• The 2009 Electronics and Telecommunications Research Seminar Series: 8th Workshop Proceedings.

      Sheriff, Ray E. (University of Bradford, 01/04/2009)
      This is the eighth workshop to be organised under the postgraduate programmes in electrical and electronic engineering (EEE). The workshop concludes the Research Seminar Series, which has provided a platform for disseminating the latest research activities in related technologies through its weekly seminars. The EEE courses cover a broad range of technologies and this is reflected in the variety of topics presented during the workshop. In total, thirty-three papers have been selected for the proceedings, which have been divided into seven sections. The workshop aims to be as close to a `real¿ event as possible. Hence, authors have responded to a Call for Papers with an abstract, prior to the submission of the final paper. This has been a novel experience for many, if not all of the contributors. Clearly, authors have taken up the challenge with enthusiasm, resulting in what promises to be an interesting and informative workshop.
    • The 2010 Electronics and Telecommunications Research Seminar Series: 9th Workshop Proceedings

      Sheriff, Ray E. (University of Bradford, 14/04/2010)
      This is the ninth workshop to be organised under the postgraduate programmes in electrical and electronic engineering (EEE). The workshop concludes the Research Seminar Series, which has provided a platform for disseminating the latest research activities in related technologies through its weekly seminars. The EEE courses cover a broad range of technologies and this is reflected in the variety of topics presented during the workshop. In total, forty-four papers have been selected for the proceedings, which have been divided into eight sections. The workshop aims to be as close to a `real¿ event as possible. Hence, authors have responded to a Call for Papers with an abstract, prior to the submission of the final paper. This has been a novel experience for many, if not all of the contributors. As usual, authors have taken up the challenge with enthusiasm, resulting in a collection of papers that reflects today¿s research challenges.
    • The 2011 Electronics and Telecommunications Research Seminar Series: 10th Workshop Proceeedings.

      Sheriff, Ray E. (01/07/2011)
      This is the tenth workshop to be organised under the postgraduate programmes in electrical and electronic engineering (EEE). Over the past ten years, the Research Seminar Series has provided a snapshot of the research agenda. Early Proceedings addressed issues such as third-generation (3G) mobile and GPS satellite navigation, while in this issue, the importance of the green agenda and the influence of broadband mobile communications, smartphones and the World Wide Web are in evidence. In total, forty-five papers have been selected for the Proceedings.
    • The 2012 Electronics and Telecommunications Research Seminar Series: 11th Workshop Proceeedings.

      Sheriff, Ray E. (18/04/2012)
      This is the eleventh workshop to be organised under the postgraduate programmes in electrical and electronic engineering (EEE). In total, thirty-five papers from sixty-seven submissions have been selected for the Proceedings. Over the past eleven years, the Research Seminar Series has provided a snapshot of the research agenda. In this, the 11th issue of the Workshop Proceedings, the importance of sustainable energy generation and the emerging influence of cloud computing, the growing number of applications of wireless sensors and the ubiquitous nature of the World Wide Web are in evidence.
    • The 2013 Electronics and Telecommunications Research Seminar Series: 12th Workshop Proceeedings.

      Sheriff, Ray E. (10/04/2013)
      This is the twelfth workshop to be organised under the postgraduate programmes in electrical and electronic engineering (EEE). In total, thirty-four papers from forty-nine submissions have been selected for the Proceedings. The Proceedings comprises eleven themes, which reflect today's research agenda.
    • The 2014 Electronics and Telecommunications Research Seminar Series: 13th Workshop Proceedings

      Sheriff, Ray E. (2014-04-01)
      This is the thirteenth workshop to be organised under the postgraduate programmes in electrical and electronic engineering (EEE). In total, twenty-nine papers, divided into eight themes, comprise the Proceedings.
    • 3D and multimedia on the information superhighway.

