• An earthquake response spectrum method for linear light secondary substructures

      Muscolino, G.; Palmeri, Alessandro (2007)
      Earthquake response spectrum is the most popular tool in the seismic analysis and design of structures. In the case of combined primary-secondary (P-S) systems, the response of the supporting P substructure is generally evaluated without considering the S substructure, which in turn is only required to bear displacements and/or forces imposed by the P substructure (¿cascade¿ approach). In doing so, however, dynamic interaction between the P and S components is neglected, and the seismic-induced response of the S substructure may be heavily underestimated or overestimated. In this paper, a novel CQC (Complete Quadratic Combination) rule is proposed for the seismic response of linear light S substructures attached to linear P substructures. The proposed technique overcomes the drawbacks of the cascade approach by including the effects of dynamic interaction and different damping in the substructures directly in the cross-correlation coefficients. The computational effort is reduced by using the eigenproperties of the decoupled substructures and only one earthquake response spectrum for a reference value of the damping ratio.
    • East to West.

      Rashid, M. Ali; Parker, T. (2009-11-30)
    • Eccentric compression behaviour of concrete columns reinforced with steel-FRP composite bars

      Ge, W.; Chen, K.; Guan, Z.; Ashour, Ashraf F.; Lu, W.; Cao, D. (Elsevier, 2021-07)
      Eccentric compression behaviour of reinforced concrete (RC) columns reinforced by steel-FRP composite bars (SFCBs) was investigated through experimental work and theoretical analyses. The tension and compression test results show that SFCBs demonstrate a stable post-yield stiffness. The mechanical properties of the composite reinforcement have a significant influence on eccentric compression behaviour of the reinforced concrete columns, in terms of failure mode, crack width, deformation and bearing capacity. Formulae were also developed to discriminate failure mode and to determine moment magnification factor, bearing capacity and crack width of the columns studied, with the theoretical predictions being in a good agreement with the experimental results. In addition, parametric studies were conducted to evaluate the effects of mechanical properties of reinforcement, reinforcement ratio, eccentricity, slenderness ratio, types of reinforcement and concrete on the eccentric compression behaviour of RC columns. The results show that the compressive performance is significantly improved by using the high performance concrete, i.e. reactive powder concrete (RPC) and engineered cementious composites (ECC).
    • Eccentrically loaded concrete encased steel composite columns

      El-Lobody, E.; Young, B.; Lam, Dennis (2011)
      This paper presents a nonlinear 3-D finite element model for eccentrically loaded concrete encased steel composite columns. The columns were pin-ended subjected to an eccentric load acting along the major axis, with eccentricity varied from 0.125 to 0.375 of the overall depth (D) of the column sections. The model accounted for the inelastic behaviour of steel, concrete, longitudinal and transverse reinforcement bars as well as the effect of concrete confinement of the concrete encased steel composite columns. The interface between the steel section and concrete, the longitudinal and transverse reinforcement bars, and the reinforcement bars and concrete were also considered allowing the bond behaviour to be modelled and the different components to retain its profile during the deformation of the column. The initial overall geometric imperfection was carefully incorporated in the model. The finite element model has been validated against existing test results. The concrete strengths varied from normal to high strength (30¿110 MPa). The steel section yield stresses also varied from normal to high strength (275¿690 MPa). Furthermore, the variables that influence the eccentrically loaded composite column behaviour and strength comprising different eccentricities, different column dimensions, different structural steel sizes, different concrete strengths, and different structural steel yield stresses were investigated in a parametric study. Generally, it is shown that the effect on the composite column strength owing to the increase in structural steel yield stress is significant for eccentrically loaded columns with small eccentricity of 0.125D. On the other hand, for columns with higher eccentricity 0.375D, the effect on the composite column strength due to the increase in structural steel yield stress is significant for columns with concrete strengths lower than 70 MPa. The strength of composite columns obtained from the finite element analysis were compared with the design strengths calculated using the Eurocode 4 for composite columns. Generally, it is shown that the EC4 accurately predicted the eccentrically loaded composite columns, while overestimated the moment.
    • Economic optimisation of seawater reverse osmosis desalination with boron rejection

