Recent Submissions

  • Biometric of Intent: A New Approach Identifying Potential Threat in Highly Secured Facilities

    Al Hamar, J.; Chamieh, J.; Al-Mohannadi, Hamad; Al Hamar, M.; Al-Mutlaq, A.; Musa, Ahmad S. (2018)
    Biometric of Intent (BoI) is a Computer Vision (CV) automation, using Artificial Intelligence (AI) techniques, which presents a new approach that extends the reach of the classic biometric identification process. It provides an efficient mechanism which deters the threats raised by unknown individuals who have deceitful intentions and who aim to deploy unlawful operations such as terrorist attacks. In this context, our proposed BoI model is based on a framework constructed upon an automated machine learning facial expression analysis system which can assist law enforcement agencies who intend to deploy a systematic preventive security approach that aims to reduce the risk of potential unlawful attacks by rogue individuals through the evaluation of their emotional state in relation to their malicious intent.
  • Understanding Awareness of Cyber Security Threat Among IT Employees

    Al-Mohannadi, Hamad; Awan, Irfan U.; Al Hamar, J.; Al Hamar, Y.; Shah, M.; Musa, Ahmad S. (2018)
    Cyber-attacks have been an increasing threat on people and organisations, which led to massive unpleasant impact. Therefore, there were many solutions to handle cyber-attacks, including Intrusion Detection Systems (IDS), Intrusion Prevention Systems (IPS). These solutions will provide a huge number of alarms that produce more are false positives. Therefore, the IDS tool result should be operated by a human intelligent be filtered effectively the huge amount of alerts to identify true positive attacks and perform accordingly to the incident response rule. This requires the IT employees to have enough knowledge and competency on operating IDS, IPS and incident handling. This paper aims to examine the awareness of cyber security threat among all IT employees, focusing on three domains: Knowledge, Monitoring and Prevention.
  • Malware Propagation Modelling in Peer-to-Peer Networks: A Review

    Musa, Ahmad S.; Al-Mohannadi, Hamad; Alhamar, J. (2018)
    Peer-to-Peer (P2P) network is increasingly becoming the most important means of trading content throughout the last years due to the constant evolvement of the cyber world. This popularity made the P2P network susceptible to the spread of malware. The detection of the cause of malware propagation is now critical to the survival of P2P networks. This paper offers a review of the current relevant mathematical propagation models that have been proposed to date to predict the propagation behavior of a malware in a P2P network. We analyzed the models proposed by researchers and experts in the field by evaluating their limitations and a possible alternative for improving the analysis of the expected behavior of a malware spread.
  • Impact of duty cycle on wear progression in variable-displacement vane oil pumps

    Doikin, Aleksandr; Habib Zadeh, Esmaeil; Campean, I. Felician; Proest, Martin; Brown, A.; Sherratt, A. (2018)
    Variable-displacement vane oil pumps are increasingly employed in automotive powertrains for their efficiency benefits through reduced losses. However, confirming long life reliability of a new commodity based on limited data available from product development tests and early field experience is a significant challenge, which is addressed by the work presented in this paper. The approach presented combines physical examination of pumps returned from tests, with analysis of damage factors for pump wear progression, and an analysis of functional parameters for the powertrain system focused on the cause effect linkages across the systems hierarchy. The metrology results from physical measurements of used parts provide useful insights for the wear progression and the expected service performance of the pump. The paper also expands towards a data driven approach based on ECU data analysis that could provide a pathway towards the development of online health monitoring and diagnostics of the oil pumps.
  • Dynamic modelling and operational optimisation of natural draft cooling towers

    Dhorat, A.; Al-Obaidi, M.A.; Mujtaba, Iqbal M. (2018)
    Natural draft cooling towers are subjected to dynamic air temperature and humidity ratio of air throughout the day. Their performances based on steady state model is restricted to single air temperature and humidity ratio of air values and thus are not accurate. In this work, a dynamic model for a natural draft cooling tower is developed. Air temperature and relative humidity data for Johannesburg were acquired to develop dynamic correlations for these two parameters and are embedded in the process model together with the dynamic model of the collection basin of the tower. A simple algorithm is proposed to solve the resulting boundary value problem. Finally, the common perception that seawater/river water should be used instead of freshwater as cooling medium is tested via optimisation where the operating costs of the process for two cooling mediums is minimised. The freshwater has been found to be cost effective cooling medium.
  • Serviceability performance of composite cellular beams with partial shear connection

