• Investigating team speech communication in FPS video games

      Spyridou, E.; Palmer, Ian J.; Williams, E.J. (University of Wolverhampton, 2004)
      No Abstract
    • Investigating the compatibility of nickel coated carbon nanotubes and cementitious composites through experimental evidence and theoretical calculations

      Wang, D.; Dong, S.; Wang, X.; Ashour, Ashraf F.; Lv, X.; Han, B. (2021-09)
      Nickel coated multi-walled carbon nanotubes (NiMCNTs) are favorable reinforcing nanofillers for modifying cementitious composites due to their preeminent mechanical properties, electrical conductivity, thermal properties and dispersibility. This paper investigates the mechanical properties and compatibility of NiMCNTs filled cementitious composites, having two different types of cement, two water to cement ratios, and two dosages of five types of NiMCNTs. The results show that 0.06 vol.% NiMCNTs with small aspect ratios can significantly enhance the mechanical properties of cementitious composites, while NiMCNTs with large aspect ratios play a better strengthening effect at 0.03 vol.%. The flexural strength/toughness of cementitious composites containing 0.06 vol.% NiMCNTs with an aspect ratio of 200 can be increased by 19.65%/116.78%. Adding 0.03 vol.% NiMCNTs with an aspect ratio of 1000 enhances the compressive strength/toughness of composites by 18.61%/47.44%. Besides, NiMCNTs have preferable compatibility to cementitious composites prepared by P·O 42.5R cement with a water to cement ratio of 0.3. The enhancement mechanism is related to the denser microstructure and effective suppression of microcracks in the cementitious matrix by NiMCNTs with filling, bridging and pull-out effects, as well as the high interface bond strength between NiMCNTs and matrix. A strength prediction model for NiMCNTs reinforced cementitious composites is also established to estimate the mechanical strength of cementitious composites containing NiMCNTs with different aspect ratios/contents, showing a small relative error within ±6%/±13% for predicted flexural/compressive strength values in comparison with the experimental results.
    • Investigating the impact of discomfort in load scheduling using genetic algorithm

      Anuebunwa, U.R.; Rajamani, Haile S.; Pillai, Prashant; Okpako, O. (2016-11-24)
      Energy consumers oftentimes suffer some element of discomfort associated with the implementation of demand response programs as they aim to follow a suggested energy consumption profile generated from scheduling algorithms for the purpose of optimizing grid performance. This is because people naturally do not like to be told what to do or when to use their appliances. Although advances in renewable energy have made the consumer to also become energy supplier, who can actively cash in at times of the day when energy cost is high to either sell excess energy generated or consume it internally if required, thereby nullifying the adverse effect of this discomfort. But a majority of consumers still rely wholly on the supply from the grid. This impact on users' comfort who are active participants in demand response programs was investigated and ways to minimizing load scheduling discomfort was sought in order to encourage user participation.
    • Investigating the relationship between the distribution of local semantic concepts and local keypoints for image annotation

      Alqasrawi, Yousef T. N.; Neagu, Daniel (2014)
      The problem of image annotation has gained increasing attention from many researchers in computer vision. Few works have addressed the use of bag of visual words for scene annotation at region level. The aim of this paper is to study the relationship between the distribution of local semantic concepts and local keypoints located in image regions labelled with these semantic concepts. Based on this study, we investigate whether bag of visual words model can be used to efficiently represent the content of natural scene image regions, so images can be annotated with local semantic concepts. Also, this paper presents local from global approach which study the influence of using visual vocabularies generated from general scene categories to build bag of visual words at region level. Extensive experiments are conducted over a natural scene dataset with six categories. The reported results have shown the plausibility of using the BOW model to represent the semantic information of image regions.
    • Investigation about profitability improvement for synthesis of benzyl acetate in different types of batch distillation columns

      Aqar, D.Y.; Rahmanian, Nejat; Mujtaba, Iqbal M. (2018-08-01)
      In this work, for the first time, the synthesis of benzyl acetate via the esterification of acetic acid and benzyl alcohol is investigated in the reactive distillation system using a middle vessel (MVD), inverted (IBD), and conventional batch reactive distillation columns. The measurement of the performance of these column schemes is determined in terms of profitability through minimization of the batch time for a defined separation task. The control variables (reboil ratio for MVD, IBD columns) and (reflux ratio in case of CBD column) are considered as piecewise constants over batch time. The optimization results obviously indicate that the CBD system is a more attractive process in terms of batch time reduction, and maximum achievable yearly profit as compared to the MVD, and IBD operations.
    • An Investigation into the Use of E-Portfolio Tools to Enhance the Final Year Engineering Project Experience