      Earnshaw, Rae A. (IEEE, 1997)
      What has generated the unprecedented fascination with the Internet? What future lies ahead for computing as the Internet and its associated infrastructure expand? Will the network be able to cope with rising demands for carrying capacity and response speed? Will it change the way scientists, designers, artists, computer professionals, and home users work in the future? These are some of the wideranging questions being asked about the Internet and World Wide Web.
    • 3D computational fluid dynamics study of a drying process in a can making industry

      Tanthadiloke, S.; Chankerd, W.; Suwatthikul, A.; Lipikanjanakul, P.; Mujtaba, Iqbal M.; Kittisupakorn, P. (2016-10-25)
      In the drying process of a can making industry, the drying efficiency of a thermal drying oven can be improved by adjusting the volumetric air flow rate of the blower. To maximize drying efficiency, an optimal flow rate is needed. Consequently, a three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is used to provide simulation according to the response of air velocity, air temperature and evaporated solvent concentration with respect to changes in volumetric air flow rate in the drying oven. An experimental study has been carried out to determine the evaporation rate of the solvent. To validate the models, the process data obtained from the CFD is compared with that obtained from actual data. In the accurate models, the simulation results demonstrate that the decrease in volumetric air flow rate provides no major discrepancy of the air velocity patterns in all dimensions and decreases the maximum temperature in the oven. Consequently, this decrease in volumetric air flow rate rapidly increases the evaporated solvent concentration in the beginning and then gradually decreases over the length of the oven. In addition, further reduction of the flow rate gives lower heat loss of the oven up to 83.67%.
    • 3D data modelling and processing using partial differential equations.

      Ugail, Hassan (2007)
      In this paper we discuss techniques for 3D data modelling and processing where the data are usually provided as point clouds which arise from 3D scanning devices. The particular approaches we adopt in modelling 3D data involves the use of Partial Differential Equations (PDEs). In particular we show how the continuous and discrete versions of elliptic PDEs can be used for data modelling. We show that using PDEs it is intuitively possible to model data corresponding to complex scenes. Furthermore, we show that data can be stored in compact format in the form of PDE boundary conditions. In order to demonstrate the methodology we utlise several examples of practical nature.
    • 3D face recognition based on machine learning

      Qatawneh, S.; Ipson, Stanley S.; Qahwaji, Rami S.R.; Ugail, Hassan; 34000 (2008)
      3D facial data has a great potential for overcoming the problems of illumination and pose variation in face recognition. In this paper, we present a 3D facial system based on the machine learning. We used landmarks for feature extraction and Cascade Correlation neural network to make the final decision. Experiments are presented using 3D face images from the Face Recognition Grand Challenge database version 2.0. For CCNN using Jack-knife evaluation, an accuracy of 100% has been achieved for 7 faces with different expression, with 100% for both of specificity and sensitivity.
    • 3D facial data fitting using the biharmonic equation

      Ugail, Hassan (2006)
      This paper discusses how a boundary-based surface fitting approach can be utilised to smoothly reconstruct a given human face where the scan data corresponding to the face is provided. In particular, the paper discusses how a solution to the Biharmonic equation can be used to set up the corresponding boundary value problem. We show how a compact explicit solution method can be utilised for efficiently solving the chosen Biharmonic equation. Thus, given the raw scan data of a 3D face, we extract a series of profile curves from the data which can then be utilised as boundary conditions to solve the Biharmonic equation. The resulting solution provides us a continuous single surface patch describing the original face.
    • A 3D Finite Element Simulation of Ventilated Brake Disc Hot Spotting

      Tang, Jinghan; Bryant, David; Qi, Hong Sheng (2016-06-15)
      Hot spots are high temperature thermal gradients and localisations that are circumferentially distributed on a disc surface which can occur during heavy duty braking. Vibrations and noise can be triggered by hot spotting as well as damage to the disc surface. The experimental investigations suggest that the trigger condition and distribution of hot spots are related to the disc geometry, especially for ventilated discs. To investigate the effects of geometry and structure of a ventilated disc on hot spotting, a 3D finite element model was established. A fast simulation method of hot spotting in 3D was implemented in the model to enable a parametric analysis to be performed more efficiently. The results were validated using experimental data from a laboratory dynamometer.
    • 3D modeling of magnetic field lines using SOHO/MDI magnetogram images