    Lawson, R.M.; Lam, Dennis; Aggelopoulos, E.; Hanus, F. (2018-11)
    For composite cellular beams, additional deflections occur due to the loss of bending and shear stiffness at the opening positions and also due to slip in the shear connectors caused by partial shear connection. Design formulae are presented for the additional deflection of composite beams with circular openings or for cellular beams as a function of the proportionate depth of the openings. The simplified formulae are calibrated against finite element results for both cellular and solid web beams and also against measured deflections of a 15.3 m composite cellular beam test. This additional deflection is presented as a function of flexural and shear terms that are a function of the span:depth ratio. For modelling of cellular beams to determine deflections, the circular opening may be represented by an equivalent rectangular opening of length equal to 70% of the opening diameter.
  • Recovery and reuse of structural products from end-of-life buildings

    Hopkinson, P.; Chen, H-M.; Zhou, Kan; Wang, Y.; Lam, Dennis (2018)
    Buildings and construction have been identified as having the greatest potential for circular economy value creation. One source of value creation is to recover and reuse building products from end-of-service-life buildings, rather than destructive demolition and downcycling. While there is a trade in non-structural and heritage product recovery and reuse, the largest volume, mass and value of most buildings comprise structural elements – concrete, brick and masonry, and steel – which present many challenges. A comprehensive literature review confirms limited attention to innovation and advanced techniques to address these challenges and therefore the potential reuse of the stocks of accumulated building products globally and associated environmental benefits. Potential techniques being tested in an Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council circular economy research programme are referenced as a key building block towards circular economy building system redesign.
  • An evaluation of modelling approaches and column removal time on progressive collapse of building

    Stephen, D.; Lam, Dennis; Forth, J.; Ye, J.; Tsavdaridis, K.D. (2019-02)
    Over the last few decades, progressive collapse disasters have drawn the attention of codified bodies around the globe; as a consequence, there has been a renewed research interest. Structural engineering systems are prone to progressive collapse when subjected to abnormal loads beyond the ultimate capacity of critical structural members. Sudden loss of critical structural member(s) triggers failure mechanisms which may result in a total or partial collapse of the structure proportionate or disproportionate to the triggering event. Currently, researchers adopt different modelling techniques to simulate the loss of critical load bearing members for progressive collapse assessment. GSA guidelines recommend a column removal time less than a tenth of the period of the structure in the vertical vibration mode. Consequently, this recommendation allows a wide range of column removal time which produces inconsistent results satisfying GSA recommendation. A choice of a load time history function assumed for gravity and the internal column force interaction affects the response of the structure. This paper compares different alternative numerical approaches to simulate the sudden column removal in frame buildings and to investigate the effect of rising time on the structural response.
  • Investigation of simultaneous effects of surface roughness, porosity and magnetic field of rough porous micro-fin under a convective-radiative heat transfer for improved electronic cooling of microprocessors

    Oguntala, G.A.; Sobamowo, G.; Eya, N.; Abd-Alhameed, Raed A. (2018)
    The ever-increasing demand for high-processing electronic systems has unequivocally called for improved microprocessor performance. However, increasing microprocessor performance requires increasing power and on-chip power density, both of which are associated with increased heat dissipation. Electronic cooling using fins have been identified as a reliable cooling approach. However, an investigation into the thermal behaviour of fin would help in the design of miniaturized, effective heatsinks for reliable microprocessor cooling. The aim of this paper is to investigates the simultaneous effects of surface roughness, porosity and magnetic field on the performance of a porous micro-fin under a convective-radiative heat transfer mechanism. The developed thermal model considers variable thermal properties according to linear, exponential and power laws, and are solved using Chebychev spectral collocation method. Parametric studies are carried using the numerical solutions to establish the influences of porosity, surface roughness, and magnetic field on the microfin thermal behaviour. Following the results of the simulation, it is established that the thermal efficiency of the micro-fin is significantly affected by the porosity, magnetic field, geometric ratio, nonlinear thermal conductivity parameter, thermogeometric parameter and the surface roughness of the micro-fin. However, the performance of the micro-fin decreases when it operates only in a convective environment. In addition, we establish that the fin efficiency ratio which is the ratio of the efficiency of the rough fin to the efficiency of the smooth fin is found to be greater than unity when the rough and smooth fins of equal geometrical, physical, thermal and material properties are subjected to the same operating condition. The investigation establishes that improved thermal management of electronic systems would be achieved using rough surface fins with porosity under the influences of the magnetic field.
  • Application of approximate analytical technique using the homotopy perturbation method to study the inclination effect on the thermal behavior of porous fin heat sink

