLa cells seeded on 50μm induced the best alignment on fibronectin pattern (7.66° ±1.55SD). As a consequence of this, 50μm wide fibronectin pattern was used to see how fibronectin induced cell guidance of HeLa cells was influenced by 100μs and single pulse electric fields (PEF) of 1kV/cm. The results indicates that cells aligned more under pulse electric field exposure (2.33° ±1.52SD) on fibronectin pattern substrate. Thus, PEF usage on biological cells would appear to enhance cell surface attachment and cell guidance. Understanding this further may have applications in enhancing tissue graft generation and potentially wound repair.
    • Investigation of routing reliability of vehicular ad hoc networks

      Eiza, M.H.; Ni, Q.; Owens, T.; Min, Geyong (2013-07-01)
      In intelligent transportation systems, the cooperation between vehicles and the road side units is essential to bring these systems to fruition. Vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs) are a promising technology to enable the communications among vehicles on one hand and between vehicles and road side units on the other hand. However, it is a challenging task to develop a reliable routing algorithm for VANETs due to the high mobility and the frequent changes of the network topology. Communication links are highly vulnerable to disconnection in VANETs; hence, the routing reliability of these ever-changing networks needs to be paid special attention. In this paper, we propose a new vehicular reliability model to facilitate the reliable routing in VANETs. The link reliability is defined as the probability that a direct communication link between two vehicles will stay continuously available over a specified time period. Furthermore, the link reliability value is accurately calculated using the location, direction and velocity information of vehicles along the road. We extend the well-known ad hoc on-demand distance vector (AODV) routing protocol to propose our reliable routing protocol AODV-R. Simulation results demonstrate that AODV-R outperforms significantly the AODV routing protocol in terms of better delivery ratio and less link failures while maintaining a reasonable routing control overhead.
    • Investigation of Simultaneous Effects of Surface Roughness, Porosity, and Magnetic Field of Rough Porous Microfin Under a Convective-Radiative Heat Transfer for Improved Microprocessor Cooling of Consumer Electronics

      Oguntala, George A.; Sobamowo, G.; Eya, Nnabuike N.; Abd-Alhameed, Raed A. (2019-02)
      The ever-increasing demand for high-processing electronic systems has unequivocally called for improved microprocessor performance. However, increasing microprocessor performance requires increasing power and on-chip power density, both of which are associated with increased heat dissipation. Electronic cooling using fins have been identified as a reliable cooling approach. However, an investigation into the thermal behaviour of fin would help in the design of miniaturized, effective heatsinks for reliable microprocessor cooling. The aim of this paper is to investigates the simultaneous effects of surface roughness, porosity and magnetic field on the performance of a porous micro-fin under a convective-radiative heat transfer mechanism. The developed thermal model considers variable thermal properties according to linear, exponential and power laws, and are solved using Chebychev spectral collocation method. Parametric studies are carried using the numerical solutions to establish the influences of porosity, surface roughness, and magnetic field on the microfin thermal behaviour. Following the results of the simulation, it is established that the thermal efficiency of the micro-fin is significantly affected by the porosity, magnetic field, geometric ratio, nonlinear thermal conductivity parameter, thermogeometric parameter and the surface roughness of the micro-fin. However, the performance of the micro-fin decreases when it operates only in a convective environment. In addition, we establish that the fin efficiency ratio which is the ratio of the efficiency of the rough fin to the efficiency of the smooth fin is found to be greater than unity when the rough and smooth fins of equal geometrical, physical, thermal and material properties are subjected to the same operating condition. The investigation establishes that improved thermal management of electronic systems would be achieved using rough surface fins with porosity under the influences of the magnetic field.
    • Investigation of stick-slip vibration in a commercial vehicle brake assembly