      Sheriff, Ray E. (2011-09-06)
      The presentation provides information on the results of the on-line student and staff surveys that addressed the final year engineering project experience. The work was performed as part of the Royal Academy of Engineering's National HE STEM Programme. The presentation was made at Outduction's National Conference at Kew Gardens. Outduction was a three-year collaborative project between Kingston University London and University of Bradford, funded by the National Teaching Fellowship Scheme, which aimed to improve understanding of the experience of students in their final year of undergraduate study.
    • An Investigation into the use of E-Portfolio Tools to Enhance the Final Year Engineering Project Experience. [Poster presentation].

      Sheriff, Ray E.; Ong, Felicia Li Chin (14/06/2011)
      During the course of a Final Year Engineering Project (FYEP), students need to apply a variety of skills, including time management, project management and personal reflection. Students can use logbooks to demonstrate progress to their supervisors, who may then provide feedback through formative assessment. Within the School of Engineering, Design and Technology, the FYEP concludes with an assessed report and poster presentation. The University provides all students with access to an e-portfolio tool (PebblePAD). E-portfolio tools allow students to generate, store and share evidence, minute meetings and record reflections. There is possible scope for enhancing the FYEP experience through the use of e-portfolio tools by, for example, maintaining communication, monitoring progress and providing feedback. The poster provides an introduction to the project, highlighting a sample of survey results from FYEP students and supervisors, respectively.
    • Investigation of an optimized energy resource allocation algorithm for a community based virtual power plant

      Okpako, O.; Rajamani, Haile S.; Pillai, Prashant; Anuebunwa, U.R.; Swarup, K.S. (2016-09-01)
      Recently, significant advances in renewable energy generation have made it possible to consider consumers as prosumers. However, with increase in embedded generation, storage of electrical energy in batteries, flywheels and supercapacitors has become important so as to better utilize the existing grid by helping smooth the peaks and troughs of renewable electricity generation, and also of demand. This has led to the possibility of controlling the times when stored energy from these storage units is fed back to the grid. In this paper we look at how energy resource sharing is achieved if these storage units are part of a virtual power plant. In a virtual power plant, these storage units become energy resources that need to be optimally scheduled over time so as to benefit both prosumer and the grid supplier. In this paper, a smart energy resources allocation algorithm is presented for a virtual power plants using genetic algorithms. It is also proposed that the cause of battery depreciation be accounted for in the allocation of discharge rates. The algorithm was tested under various pricing scenarios, depreciation cost, as well as constraint. The results are presented and discussed. Conclusions were drawn, and suggestion for further work was made.
    • Investigation of array layout of tidal stream turbines on energy extraction efficiency

      Zhang, C.; Zhang, J.; Tong, L.; Guo, Yakun; Zhang, P. (2020-01)
      A two-dimensional model based on OpenTidalFarm is applied to simulate tidal stream flow around turbines. The model is governed by shallow water equations and is able to optimize the layout of the deployed turbine array in terms of maximizing the energy outputs. Three turbine array layouts including two structured layouts (regular and staggered) and one unstructured layout (optimized) are simulated to investigate the effect of turbine layouts on energy extraction. The present study shows that more energy could be extracted when lateral spacing decreases and longitudinal spacing increases within the same domain, namely the effective turbine layout is to deploy more turbines in the first row to extract energy from undisturbed tidal stream, while larger longitudinal spacing will make it possible for tidal stream to recover more before reaching the next turbines row. Taking the tidal stream turbines array around Zhoushan Islands as a case study, results show that the optimized layout can extract 106.8% energy of that extracted by the regular and staggered layout for a full tide in the same marine area. Additionally, the turbine array has a great influence on tidal stream velocities immediately behind the array and has little effect on far-field wake flow.
    • Investigation of Disc/Pad Interface Temperatures in Friction Braking