    Oguntala, G.A.; Sobamowo, G.; Ahmed, Y.; Abd-Alhameed, Raed A. (2018-10)
    This article presents the homotopy perturbation method (HPM) employed to investigate the effects of inclination on the thermal behavior of a porous fin heat sink. The study aims to review the thermal characterization of heat sink with the inclined porous fin of rectangular geometry. The study establishes that heat sink of an inclined porous fin shows a higher thermal performance compared to a heat sink of equal dimension with a vertical porous fin. In addition, the study also shows that the performance of inclined or tilted fin increases with decrease in length–thickness aspect ratio. The study further reveals that increase in the internal heat generation variable decreases the fin temperature gradient, which invariably decreases the heat transfer of the fin. The obtained results using HPM highlights the accuracy of the present method for the analysis of nonlinear heat transfer problems, as it agrees well with the established results of Runge–Kutta.
  • Interaction between closely packed array antenna elements using metasurface for applications such as MIMO systems and synthetic aperture radars

    Alibakhshikenari, M.; Virdee, B.S.; Shukla, P.; See, C.H.; Abd-Alhameed, Raed A.; Khalily, M.; Falcone, F.; Limiti, E. (2018)
    The paper presents a technique to enhance the isolation between adjacent radiating elements which is common in densely packed antenna arrays. Such antennas provide frequency beam-scanning capability needed in Multiple-Input Multiple-Output (MIMO) systems and Synthetic Aperture Radars (SARs). The method proposed here uses a metamaterial decoupling slab (MTMDS), which is located between radiating elements, to suppress mutual-coupling between the elements that would otherwise degrade the antenna efficiency and performance in both the transmit and receive mode. The proposed MTM-DS consists of mirror imaged Eshaped slits engraved on a microstrip patch with inductive stub. Measured results confirm over 9–11 GHz with no MTM-DS the average isolation (S12) is -27 dB; however, with MTM-DS the average isolation improves to -38 dB. With this technique the separation between the radiating element can be reduced to 0.66λo, where λ0 is free space wavelength at 10 GHz. In addition, with this technique there is 15% improvement in operating bandwidth. At frequencies of high impedance match of 9.95 GHz and 10.63 GHz the gain is 4.52 dBi and 5.40 dBi, respectively. Furthermore, the technique eliminates poor front-to-back ratio encountered in other decoupling methods. MTM-DS is also relatively simple to implement. Assuming adequate space is available between adjacent radiators the MTM-DS can be fixed retrospectively on existing antenna arrays, which makes the proposed method versatile.
  • Indoor location identification technologies for real-time IoT-based applications: an inclusive survey

    Oguntala, G.A.; Abd-Alhameed, Raed A.; Jones, Stephen F.; Noras, James M.; Patwary, M.; Rodriguez, J. (2018-11)
    The advent of the Internet of Things has witnessed tremendous success in the application of wireless sensor networks and ubiquitous computing for diverse smart-based applications. The developed systems operate under different technologies using different methods to achieve their targeted goals. In this treatise, we carried out an inclusive survey on key indoor technologies and techniques, with to view to explore their various benefits, limitations, and areas for improvement. The mathematical formulation for simple localization problems is also presented. In addition, an empirical evaluation of the performance of these indoor technologies is carried out using a common generic metric of scalability, accuracy, complexity, robustness, energy-efficiency, cost and reliability. An empirical evaluation of performance of different RF-based technologies establishes the viability of Wi-Fi, RFID, UWB, Wi-Fi, Bluetooth, ZigBee, and Light over other indoor technologies for reliable IoT-based applications. Furthermore, the survey advocates hybridization of technologies as an effective approach to achieve reliable IoT-based indoor systems. The findings of the survey could be useful in the selection of appropriate indoor technologies for the development of reliable real-time indoor applications. The study could also be used as a reliable source for literature referencing on the subject of indoor location identification.
  • Exterior calculus and fermionic quantum computation