      Colak, Tufan; Qahwaji, Rami S.R.; Ipson, Stanley S.; Ugail, Hassan (2009-06-11)
      Solar images, along with other observational data, are very important for solar physicists and space weather researchers aiming to understand the way the Sun works and affects Earth. In this study a 3D modelling technique for visualizing solar magnetic field lines using solar images is presented. Photospheric magnetic field footpoints are detected from magnetogram images and using negative and positive magnetic footpoints, dipole pairs are associated according to their proximity. Then, 3D field line models are built using the calculated dipole coordinates, and mapped to detected pairs after coordinate transformations. Final 3D models are compared to extreme ultraviolet images and existing models and the results of visual comparisons are presented.
    • 3D Virtual Community Building Applications in PANIVE Architecture

      Flerackers, C.; Chilton, Nicholas; Earnshaw, Rae A.; Lamotte, W.; Van Reeth, F. (2000)
      PANIVE (PC-based Architecture Networked Interactive Virtual Environments) is an extensible architecture in which various networked virtual environment applications can be realized. This chapter describes our efforts in realizing applications in the area of “3D virtual community building”, in which people can virtually meet each other, speak to each other, interact with each other, etc. in a virtual equivalent of conventional social communities. The overall architecture will be discussed briefly. Some attention will be given to the realization of the audio component in the system (speech input and 3D sound output) that supports intuitive interaction among the participants in a shared virtual environment. The main part of the chapter discusses and illustrates some demonstrative example applications that highlight the potential for realizing 3D networked virtual communities in the architecture.
    • 3M relationship pattern for detection and estimation of unknown frequencies for unknown number of sinusoids based on Eigenspace Analysis of Hankel Matrix

      Ahmed, A.; Hu, Yim Fun (2013)
      Abstract: We develop a novel approach to estimate the n unknown constituent frequencies of a sinusoidal signal that comprises of unknown number, n, of sinusoids of unknown phases and unknown amplitudes. The approach has been applied to multiple sinusoidal signals in the presence of white Gaussian noise with varying signal to noise ratio (SNR). The approach is based on eigenspace analysis of Hankel matrix formed with the samples from averaged frequency spectrum of the signal obtained through multiple measurements. The eigenspace analysis is based on the newly developed 3M relationship which reflects and exploits the relationship between the consecutive sets of Maximum, Middle and Minimum eigenvalues of square symmetric matrix of the Hankel matrix. The 3M relationship exhibits a pattern in line with the order of the Hankel matrix and leads to parametric estimation of the constituent sinusoids. This paper also presents the relationship equation between the size of 3M relationship pattern and the dimensions of the Hankel matrix. The performance of the developed approach has been tested to correctly estimate multiple constituent frequencies within a noisy signal.
    • A band-suppression UWB suspended planar antenna incorporating a slotted spiral resonator

      See, Chan H.; Abd-Alhameed, Raed A.; Hraga, Hmeda I.; Excell, Peter S.; Jones, Steven M.R.; Noras, James M. (2013-09)
      A novel miniaturized planar inverted F-L antenna assembly is considered for UWB radio operations. The antenna design utilizes the electromagnetic coupling between an air dielectric planar inverted-F antenna (PIFA) and a parasitic planar inverted-L (PIL) element, with broadband feeding from a rectangular plate. To improve the functionality of the channel, a simple notch filter has been introduced through a local modification to the broadband feed plate, this takes the form of a simple slotted rectangular spiral resonator which is etched directly onto the plate. This allows the proposed antenna to maintain its full band UWB coverage, with the HYPERLAN/2 band centered at 5.35 GHz to be effectively rejected over the sub-band 5.15–5.725 GHz, without the need for substantial re-optimization of its principal structure parameters. The impedance bandwidth operates over the full UWB band, with VSWR better than 2, this performance is not degraded by the presence of the band rejection. The observed gains, radiation patterns, and group delay confirm that the antenna has appropriate characteristics for short range wireless applications.
    • A case study of financialization and EVA®

