• An intelligent edge computing based semantic gateway for healthcare systems interoperability and collaboration

      Sigwele, Tshiamo; Hu, Yim Fun; Ali, M.; Hou, Jiachen; Susanto, Misfa; Fitriawan, H. (IEEE, 2018-09)
      The use of Information and Communications Technology (ICTs) in healthcare has the potential of minimizing medical errors, reducing healthcare cost and improving collaboration between healthcare systems which can dramatically improve the healthcare service quality. However interoperability within different healthcare systems (clinics/hospitals/pharmacies) remains an issue of further research due to a lack of collaboration and exchange of healthcare information. To solve this problem, cross healthcare system collaboration is required. This paper proposes a conceptual semantic based healthcare collaboration framework based on Internet of Things (IoT) infrastructure that is able to offer a secure cross system information and knowledge exchange between different healthcare systems seamlessly that is readable by both machines and humans. In the proposed framework, an intelligent semantic gateway is introduced where a web application with restful Application Programming Interface (API) is used to expose the healthcare information of each system for collaboration. A case study that exposed the patient's data between two different healthcare systems was practically demonstrated where a pharmacist can access the patient's electronic prescription from the clinic.
    • Intelligent Learning Algorithms for Active Vibration Control

      Madkour, A.A.M.; Hossain, M. Alamgir; Dahal, Keshav P. (2007)
      This correspondence presents an investigation into the comparative performance of an active vibration control (AVC) system using a number of intelligent learning algorithms. Recursive least square (RLS), evolutionary genetic algorithms (GAs), general regression neural network (GRNN), and adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) algorithms are proposed to develop the mechanisms of an AVC system. The controller is designed on the basis of optimal vibration suppression using a plant model. A simulation platform of a flexible beam system in transverse vibration using a finite difference method is considered to demonstrate the capabilities of the AVC system using RLS, GAs, GRNN, and ANFIS. The simulation model of the AVC system is implemented, tested, and its performance is assessed for the system identification models using the proposed algorithms. Finally, a comparative performance of the algorithms in implementing the model of the AVC system is presented and discussed through a set of experiments.
    • Intelligent phishing website detection system using fuzzy techniques.

      Aburrous, Maher R.; Hossain, M. Alamgir; Thabatah, F.; Dahal, Keshav P. (IEEE, 2008)
      Phishing websites are forged web pages that are created by malicious people to mimic web pages of real websites and it attempts to defraud people of their personal information. Detecting and identifying Phishing websites is really a complex and dynamic problem involving many factors and criteria, and because of the subjective considerations and the ambiguities involved in the detection, Fuzzy Logic model can be an effective tool in assessing and identifying phishing websites than any other traditional tool since it offers a more natural way of dealing with quality factors rather than exact values. In this paper, we present novel approach to overcome the `fuzziness¿ in traditional website phishing risk assessment and propose an intelligent resilient and effective model for detecting phishing websites. The proposed model is based on FL operators which is used to characterize the website phishing factors and indicators as fuzzy variables and produces six measures and criteria¿s of website phishing attack dimensions with a layer structure. Our experimental results showed the significance and importance of the phishing website criteria (URL & Domain Identity) represented by layer one, and the variety influence of the phishing characteristic layers on the final phishing website rate.
    • Intelligent quality performance assessment for e-banking security using fuzzy logic

      Aburrous, Maher R.; Hossain, M. Alamgir; Thabatah, F.; Dahal, Keshav P. (IEEE Computer Society Press., 2008)
      Security has been widely recognized as one of the main obstacles to the adoption of Internet banking and it is considered an important aspect in the debate over challenges facing internet banking. The performance evaluation of e-banking websites requires a model that enables us to analyze the various imperative factors and criteria related to the quality and performance of e-banking websites. Ebanking site evaluation is a complex and dynamic problem involving many factors, and because of the subjective considerations and the ambiguities involved in the assessment, Fuzzy Logic (FL) model can be an effective tool in assessing and evaluating of e-banking security performance and quality. In this paper, we propose an intelligent performance assessment model for evaluating e-banking security websites. The proposed model is based on FL operators and produces four measures of security risk attack dimensions: direct internal attack, communication tampering attack, code programming attack and denial of service attack with a hierarchical ring layer structure. Our experimental results show that direct internal attack risk has a large impact on e-banking security performance. The results also confirm that the risk of direct internal attack for e-banking dynamic websites is doubled that of all other attacks.
    • Intelligent traffic control decision support system