      Qi, Hong Sheng; Day, Andrew J. (2007-02)
      Maintaining appropriate levels of disc-pad interface temperature is critical for the overall operating effectiveness of disc brakes and implicitly the safety of the vehicle. Measurement and prediction of the distribution and magnitude of brake friction interface temperatures are difficult. A thermocouple method with an exposed hot junction configuration is used for interface temperature measurement in this study. Factors influencing the magnitude and distribution of interface temperature are discussed. It is found that there is a strong correlation between the contact area ratio and the interface maximum temperature. Using a designed experiment approach, the factors affecting the interface temperature, including the number of braking applications, sliding speed, braking load and type of friction material were studied. It was found that the number of braking applications affects the interface temperature the most. The real contact area between the disc and pad, i.e. pad regions where the bulk of the kinetic energy is dissipated via friction, has significant effect on the braking interface temperature. For understanding the effect of real contact area on local interface temperatures and friction coefficient, Finite Element Analysis (FEA) is conducted. It is found that the maximum temperature at the friction interface does not increase linearly with decreasing contact area ratio. This finding is potentially significant in optimising the design and formulation of friction materials for stable friction and wear performance.
    • Investigation of dynamic characteristics of suspension parameters on a vehicle experiencing steering drift during braking

      Mirza, N.; Hussain, Khalid; Day, Andrew J.; Klaps, J. (2005)
      This paper presents a simulation study into the characteristics of a vehicle experiencing steering drift under straight line braking. Simulation modelling has been performed using a multi-body dynamics analysis based on a model of an actual vehicle. Front and rear suspension parameters have been modelled as rigid links joined with flexible bushes so as to assess their effect on a vehicle while braking. Suspension geometry and alignment settings, which define characteristic responses such as lateral acceleration, yaw velocity, toe, and caster angles of a vehicle in a transient manoeuvre, are primary to a vehicle¿s directional stability. Any symmetric inconsistencies in these settings will potentially affect a vehicle¿s performance. The findings from this research have increased the understanding of the causes of steering drift during braking conditions.
    • Investigation of Effect of Aluminium Oxide Nanoparticles on the Thermal Properties of Water-Based Fluids in a Double Tube Heat Exchanger

      Porgar, S.; Rahmanian, Nejat (2021-06-24)
      The thermal behavior of aluminium oxide-water nanofluid in a double pipe carbon steel heat exchanger was investigated in the present study. The overall heat transfer coefficient, Nusselt, and heat transfer coefficient of nanofluid were compared with the base fluid. The volume fraction of the nanoparticles was 1%. By adding nanoparticles to the fluid, the thermal properties of the base fluid improved significantly. The hot and cold fluid flow was considered counter-current, and the nanofluid was pumped into the inner tube and once into the outer tube, and the flow rate of each fluid was 0.05 kg/s. The convective heat transfer and the overall heat transfer coefficient enhanced 94% and 253% for the hot fluid flow in the outer tube and 308 % and 144% for the hot fluid flow in the inner tube, respectively. The pressure drop calculations also showed that the pressure drop would not change significantly when using nanofluid.
    • Investigation of harmonic rejection for triangular patch microstrip antenna

      Bin-Melha, Mohammed S.; Jan, Naeem A.; Usman, Muhammad; Elmegri, Fauzi; See, Chan H.; Abd-Alhameed, Raed A.; Excell, Peter S. (2013)
      A coplanar edge-fed triangular patch antenna with an integrated stubline is proposed for harmonic rejection application. The design is aimed to achieve a good impedance matching to 50 ω at the fundamental frequency while suppressing radiation of the first and second harmonics. The antenna is attended to operate around 1GHz, with acceptable power gain above 1dBi and less than -15dBi at the harmonics. Simulated and measured results show a reasonable agreement.
    • Investigation of noise and disturbance from vehicles crossing cattle grids and examination of options for mitigation

      Watts, Gregory R.; Pheasant, Robert J.; Khan, Amir (2017)
      Cattle grids are used on roads and tracks to prevent grazing animals from leaving an open space without fencing onto a more controlled area where access to the road from surrounded land is more limited. They are widely used in the UK at the entrances to common and moorland areas where animals are free to roam, but also on private drive entrances. Typically, they consist of a series of metal bars across the road that are spaced so that an animal’s legs would fall through the gaps if it attempted to cross. Below the grid is a shallow pit that is intended to further deter livestock from using that particular crossing point. The sound produced as vehicles cross these devices is a characteristic low frequency “brrrr” where the dominant frequencies relates to the bar passage frequency under the tyres. The sound can be disturbing to riders and their horses and walkers and residents living close by as evidenced by press reports and the need to consider noise aspects in planning for new installations. For this reason and due to the lack of available information on the size and nature of the problem measurements and recordings have been made at a number of sites in Yorkshire in the UK. In addition, questionnaire surveys of residents living close by and façade measurements have also been used to gauge impact. Results show that there is a wide variation in the maximum noise level produced by cattle grids of apparently similar design. This can be related to impact noise produced by the movement of all or part of the grid as the frame comes under impulsive loading as the vehicle crosses. It was further established that some residents living close to the cattle grids were disturbed by the noise, and in some cases vibration, and wanted them removed or suitably modified. Means of reducing the problem are proposed.
    • Investigation of nonlinear wave-induced seabed response around mono-pile foundation