      Patroklou, G.; Mujtaba, Iqbal M. (2014)
      Reverse Osmosis (RO) process is widely used for seawater desalination. In this work, we considered a small scale SWRO (Spiral Wound Reverse Osmosis) desalination unit which is enough to cover the need of a medium size hotel complex at Limassol city in Cyprus. The pH of the seawater in the region is 7.95 and the temperature varies from 17 to 27 °C. The aim of this study is to identify the configuration of the RO process and the optimum operating parameters such as pH and pressure that can minimise the total annualised cost of the process subject to acceptable quality of freshwater in terms of boron concentrations throughout the year. For this purpose, the mathematical model for boron rejection developed earlier by the authors is used but incorporates cost functions. The model is based on solution-diffusion model which can describe solvent and solute transport mechanism through the membranes. With the variation of seasonal seawater temperature, the key finding of this study was that by choosing the right combination of pH and pressure, substantial economical savings up to 16 % could be achieved.
    • Economic removal of chlorophenol from wastewater using multi-stage spiral-wound reverse osmosis process: simulation and optimisation

      Al-Obaidi, M.A.; Kara-Zaitri, Chakib; Mujtaba, Iqbal M. (2019-10)
      The successful use of Reverse Osmosis (RO) process has increased significantly in water desalination, water treatment and food processing applications. In this work, the economic feasibility of a multi-stage RO process including both retentate and permeate reprocessing for the removal of chlorophenol from wastewater is explored using simulation and optimisation studies. Firstly, a mathematical model of the process is developed based on the solution diffusion model, which was validated using experimental chlorophenol removal from the literature, is combined with several appropriate cost functions to form a full model package. Secondly, for a better understanding of the interactions between the different parameters on the economic performance of the process, a detailed process simulation is carried out. Finally, a multi-objective optimisation framework based on Non-Linear Programming (NLP) problem is developed for minimising the product unit cost, the total annualised cost, the specific energy consumption together with optimising the feed pressure and feed flow rate for an acceptable level of chlorophenol rejection and total water recovery rate. The results clearly show that the removal of chlorophenol can reach 98.8% at a cost of approximately 0.21 $/m³.
    • Effect and mechanisms of nanomaterials on interface between aggregates and cement mortars

      Wang, X.; Dong, S.; Ashour, Ashraf F.; Zhang, W.; Han, B. (2020-04)
      As the weakest zone in concrete, the interfacial transition zone (ITZ) between aggregates and cement mortars has important effects on the properties of concrete. This paper aims to investigate the effects and mechanisms of nanofillers on the bond strength and interfacial microstructures between aggregates and cement mortars. A total of 8 representative types of nanofillers (namely nano-SiO2, nano-TiO2, nano-ZrO2, untreated multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), hydroxyl-functionalized MWCNTs, nickel-coated MWCNTs, multi-layer graphenes (MLGs), and nano boron nitride (nano-BN)) were selected to fabricate specimens with scale-up aggregate-cement mortar interface that can be characterized by the three-point bend test. The experimental results indicate that all types of nanofillers can enhance the bond strength between aggregates and cement mortars. The highest relative/absolute increases of 2.1 MPa/35.1%, 2.32 MPa/38.8% and 2.56 MPa/42.8% in interfacial bond strength are achieved by incorporating 2 wt% of nano-ZrO2, 0.3 wt% of nickel-coated MWCNTs, and 0.3 wt% of nano-BN, respectively. Scanning electron microscope observations show the presence of nanofillers can improve hydration products and increase interfacial compactness. Energy dispersive spectrometer results suggest that local content of nanofillers in the ITZ is higher than that in the bulk cement mortars. These findings indicate the nanofillers can transfer with water migration toward aggregates and enrich in ITZ, thus improving the bond strength and interfacial microstructures between aggregates and cement mortars through the nano-core effect.
    • Effect of compaction pressure on consolidation behaviour of unsaturated silty soil