      Almejalli, Khaled A.; Dahal, Keshav P.; Hossain, M. Alamgir (Springer-Verlag, 2007)
      When non-recurrent road traffic congestion happens, the operator of the traffic control centre has to select the most appropriate traffic control measure or combination of measures in a short time to manage the traffic network. This is a complex task, which requires expert knowledge, much experience and fast reaction. There are a large number of factors related to a traffic state as well as a large number of possible control measures that need to be considered during the decision making process. The identification of suitable control measures for a given non-recurrent traffic congestion can be tough even for experienced operators. Therefore, simulation models are used in many cases. However, simulating different traffic scenarios for a number of control measures in a complicated situation is very time-consuming. In this paper we propose an intelligent traffic control decision support system (ITC-DSS) to assist the human operator of the traffic control centre to manage online the current traffic state. The proposed system combines three soft-computing approaches, namely fuzzy logic, neural network, and genetic algorithm. These approaches form a fuzzy-neural network tool with self-organization algorithm for initializing the membership functions, a GA algorithm for identifying fuzzy rules, and the back-propagation neural network algorithm for fine tuning the system parameters. The proposed system has been tested for a case-study of a small section of the ring-road around Riyadh city. The results obtained for the case study are promising and show that the proposed approach can provide an effective support for online traffic control.
    • Inter-Ethnic and Demic-Group Variations in Craniofacial Anthropometry: A Review

      Jilani, Shelina K.; Ugail, Hassan; Logan, Andrew J. (2019)
      Craniofacial anthropometry plays an important role in facial structure. This review paper evaluates existing research surrounding population norms of studied facial parameters. The purpose is two-fold: (1) to determine variations in facial measurements due to demi-group or ethnic variations based on traditional (direct) caliper based and image based (indirect) anthropometric methods. (2) to compare where possible, measured facial parameters between referenced studies. Inter and intra-population variations in addition to sexual dimorphism of facial parameters such as the nose and eyes, singularly or in combination with one another, have been concluded. Ocular measurements have exhibited ethnic variations between males and females of the Saudi, Turkish, Egyptian and Iranian group. Moreover, demic variations are reported when the native language has been used a key criterion. It has been concluded that with the current state of migration and inter-demic marriages, the study of homogenous populations will prove difficult. Subsequently, this will result in ambiguous physical traits that are not representative for any one demic or ethnic population. In this paper, results for the following adult male and female populations have been discussed: African American, Azerbaijani, Caribbean, Chinese, Croatian, Egyptian, Italian, Iranian, Turkish, Saudi Arabian, Syrian and South African. The qualitative research presented serves as a knowledge base for learners and strikes up thought provoking concepts about the direction anthropometrical research is heading.
    • Interaction between closely packed array antenna elements using metasurface for applications such as MIMO systems and synthetic aperture radars

      Alibakhshikenari, M.; Virdee, B.S.; Shukla, P.; See, C.H.; Abd-Alhameed, Raed A.; Khalily, M.; Falcone, F.; Limiti, E. (2018-11)
      The paper presents a technique to enhance the isolation between adjacent radiating elements which is common in densely packed antenna arrays. Such antennas provide frequency beam-scanning capability needed in Multiple-Input Multiple-Output (MIMO) systems and Synthetic Aperture Radars (SARs). The method proposed here uses a metamaterial decoupling slab (MTMDS), which is located between radiating elements, to suppress mutual-coupling between the elements that would otherwise degrade the antenna efficiency and performance in both the transmit and receive mode. The proposed MTM-DS consists of mirror imaged Eshaped slits engraved on a microstrip patch with inductive stub. Measured results confirm over 9–11 GHz with no MTM-DS the average isolation (S12) is -27 dB; however, with MTM-DS the average isolation improves to -38 dB. With this technique the separation between the radiating element can be reduced to 0.66λo, where λ0 is free space wavelength at 10 GHz. In addition, with this technique there is 15% improvement in operating bandwidth. At frequencies of high impedance match of 9.95 GHz and 10.63 GHz the gain is 4.52 dBi and 5.40 dBi, respectively. Furthermore, the technique eliminates poor front-to-back ratio encountered in other decoupling methods. MTM-DS is also relatively simple to implement. Assuming adequate space is available between adjacent radiators the MTM-DS can be fixed retrospectively on existing antenna arrays, which makes the proposed method versatile.
    • Interaction Between Electromagnetic Field and Human Body for Dual Band Balanced Antenna Using Hybrid Computational Method

      Alhaddad, A.G.; Ramli, Khairun N.; Abd-Alhameed, Raed A.; Zhou, Dawei (08/11/2010)
      This paper describes a hybrid computational method which efficiently models the interaction between a small antenna placed in proximity with the human body. Results for several test cases of placed in different locations on the body are presented and discussed. The near and far fields were incorporated into the study to provide a full understanding of the impact on human tissue. The cumulative distribution function of the radiation efficiency and absorbed power is also provided. The antennas are assumed to be operating over the 2.4 GHz and 5.2 GHz WLAN frequencies.
    • Interaction between hollow cored floor slabs and structural steelwork