      Lin, Z.; Pokrajac, D.; Guo, Yakun; Jeng, D-S.; Tang, T.; Rey, N.; Zheng, J.; Zhang, J. (2017-03)
      Stability and safety of offshore wind turbines with mono-pile foundations, affected by nonlinear wave effect and dynamic seabed response, are the primary concerns in offshore foundation design. In order to address these problems, the nonlinear wave effect on dynamic seabed response in the vicinity of mono-pile foundation is investigated using an integrated model, developed using OpenFOAM, which incorporates both wave model (waves2Foam) and Biot’s poro-elastic model. The present model was validated against several laboratory experiments and promising agreements were obtained. Special attention was paid to the systematic analysis of pore water pressure as well as the momentary liquefaction in the proximity of mono-pile induced by nonlinear wave effects. Various embedment depths of mono-pile relevant for practical engineering design were studied in order to attain the insights into nonlinear wave effect around and underneath the mono-pile foundation. By comparing time-series of water surface elevation, inline force, and wave-induced pore water pressure at the front, lateral, and lee side of mono-pile, the distinct nonlinear wave effect on pore water pressure was shown. Simulated results confirmed that the presence of mono-pile foundation in a porous seabed had evident blocking effect on the vertical and horizontal development of pore water pressure. Increasing embedment depth enhances the blockage of vertical pore pressure development and hence results in somewhat reduced momentary liquefaction depth of the soil around the mono-pile foundation.
    • Investigation of open channel flow with unsubmerged rigid vegetation by the lattice Boltzmann method

      Jing, H.; Cai, Y.; Wang, W.; Guo, Yakun; Li, C.; Bai, Y. (2020)
      Aquatic vegetation can significantly affect flow structure, sediment transport, bed scour and water quality in rivers, lakes, reservoirs and open channels. In this study, the lattice Boltzmann method is applied for performing the two dimensional numerical simulation of the flow structure in a flume with rigid vegetation. A multi-relaxation time model is applied to improve the stability of the numerical scheme for flow with high Reynolds number. The vegetation induced drag force is added in lattice Boltzmann equation model with the algorithm of multi-relaxation time in order to improve the simulation accuracy,. Numerical simulations are performed for a wide range of flow and vegetation conditions and are validated by comparing with the laboratory experiments. Analysis of the simulated and experimentally measured flow field shows that the numerical simulation can satisfactorily reproduce the laboratory experiments, indicating that the proposed lattice Boltzmann model has high accuracy for simulating flow-vegetation interaction in open channel.
    • Investigation of Plasma Treatment on Micro-Injection Moulded Microneedle for Drug Delivery

      Nair, Karthik Jayan; Whiteside, Benjamin R.; Grant, Colin A.; Patel, Rajnikant; Tuinea-Bobe, Cristina-Luminita; Norris, Keith; Paradkar, Anant R. (2015-10-30)
      Plasma technology has been widely used to increase the surface energy of the polymer surfaces for many industrial applications; in particular to increase in wettability. The present work was carried out to investigate how surface modification using plasma treatment modifies the surface energy of micro-injection moulded microneedles and its influence on drug delivery. Microneedles of polyether ether ketone and polycarbonate and have been manufactured using micro-injection moulding and samples from each production batch have been subsequently subjected to a range of plasma treatment. These samples were coated with bovine serum albumin to study the protein adsorption on these treated polymer surfaces. Sample surfaces structures, before and after treatment, were studied using atomic force microscope and surface energies have been obtained using contact angle measurement and calculated using the Owens-Wendt theory. Adsorption performance of bovine serum albumin and release kinetics for each sample set was assessed using a Franz diffusion cell. Results indicate that plasma treatment significantly increases the surface energy and roughness of the microneedles resulting in better adsorption and release of BSA.
    • Investigation of Pulse electric field effect on HeLa cells alignment properties on extracellular matrix protein patterned surface