      Estabragh, A.R.; Javadi, Akbar A.; Boot, John C. (2004)
      The effect of compaction pressure on subsequent soil behaviour during isotropic consolidation has been investigated by conducting controlled-suction triaxial tests on samples of an unsaturated compacted silty soil. A comprehensive set of laboratory experiments was carried out in a double-walled triaxial apparatus on samples of unsaturated soil that were prepared using two different compaction pressures. The axis translation technique was used for creating the desired suctions in the samples. In the experiments, the soil samples were subjected to isotropic consolidation under constant suctions. The results show that different compaction pressures produce different fabrics in a soil and therefore affect the behaviour of the soil. The results also show that the value of yield stress and the location of the loading¿collapse (LC) yield curve are functions of soil fabric. Furthermore, it is shown that the slopes of normal consolidation lines for densely and loosely compacted samples differ in unsaturated conditions but are the same in saturated soils. A comparison is made between the behaviour of the dense and loose samples, and the difference in the behaviour is explained.
    • Effect of component stiffness and deformation on vehicle lateral drift during braking

      Mirza, N.; Hussain, Khalid; Day, Andrew J.; Klaps, J. (2009)
      This article presents a simulation study into effects of compliant (flexible) components (such as the engine subframe and the lower control arm) and their deflections on the characteristics of a vehicle experiencing steering drift during straight-line braking. The vehicle front and rear suspension are modelled using multi-body dynamic analysis software. The front suspension model represents theMacPherson strut design of the vehicle and includes a rack and pinion steering system, brake system, engine subframe, and a powertrain unit. The model has been analysed under two steering control methods: fixed and free control. Suspension characteristics and the effect of deflections arising from the subframe and the lower control arm on these suspension characteristics have been analysed. The simulations confirmed that variation of component stiffness and interactions within components give rise to side-to-side deflections that could affect lateral drift during braking. It is concluded that side-to-side variation of suspension characteristics can have a detrimental effect on lateral drift during braking and that compliant components whose stiffness varies from side to side can cause different side-to-side deflections that can induce and influence variation in suspension characteristics such as toe steer angle that can lead the vehicle during braking.
    • Effect of Concrete Strength and Stud Collar Size to Shear Capacity of Demountable Shear Connectors

      Dai, Xianghe; Lam, Dennis; Saveri, E. (2015)
      In this paper, a group of demountable shear connectors have been developed and tested to assess their potential and suitability in terms of replacing welded shear studs. The experiments showed that these demountable shear connectors can be easily demounted after testing and have similar capacity and behavior to those of welded shear connectors. After the numerical simulation method had been validated against experimental observation, a parametric study was carried out to understand the effect of concrete grades and stud collar sizes on the shear resistance of demountable shear connections. Simple design calculation methods for welded shear connections or anchoring connections provided in European and American standards were checked to the suitability for assessment of this headed demountable shear connector. (C) 2015 American Society of Civil Engineers.
    • Effect of Corrosion on Shear Behavior of Reinforced Engineered Cementitious Composite Beams

      Sahmaran, M.; Anil, O.; Lachemi, M.; Yildirim, G.; Ashour, Ashraf F.; Acar, F. (2015)
      The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of corrosion level on shear behavior of engineered cementitious composite (ECC) beams. Reinforced normal concrete (R-NC) specimens with compressive strength equal to the ECC specimens were also used for control purposes. Ten reinforced concrete beams (five ECC and five NC) with dimensions of 150 x 220 x 1400 mm (5.91 x 8.66 x 55.12 in.) were manufactured for the study. Using accelerated corrosion through the application of a constant current of 1 ampere, four levels of corrosion were established at 5%, 10%, 15%, and 20% of mass loss of the reinforcing bars. To ensure the highest probability of shear failure mode, all beams were tested under a four-point loading system with a shear span-effective depth ratio of 2.5. General structural behavior, strength, stiffness, failure mode, and energy absorption capacities of ECC and R-NC beams subjected to different corrosion levels were evaluated and compared. Experimental results showed a high correlation between calculated mass loss and measured mass loss in reinforcing bars due to accelerated corrosion. Compared to NC, ECC beams exhibited significantly higher strength, stiffness, and energy absorption capacity, along with superior performance in terms of the restriction of damage caused due to corrosion. The increase in corrosion level negatively influenced the structural behavior of the ECC beams tested.
    • Effect of different platforms on coupling compensation matrices in AOA estimation algorithms using small size UCA