      Lam, Dennis; Elliott, K.S.; Nethercot, D.A. (1995)
    • Interaction models for profiling assets in an extensible and semantic WoT framework,

      Amir, Mohammad; Hu, Yim Fun; Pillai, Prashant; Cheng, Yongqiang; Bibiks, Kirils (2013)
      This paper addresses interoperability issues in an IoT-based cloud environment consisting of multiple WSN clusters made up of connected objects embedded with smart devices which are fully integrated to the Web, forming the Web-ofThings (WoT). Two levels of interoperability are considered: Device-level interoperability and semantic-level interoperability. Eminent issues relating to device heterogeneity and platform dependencies are resolved by using an OSGi (Open Service Gateway initiative) framework as the software fabric for IoT deployment. However, OSGi alone is not enough to resolve data heterogeneity issues, and even less in providing a semantic mapping of devices and their data streams in a generic deployment. To enable this level of interoperability, a novel system that envisages an all-purpose collaboration framework for the WoT to deliver Sensing and Collaboration as a Service (SeaaS/CaaS) is presented.
    • Interactive and Augmented Information Spaces to Support Learning and Dynamic Decision-Making

      Robison, David J.; Earnshaw, Rae A.; McClory, P. (2009)
      The rise of mainstream virtual learning environments has facilitated the operation of information spaces to support display, simulation, and interactive modelling. As well as disseminating information and knowledge, they can also be used to accumulate learning as each user is also a potential contributor. This paper examines the use of information environments to support mobile learning and dynamic decision making and the extent to which physical or social space can support the application. Such applications are not limited to the traditional data analysis and modelling functions but can be extended to include storytelling, theatre, and other aspects of the arts and the entertainment industry.
    • Interactive binocular treatment (I-BiT) for amblyopia: results of a pilot study of 3D shutter glasses system

      Herbison, N.; Cobb, S.; Gregson, R.; Ash, I.; Eastgate, R.; Purdy, J.; Hepburn, T.; MacKeith, D.; Foss, A.; I. BiT study group (2013)
      PURPOSE: A computer-based interactive binocular treatment system (I-BiT) for amblyopia has been developed, which utilises commercially available 3D 'shutter glasses'. The purpose of this pilot study was to report the effect of treatment on visual acuity (VA) in children with amblyopia. METHODS: Thirty minutes of I-BiT treatment was given once weekly for 6 weeks. Treatment sessions consisted of playing a computer game and watching a DVD through the I-BiT system. VA was assessed at baseline, mid-treatment, at the end of treatment, and at 4 weeks post treatment. Standard summary statistics and an exploratory one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) were performed. RESULTS: Ten patients were enrolled with strabismic, anisometropic, or mixed amblyopia. The mean age was 5.4 years. Nine patients (90%) completed the full course of I-BiT treatment with a mean improvement of 0.18 (SD=0.143). Six out of nine patients (67%) who completed the treatment showed a clinically significant improvement of 0.125 LogMAR units or more at follow-up. The exploratory one-way ANOVA showed an overall effect over time (F=7.95, P=0.01). No adverse effects were reported. CONCLUSION: This small, uncontrolled study has shown VA gains with 3 hours of I-BiT treatment. Although it is recognised that this pilot study had significant limitations-it was unblinded, uncontrolled, and too small to permit formal statistical analysis-these results suggest that further investigation of I-BiT treatment is worthwhile.
    • Interactive design of complex mechanical parts using a parametric representation.

      Ugail, Hassan; Robinson, M.; Bloor, M.I.G.; Wilson, M.J. (Springer, 2000)
    • Interactive design using higher order PDE's

      Kubeisa, S.; Ugail, Hassan; Wilson, M.J. (Springer Berlin, 2004)
      This paper extends the PDE method of surface generation. The governing partial differential equation is generalised to sixth order to increase its flexibility. The PDE is solved analytically, even in the case of general boundary conditions, making the method fast. The boundary conditions, which control the surface shape, are specified interactively, allowing intuitive manipulation of generic shapes. A compact user interface is presented which makes use of direct manipulation and other techniques for 3D interaction.
    • Interactive Digital Serious Games for the Assessment, Rehabilitation, and Prediction of Dementia