    Vourdas, Apostolos (2018-10)
    Exterior calculus with its three operations meet, join and hodge star complement, is used for the representation of fermion-hole systems and for fermionic analogues of logical gates. Two different schemes that implement fermionic quantum computation, are proposed. The first scheme compares fermionic gates with Boolean gates, and leads to novel electronic devices that simulate fermionic gates. The second scheme uses a well known map between fermionic and multi-qubit systems, to simulate fermionic gates within multi-qubit systems.
  • A 70-W Asymmetrical Doherty Power Amplifier for 5G Base Stations

    Abdulkhaleq, Ahmed M.; Al-Yasir, Yasir; Ojaroudi Parchin, Naser; Brunning, J.; McEwan, N.; Rayit, A.; Abd-Alhameed, Raed A.; Noras, James M.; AbdulJabbar, N. (2018)
    Much attention has been paid to making 5G developments more en-ergy efficient, especially in view of the need for using high data rates with more complex modulation schemes within a limited bandwidth. The concept of the Doherty power amplifier for improving amplifier efficiency is explained in addi-tion to a case study of a 70W asymmetrical Doherty power Amplifier using two GaN HEMTs transistors with peak power ratings of 45W and 25W. The rationale for this choice of power ratio is discussed. The designed circuit works in the 3.4GHz frequency band with 200 MHz bandwidth. Rogers RO4350B substrate with dielectric constant εr=4.66 and thickness 0.035 mm is used. The perfor-mance analysis of the Doherty power amplifier is simulated using AWR MWO software. The simulated results showed that 54-64% drain efficiency has been achieved at 8 dB back-off within the specified bandwidth with an average gain of 10.7 dB.
  • Effect of thermal processing on the tribology of nanocrystalline Ni/TiO2 coatings

    Cooke, Kavian O.; Khan, Tahir I. (2018)
    The tribological performance of a nanocrystalline coating is heavily influenced by its composition, morphology, and microstructural characteristics. This research work describes the effect of heat treatment temperature on the microstructural, morphological, and mechanical behavior of nanocrystalline Ni/TiO2 coatings produced by electrophoresis. The surface morphology and coating cross section were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The composition of coatings and the percentage of TiO2 nanoparticles incorporated in the Ni matrix were studied and estimated by using an energy-dispersive spectroscopic (EDS) analysis, while x-ray diffractometry (XRD) was used to investigate the effect of heat treatment temperature on phase structure. The results showed agglomeration of TiO2 nanoparticles on the surface of the coating. The high hardness and wear resistance recorded for the as-deposited coating was attributed to the uniform distribution of TiO2 nanoparticle clusters throughout the cross section of the coating. Heat treatment of the Ni/TiO2 coatings to temperatures above 200 °C led to significant grain growth that changed the surface morphology of the coating and reduced the strengthening effects of the nanoparticles, thus causing a reduction in the hardness and wear resistance of the coatings.
  • New method of Enhancement using Wavelet Transforms applied to SODISM Telescope