      Ghazaany, Tahereh S.; Zhu, Shaozhen (Sharon); Jones, Steven M.R.; Abd-Alhameed, Raed A.; Noras, James M.; Van Buren, T.; Marker, S. (2014)
      In this paper the sensitivity of the decoupling matrix used for mutual coupling compensation in small size uniform circular arrays has been studied. The compensation matrix is calculated using the receiving mode technique for a 5-element uniform circular array and applied to two groups of direction finding algorithms, namely phase comparison-based (interferometry) and subspace-based algorithms. In the tracking application considered the receiver array is deployed on a car roof or aircraft, so the geometry of the platform influences the compensation results. In this work, the effect of different ground plane geometries in terms of the standard deviation of angular error for each estimation algorithm using simulation results is investigated. The results show that the calibration conditions used to determine the compensation matrix affect the AOA estimation accuracy.
    • Effect of heat-treatment on the thermal and mechanical stability of Ni/Al2O3 nanocrystalline coatings

      Cooke, Kavian O.; Khan, T.I.; Shar, Muhammad A. (2020-02-28)
      Heat-treatment is a frequently used technique for modifying the physical and chemical properties of materials. In this study, the effect of heat-treatment on the mechanical properties, thermal stability and surface morphology of two types of electrodeposited coatings (pure-Ni and Ni/Al2O3) were investigated. The XRD analyses showed that the crystal structure of the as-deposited coating changes from slightly amorphous to crystalline as the heat-treatment temperature increases. The heat-treatment of both the pure-Ni and the Ni/Al2O3 coating caused an increase of the grain size within the coatings. However, the unreinforced Ni coating experienced a faster growth rate than the Ni/Al2O3 coating, which resulted in a larger average grain size. The temperature-driven changes to the microstructure of the coatings caused a reduction in the hardness and wear resistance of the coatings. The presence of nanoparticles within the Ni/Al2O3 coating can successfully extend the operational temperature range of the coating to 473 K by pinning grain boundaries.
    • Effect of hydroxyapatite morphology/surface area on the rheology and processability of hydroxyapatite polyethylene composite.

      Joseph, R.; McGregor, W.J.; Martyn, Michael T.; Turner, K.E.; Coates, Philip D. (2009-08-10)
      The commercial success of hydroxyapatite (HA) filled polyethylene composite has generated growing interest in improving the processability of the composite. A number of synthetic procedures and post synthesis heat treatment of HA has lead to the availability of powders with widely varying morphological features. This paper addresses the effect of morphological features of HA on the rheology and processability of an injection-moulding grade HA-HDPE composite. The results showed that low surface area HA filled composite exhibited better injection processing characteristics through improved rheological responses. The effect of reducing the surface area of the filler is to require less polyethylene to wet the filler and allows more polyethylene to be involved in the flow processes. These changes reduced the temperatures and pressures required for successful processing.
    • Effect of interlayer configurations on joint formation in TLP bonding of Ti-6Al-4V to Mg-AZ31