      Jamil, M. Mahadi Abdul; Zaltum, M.A.M.; Rahman, N.A.A.; Ambar, R.; Denyer, Morgan C.T.; Javed, F.; Sefat, Farshid; Mozafari, M.; Youseffi, Mansour (2018)
      Cell behavior in terms of adhesion, orientation and guidance, on extracellular matrix (ECM) molecules including collagen, fibronectin and laminin can be examined using micro contact printing (MCP). These cell adhesion proteins can direct cellular adhesion, migration, differentiation and network formation in-vitro. This study investigates the effect of microcontact printed ECM protein, namely fibronectin, on alignment and morphology of HeLa cells cultured in-vitro. Fibronectin was stamped on plain glass cover slips to create patterns of 25μm, 50μm and 100μm width. However, HeLa cells seeded on 50μm induced the best alignment on fibronectin pattern (7.66° ±1.55SD). As a consequence of this, 50μm wide fibronectin pattern was used to see how fibronectin induced cell guidance of HeLa cells was influenced by 100μs and single pulse electric fields (PEF) of 1kV/cm. The results indicates that cells aligned more under pulse electric field exposure (2.33° ±1.52SD) on fibronectin pattern substrate. Thus, PEF usage on biological cells would appear to enhance cell surface attachment and cell guidance. Understanding this further may have applications in enhancing tissue graft generation and potentially wound repair.
    • Investigation of routing reliability of vehicular ad hoc networks

      Eiza, M.H.; Ni, Q.; Owens, T.; Min, Geyong (2013-07-01)
      In intelligent transportation systems, the cooperation between vehicles and the road side units is essential to bring these systems to fruition. Vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs) are a promising technology to enable the communications among vehicles on one hand and between vehicles and road side units on the other hand. However, it is a challenging task to develop a reliable routing algorithm for VANETs due to the high mobility and the frequent changes of the network topology. Communication links are highly vulnerable to disconnection in VANETs; hence, the routing reliability of these ever-changing networks needs to be paid special attention. In this paper, we propose a new vehicular reliability model to facilitate the reliable routing in VANETs. The link reliability is defined as the probability that a direct communication link between two vehicles will stay continuously available over a specified time period. Furthermore, the link reliability value is accurately calculated using the location, direction and velocity information of vehicles along the road. We extend the well-known ad hoc on-demand distance vector (AODV) routing protocol to propose our reliable routing protocol AODV-R. Simulation results demonstrate that AODV-R outperforms significantly the AODV routing protocol in terms of better delivery ratio and less link failures while maintaining a reasonable routing control overhead.
    • Investigation of Simultaneous Effects of Surface Roughness, Porosity, and Magnetic Field of Rough Porous Microfin Under a Convective-Radiative Heat Transfer for Improved Microprocessor Cooling of Consumer Electronics

      Oguntala, George A.; Sobamowo, G.; Eya, Nnabuike N.; Abd-Alhameed, Raed A. (2019-02)
      The ever-increasing demand for high-processing electronic systems has unequivocally called for improved microprocessor performance. However, increasing microprocessor performance requires increasing power and on-chip power density, both of which are associated with increased heat dissipation. Electronic cooling using fins have been identified as a reliable cooling approach. However, an investigation into the thermal behaviour of fin would help in the design of miniaturized, effective heatsinks for reliable microprocessor cooling. The aim of this paper is to investigates the simultaneous effects of surface roughness, porosity and magnetic field on the performance of a porous micro-fin under a convective-radiative heat transfer mechanism. The developed thermal model considers variable thermal properties according to linear, exponential and power laws, and are solved using Chebychev spectral collocation method. Parametric studies are carried using the numerical solutions to establish the influences of porosity, surface roughness, and magnetic field on the microfin thermal behaviour. Following the results of the simulation, it is established that the thermal efficiency of the micro-fin is significantly affected by the porosity, magnetic field, geometric ratio, nonlinear thermal conductivity parameter, thermogeometric parameter and the surface roughness of the micro-fin. However, the performance of the micro-fin decreases when it operates only in a convective environment. In addition, we establish that the fin efficiency ratio which is the ratio of the efficiency of the rough fin to the efficiency of the smooth fin is found to be greater than unity when the rough and smooth fins of equal geometrical, physical, thermal and material properties are subjected to the same operating condition. The investigation establishes that improved thermal management of electronic systems would be achieved using rough surface fins with porosity under the influences of the magnetic field.