      Gleadle, P.; Cornelius, Nelarine (2008)
      This study contributes to the literature on shareholder value and financialization, which to date has produced few case studies at the individual firm level. We provide a grounded account of management control under financialization, focusing on the apparently dramatic turnaround in performance of one factory, located in the northeast of England (Midco). However, in contrast to some of the more prescriptive accounts of shareholder value implementation, we resist overly simplistic explanations that the turnaround was 'due to' EVA. Instead, we suggest that both the factory's prior experience of change, particularly TQM, plus the presence of economic insecurity facilitated the turnaround. We compare our findings with other relevant studies and suggest that EVA and financialized solutions do not constitute a panacea for struggling organizations. Specifically, a strategy prioritizing new product development may be incompatible with the type of practices introduced by Midco.
    • A comparative study of the effect of spray drying and hot-melt extrusion on the properties of amorphous solid dispersions containing felodipine

      Mahmah, O.; Tabbakh, R.; Kelly, Adrian L.; Paradkar, Anant R. (2014)
      OBJECTIVES: To compare the properties of solid dispersions of felodipine for oral bioavailability enhancement using two different polymers, polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose acetate succinate (HPMCAS), by hot-melt extrusion (HME) and spray drying. METHODS: Felodipine solid dispersions were prepared by HME and spray drying techniques. PVP and HPMCAS were used as polymer matrices at different drug : polymer ratios (1 : 1, 1 : 2 and 1 : 3). Detailed characterization was performed using differential scanning calorimetry, powder X-ray diffractometry, scanning electron microscopy and in-vitro dissolution testing. Dissolution profiles were evaluated in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulphate. Stability of different solid dispersions was studied under accelerated conditions (40 degrees C/75% RH) over 8 weeks. KEY FINDINGS: Spray-dried formulations were found to release felodipine faster than melt extruded formulations for both polymer matrices. Solid dispersions containing HMPCAS exhibited higher drug release rates and better wettability than those produced with a PVP matrix. No significant differences in stability were observed except with HPMCAS at a 1 : 1 ratio, where crystallization was detected in spray-dried formulations. CONCLUSIONS: Solid dispersions of felodipine produced by spray drying exhibited more rapid drug release than corresponding melt extruded formulations, although in some cases improved stability was observed for melt extruded formulations.
    • A comparison between vector algorithm and CRSS algorithm for indoor localization

      Dama, Yousef A.S.; Abd-Alhameed, Raed A.; Hammad, H.; Zaid, R.; Excell, Peter S. (2014)
      In this paper a comparison between two indoor localization algorithms using received signal strength is utilized the vector algorithm and the Comparative Received Signal Strength algorithm. The comparison considered the effect of the radio map resolution, the number of access points, and the operating frequency on the accuracy of the localization process. The experiments were carried out using ray tracing software, measured values and MATLAB.
    • A Comparison of Co-Current and Counter-Current Modes of Operation in Urea Prilling Tower

      Rahmanian, Nejat; Homayoonfard, M. (2014)
      In this paper, a model for urea prilling tower with co-current flow of cooling air and urea prills (particles) is presented. The process is modelled by simultaneous solution of the differential equations for hydrodynamics, heat and mass transfer between the air and prills. The process variables such as temperature, absolute and relative humidity of air along the height of the tower were obtained from this model. Temperature and moisture distribution of urea prills and their radial and vertical velocities were also calculated. The results of the present model were compared with the counter-current operation model available in the literature. The simulation results show that heat transfer performance for co-current operation is significantly less than that of the counter-current scenario. This is more pronounced for small prills, i.e. 1.0 mm than that of the large prills. The advantage of the model is that it can be used to investigate influence of operating parameters on efficiency of the co-current process. This also helps us to set the process control strategies for design and quality control purposes of the process.