      Atieh, A.M.; Khan, Tahir I. (2014)
      In this research work, the transient liquid phase (TLP) bonding process was utilized to fabricate joints using thin (20μm) nickel and copper foils placed between two bonding surfaces to help facilitate joint formation. Two joint configurations were investigated, first, Ti- 6Al-4V/CuNi/Mg-AZ31 and second, Ti-6Al-4V/NiCu/Mg-AZ31. The effect of bonding time on microstructural developments across the joint and the changes in mechanical properties were studied as a function of bonding temperature and pressure. The bonded specimens were examined by metallographic analysis, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). In both cases, intermetallic phase of CuMg2 and Mg3AlNi2 was observed inside the joint region. The results show that joint shear strengths for the Ti-6Al-4V/CuNi/Mg- AZ31 setup produce joints with shear strength of 57 MPa compared to 27MPa for joints made using the Ti-6Al-4V/NiCu/Mg-AZ31 layer arrangement.
    • The effect of materials' rheology on process energy consumption and melt thermal quality in polymer extrusion

      Abeykoon, C.; Pérez, P.; Kelly, Adrian L. (2020-06)
      Polymer extrusion is an important but an energy intensive method of processing polymeric materials. The rapid increase in demand of polymeric products has forced manufactures to rethink their processing efficiencies to manufacture good quality products with low-unit-cost. Here, analyzing the operational conditions has become a key strategy to achieve both energy and thermal efficiencies simultaneously. This study aims to explore the effects of polymers' rheology on the energy consumption and melt thermal quality (ie, a thermally homogeneous melt flow in both radial and axil directions) of extruders. Six commodity grades of polymers (LDPE, LLDPE, PP, PET, PS, and PMMA) were processed at different conditions in two types of continuous screw extruders. Total power, motor power, and melt temperature profiles were analyzed in an industrial scale single-screw extruder. Moreover, the active power (AP), mass throughput, torque, and power factor were measured in a laboratory scale twin-screw extruder. The results confirmed that the specific energy consumption for both single and twin screw extruders tends to decrease with the processing speed. However, this action deteriorates the thermal stability of the melt regardless the nature of the polymer. Rheological characterization results showed that the viscosity of LDPE and PS exhibited a normal shear thinning behavior. However, PMMA presented a shear thickening behavior at moderate-to-high shear rates, indicating the possible formation of entanglements. Overall, the findings of this work confirm that the materials' rheology has an appreciable correlation with the energy consumption in polymer extrusion and also most of the findings are in agreement with the previously reported investigations. Therefore, further research should be useful for identifying possible correlations between key process parameters and hence to further understand the processing behavior for wide range of machines, polymers, and operating conditions.
    • The effect of materials, process settings and screw geometry on energy consumption and melt temperature in single screw extrusion

      Abeykoon, Chamil; Kelly, Adrian L.; Brown, Elaine C.; Coates, Philip D. (2016-10-15)
      Polymer extrusion is an energy intensive production process and process energy e ciency has become a key concern in the current industry with the pressure of reducing the global carbon footprint. Here, knowledge of the pattern of energy usage and losses of each component in the plant is highly useful in the process energy optimization. Moreover, it is essential to maintain the melt quality while improving the energy e ciency in polymer processing. In this work, an investigation was made on the total energy consumption, drive motor energy consumption, power factor and the melt temperature profile across the die melt flow (as an indication of the melt thermal quality) of an industrial scale extruder with three di erent screw geometries, three polymer types and wide range of processing conditions (altogether 135 di erent processing situations were observed). This aims to widen the knowledge on process energy and thermal behaviors while exploring possible correlation/s between energy demand and melt quality (in terms of melt temperature fluctuations across the melt flow). The results showed that the level and fluctuations of the extruder’s power factor is particularly dependent upon the material being processed. Moreover, it seems that there is a relation between the level of energy demand of the heaters and the level of melt temperature fluctuations. While the extruder specific energy consumption decreases with increasing screw speed, specific energy consumption of the drive motor may have either increasing or decreasing behavior. Overall, this study provides new insights in a wide range on process energy demand and melt thermal quality in polymer extrusion. Moreover, further research is recommended to establish strong correlation/s between process energy consumption and melt thermal quality which should help to enhance process control and hence the product quality in single screw polymer extrusion.