      Kazmi, Sayed; Ugail, Hassan; Lesk, Valerie E.; Palmer, Ian J. (2014-11-24)
      Dementia is a serious, progressive, and often debilitating illness with no known cure, having a severe adverse effect on memory, behaviour, reasoning, and communication. A comprehensive review of current refereed research material in the use of games in this area is scarce and suffers from being orientated towards commercially available games or derivatives such as “Dr. Kawashima’s brain training.” There is much lesser concern for bespoke research grade alternatives. This review will attempt to assess the current state of the art in research orientated games for dementia, importantly identifying systems capable of prediction before the onset of the disease. It can be ascertained from the literature reviewed that there are clearly a large number of interactive computer game based mechanisms used for dementia. However, these are each highly intrusive in terms of affecting normal living and the patient is aware of being tested; furthermore their long-term or real benefits are unknown as is their effect over conventional tests. It is important to predict cognitive impairment at a stage early enough to maximise benefit from treatment and therapeutic intervention. Considering the availability, use, and increasing power of modern mobile smartphones, it is logically plausible to explore this platform for dementia healthcare.
    • Interactive Fusion and Tracking For Multi‐Modal Spatial Data Visualization

      Elshehaly, Mai; Gračanin, D.; Gad, M.; Elmongui, H.G.; Matković, K. (2015-06)
      Scientific data acquired through sensors which monitor natural phenomena, as well as simulation data that imitate time‐identified events, have fueled the need for interactive techniques to successfully analyze and understand trends and patterns across space and time. We present a novel interactive visualization technique that fuses ground truth measurements with simulation results in real‐time to support the continuous tracking and analysis of spatiotemporal patterns. We start by constructing a reference model which densely represents the expected temporal behavior, and then use GPU parallelism to advect measurements on the model and track their location at any given point in time. Our results show that users can interactively fill the spatio‐temporal gaps in real world observations, and generate animations that accurately describe physical phenomena.
    • Interactive PDE patch-based surface modeling from vertex-frames

      Wang, S.; Xia, Y.; You, L.; Ugail, Hassan; Carriazo, A.; Iglesias, A.; Zhang, J. (2022-01-22)
      Polygon, subdivision, and NURBS are three mainstream modeling techniques widely applied in commercial software packages. They require heavy manual operations, and involve a lot of design variables leading to big data, high storage costs and slow network transmissions. In this paper, we integrate the strengths of boundary-based surface creation and partial differential equation (PDE)-based geometric modeling to obtain the first analytical C continuous 4-sided PDE patches involving sculpting force-based shape creation and manipulation and use them to develop an interactive modeling technique for easy and quick creation of 3D models with small data from vertex-frames. With this modeling technique, a vertex frame is defined by eight vertices, and a C continuous 4-sided PDE patch is created from the vertex-frame through an analytical solution to a vector-valued second-order PDE subjected to the boundary conditions determined by the eight vertices of a vertex-frame. A user-friendly interface is developed from the obtained analytical solution, which enables users to interactively input and modify vertex-frame models easily and create 3D models in real time. Different surface modeling tasks are carried out to test the developed interactive tool and compare our proposed method with polygon and NURBS modeling and Coons surfaces. The results demonstrate the effectiveness of our proposed method and its advantages in reducing design variables, saving storage costs, and effective shape creation and manipulation.
    • Interactive thin elastic materials

      Tang, W.; Wan, Tao Ruan; Huang, D. (2016-04)
      Despite great strides in past years are being made to generate motions of elastic materials such as cloth and biological skin in virtual world, unfortunately, the computational cost of realistic high-resolution simulations currently precludes their use in interactive applications. Thin elastic materials such as cloth and biological skin often exhibit complex nonlinear elastic behaviors. However, modeling elastic nonlinearity can be computationally expensive and numerically unstable, imposing significant challenges for their use in interactive applications. This paper presents a novel simulation framework for simulating realistic material behaviors with interactive frame rate. Central to the framework is the use of a constraint-based multi-resolution solver for efficient and robust modeling of the material nonlinearity. We extend a strain-limiting method to work on deformation gradients of triangulated surface models in three-dimensional space with a novel data structure. The simulation framework utilizes an iterative nonlinear Gauss–Seidel procedure and a multilevel hierarchy structure to achieve computational speedups. As material nonlinearity are generated by enforcing strain-limiting constraints at a multilevel hierarchy, our simulation system can rapidly accelerate the convergence of the large constraint system with simultaneous enforcement of boundary conditions. The simplicity and efficiency of the framework makes simulations of highly realistic thin elastic materials substantially fast and is applicable of simulations for interactive applications.
    • Interdisciplinary Collaboration Methodologies in Art, Design and Media

      Earnshaw, Rae A.; Liggett, S.; Heald, K. (2013)
      Collaboration in art, design and media has traditionally taken place in the studio. Recent experiments in collaboration and interaction have sought to identify the factors that promote productive and creative collaboration and those that do not. It is clear that virtual collaboration mediated by computer networks can include many of the elements that characterise face to face collaboration. This also facilitates international collaboration just as easily as national and local ones. At the same time, digital convergence is producing environments and artefacts that blur the traditional distinctions between art and technology, and which give rise to new creative opportunities and new kinds of creative works. These are described in this paper and their significance is explored. These also cause further reflections on the contributions that science can make to art and vice-versa.