      Ashraf, N.; Bryant, David; Fieldhouse, John D. (2017-09)
      There are several types of disc brake instabilities associated with the brake systems; however, they are usually classified into two main categories depending on the frequency range: brake groan 0–300 Hz and brake squeal 1– 16 kHz. The groan is associated with the stick-slip motion while the squeal is associated with the modal coupling. This paper presents a detailed analysis of low frequency noise (0–300 Hz) in a commercial vehicle trailer disc brake as a result of stick-slip vibration. A range of experimental techniques are used to understand the characteristic behaviour of the caliper and the brake pads during braking events on a laboratory test rig. The analysed brake system comprised a full disc brake assembly and the trailer suspension system with a beam axle. Laser-based optical displacement sensors were used to investigate the deformation of the caliper body and the brake pads during a braking application. The contact pressure distribution at the disc/pad interfaces were also measured to gain more insight into the contact profile of the pad surfaces. Results revealed that the stick-slip phenomenon, in this study, was a result of the combination of the deformation of the caliper and the friction material formulation of the brake pads. In addition, it was observed through the testing of two different sets of pads that a low compression modulus would help to reduce the stick-slip phenomenon.
    • Investigation of the Applicability of an e-Portfolio Tool to Support Final Year Engineering Projects.

      Sheriff, Ray E.; Ong, Felicia Li Chin (14/03/2012)
      This project investigated the extent to which e-portfolio tools can be applied to final year engineering projects with a view to supporting the experience from the perspective of supervisor and student respectively. E-portfolio tools allow students to generate, store and share evidence, minute meetings and record reflections as well as helping them to develop generic professional engineering skills. The research methodology combined qualitative and quantitative techniques. Semi-structured face-to-face interviews with eight supervisors and online questionnaires completed by 13 supervisors and 31 students provided the basis for the research. Training on the university¿s e-portfolio tool was provided for 19 members of staff, while a seminar introducing the project to the final year cohort was attended by 33 students. To conclude, an e-portfolio application was made available to students.
    • Investigation of the applicability of an e-portfolio tool to support final year engineering projects.

      Sheriff, Ray E.; Ong, Felicia Li Chin (2012-07)
      This project investigated the extent to which e-portfolio tools can be applied to final year engineering projects with a view to supporting the experience from the perspective of supervisor and student respectively. E-portfolio tools allow students to generate, store and share evidence, minute meetings and record reflections as well as helping them to develop generic professional engineering skills. The research methodology combined qualitative and quantitative techniques. Semi-structured face-to-face interviews with eight supervisors and online questionnaires completed by 13 supervisors and 31 students provided the basis for the research. Training on the university's e-portfolio tool was provided for 19 members of staff, while a seminar introducing the project to the final year cohort was attended by 33 students. To conclude, an e-portfolio application was made available to students.
    • Investigation of the Applicability of an E-Portfolio Tool to Support Final Year Engineering Projects. [Poster presentation].

      Sheriff, Ray E.; Ong, Felicia Li Chin (15/09/2011)
      The Royal Academy of Engineering, together with the Higher Education Academy Engineering Subject Centre, organised one of the two Dissemination Seminars at University of Bradford. This event was for the project leaders of funded engineering projects under their three calls, opened between March 2010 and March 2011.
    • Investigation of the Growth of Particles Produced in a Laval Nozzle

      Zhalehrajabi, E.; Rahmanian, Nejat; Zarrinpashne, S.; Balasubramanian, P. (2014)
      This study focuses on numerical modeling of condensation of water vapor in a Laval nozzle, using the liquid drop nucleation theory. Influence of nozzle geometry, pressure, and temperature on the average drop size is reported. A computer program written in MATLAB was used used to calculate the nucleation and condensation of water vapor in the nozzle. The simulation results are validated with the available experimental data in the literature for steam condensation. The model reveals that the average drop size is reduced by increasing the divergent angle of the nozzle. The results also confirm that increasing the inlet pressure has a direct effect on the average drop size while temperature rise has an inverse effect on the drop size.
    • Investigation of the influence of vacuum venting on mould surface temperature in micro injection moulding

      Sorgato, M.; Babenko, Maksims; Lucchetta, G.; Whiteside, Benjamin R. (2016)
      The application of vacuum venting for the removal of air from mould cavity has been introduced in injection moulding with the intent to enhance micro/nano features replication and definition. The technique is adopted to remove air pockets trapped in the micro-features, which are out of reach for conventional venting technologies and can create considerable resistance to the melt filling flow. Nonetheless, several studies have revealed a negative effect on replication that could possibly arise from the application of vacuum venting. Although the incomplete filling of micro-scale features has often been attributed to poor venting, the limited research examining the application of vacuum venting has produced mixed results. In this work, the effect of air evacuation was experimentally investigated, monitoring mould and polymer temperature evolution during the micro injection moulding process by means of a high speed infrared camera and a sapphire window, which forms part of the mould wall. The results show that air evacuation removes a mould surface heating effect caused by rapid compression of the air ahead of the flow front and subsequent conduction of that heat into the mould surface. Hence, with the increase of the surface-to-volume ratio in micro-cavities, air evacuation has a detrimental effect on the cavity filling with polymers that are sensitive to changes of the mould temperature.
    • Investigation of the process energy demand in polymer extrusion: A brief review and an experimental study

      Abeykoon, Chamil; Kelly, Adrian L.; Brown, Elaine C.; Vera-Sorroche, Javier; Coates, Philip D.; Harkin-Jones, E.; Howell, Ken B.; Deng, J.; Li, K.; Price, M. (2014-12-31)
      Extrusion is one of the fundamental production methods in the polymer processing industry and is used in the production of a large number of commodities in a diverse industrial sector. Being an energy intensive production method, process energy efficiency is one of the major concerns and the selection of the most energy efficient processing conditions is a key to reducing operating costs. Usually, extruders consume energy through the drive motor, barrel heaters, cooling fans, cooling water pumps, gear pumps, etc. Typically the drive motor is the largest energy consuming device in an extruder while barrel/die heaters are responsible for the second largest energy demand. This study is focused on investigating the total energy demand of an extrusion plant under various processing conditions while identifying ways to optimise the energy efficiency. Initially, a review was carried out on the monitoring and modelling of the energy consumption in polymer extrusion. Also, the power factor, energy demand and losses of a typical extrusion plant were discussed in detail. The mass throughput, total energy consumption and power factor of an extruder were experimentally observed over different processing conditions and the total extruder energy demand was modelled empirically and also using a commercially available extrusion simulation software. The experimental results show that extruder energy demand is heavily coupled between the machine, material and process parameters. The total power predicted by the simulation software exhibits a lagging offset compared with the experimental measurements. Empirical models are in good agreement with the experimental measurements and hence these can be used in studying process energy behaviour in detail and to identify ways to optimise the process energy efficiency.
    • Investigation of the sediment transport capacity in vegetated open channel flow

      Huai, W.-X.; Wang, X.; Guo, Yakun; Sun, Z.H. (2021-04-07)
      The suspended sediment transport capacity is important for estimating the suspended load concentration and the ecological environment of the river. So far, few studies have been conducted to investigate the suspended sediment transport capacity in the vegetated sediment-laden flow. In this study, a new formula is derived to predict the sediment transport capacity in a vegetated flow by considering the absolute value of the energy loss between the sediment-laden flow and the clear water flow. Finally, the formula is expressed in a practical form by using the logarithmic matching method.
    • Investigation of the structural and mechanical properties of micro-/nano-sized Al2O3 and cBN composites prepared by spark plasma sintering

      Irshad, H.M.; Ahmed, B.A.; Ehsan, M.A.; Khan, Tahir I.; Laoui, T.; Yousaf, M.R.; Ibrahim, A.; Hakeem, A.S. (2017-10)
      Alumina-cubic boron nitride (cBN) composites were prepared using the spark plasma sintering (SPS) technique. Alpha-alumina powders with particle sizes of ∼15 µm and ∼150 nm were used as the matrix while cBN particles with and without nickel coating were used as reinforcement agents. The amount of both coated and uncoated cBN reinforcements for each type of matrix was varied between 10 to 30 wt%. The powder materials were sintered at a temperature of 1400 °C under a constant uniaxial pressure of 50 MPa. We studied the effect of the size of the starting alumina powder particles, as well as the effect of the nickel coating, on the phase transformation from cBN to hBN (hexagonal boron nitride) and on the thermo-mechanical properties of the composites. In contrast to micro-sized alumina, utilization of nano-sized alumina as the starting powder was observed to have played a pivotal role in preventing the cBN-to-hBN transformation. The composites prepared using nano-sized alumina reinforced with nickel-coated 30 wt% cBN showed the highest relative density of 99% along with the highest Vickers hardness (Hv2) value of 29 GPa. Because the compositions made with micro-sized alumina underwent the phase transformation from cBN to hBN, their relative densification as well as hardness values were relatively low (20.9–22.8 GPa). However, the nickel coating on the cBN reinforcement particles hindered the cBN-to-hBN transformation in the micro-sized alumina matrix, resulting in improved hardness values of up to 24.64 GPa.