    Alasta, Amro F.; Algamudi, Abdulrazag; Qahwaji, Rami S.R.; Ipson, Stanley S.; Hauchecorne, A.; Meftah, M (2018)
    PICARD is a space-based observatory hosting the Solar Diameter Imager and Surface Mapper (SODISM) telescope, which has continuously observed the Sun from July 2010 and up to March 2014. In order to study the fine structure of the solar surface, it is helpful to apply techniques that enhance the images so as to improve the visibility of solar features such as sunspots or faculae. The objective of this work is to develop an innovative technique to enhance the quality of the SODISM images in the five wavelengths monitored by the telescope at 215.0 nm, 393.37 nm, 535.7 nm, 607.1 nm and 782.2 nm. An enhancement technique using interpolation of the high-frequency sub-bands obtained by Discrete Wavelet Transforms (DWT) and the input image is applied to the SODISM images. The input images are decomposed by the DWT as well as Stationary Wavelet Transform (SWT) into four separate sub-bands in horizontal and vertical directions namely, low-low (LL), low-high (LH), high-low (HL) and high–high (HH) frequencies. The DWT high frequency sub-bands are interpolated by a factor 2. The estimated high frequency sub-bands (edges) are enhanced by introducing an intermediate stage using a stationary Wavelet Transform (SWT), and then all these sub-bands and input image are combined and interpolated with half of the interpolation factor α/2, used to interpolate the high-frequency sub-bands, in order to reach the required size for IDWT processing. Quantitative and visual results show the superiority of the proposed technique over a bicubic image resolution enhancement technique. In addition, filling factors for sunspots are calculated from SODISM images and results are presented in this work.
  • Multi-objective day-ahead scheduling of microgrids using modified grey wolf optimizer algorithm

    Javidsharifi, M.; Niknam, T.; Aghaei, J.; Mokryani, Geev; Papadopoulos, P. (2018)
    Investigation of the environmental/economic optimal operation management of a microgrid (MG) as a case study for applying a novel modified multi-objective grey wolf optimizer (MMOGWO) algorithm is presented in this paper. MGs can be considered as a fundamental solution in order for distributed generators’ (DGs) management in future smart grids. In the multi-objective problems, since the objective functions are conflict, the best compromised solution should be extracted through an efficient approach. Accordingly, a proper method is applied for exploring the best compromised solution. Additionally, a novel distance-based method is proposed to control the size of the repository within an aimed limit which leads to a fast and precise convergence along with a well-distributed Pareto optimal front. The proposed method is implemented in a typical grid-connected MG with non-dispatchable units including renewable energy sources (RESs), along with a hybrid power source (micro-turbine, fuel-cell and battery) as dispatchable units, to accumulate excess energy or to equalize power mismatch, by optimal scheduling of DGs and the power exchange between the utility grid and storage system. The efficiency of the suggested algorithm in satisfying the load and optimizing the objective functions is validated through comparison with different methods, including PSO and the original GWO.
  • Automatic sunspots detection on SODISM solar images

    Alasta, Amro F.; Algamudi, Abdulrazag; Qahwaji, Rami S.R.; Ipson, Stanley S.; Nagem, Tarek A. (2017)
    The surface of the sun often shows visible sunspots which are located in magnetically active regions of the Sun, and whose number is an indicator of the Sun’s magnetic activity. The detection and classification of sunspots are useful techniques in the monitoring and prediction of solar activity. The automated detection of sunspots from digital images is complicated by their irregularities in shape and variable contrast and intensity compared with their surrounding area. The main aim of this paper is to detect sunspots using images from the Solar Diameter Imager and Surface Mapper (SODISM) on the PICARD satellite and calculate their filling factors. A comparison over time with sunspot numbers obtained using images from the SOHO satellite is also presented.
  • Identification of Sunspots on SODISM Full-Disk Solar Images

    Alasta, Amro F.; Algamudi, Abdrazag; Qahwaji, Rami S.R.; Almesrati, Fatma (2018)
    This paper presents a new method that provides the means to detect sunspots on full-disk solar images recorded by the Solar Diameter Imager and Surface Mapper (SODISM) on the PICARD satellite. The method is a totally automated detection process that achieves a sunspot recognition rate of 97.6%. The number of sunspots detected by this method strongly agrees with the NOAA catalogue. The sunspot areas calculated by this method have a 99% correlation with SOHO over the same period, and thus help to calculate the filling factor for wavelength (W.L.) 607nm.
  • Examining citizens' perceived value of internet of things technologies in facilitating public sector services engagement

    El-Haddadeh, R.; Weerakkody, Vishanth J.P.; Osmani, M.; Thakker, Dhaval; Kapoor, K.K. (2018)
    With the advancement of disruptive new technologies, there has been a considerable focus on personalisation as an important component in nurturing users' engagement. In the context of smart cities, Internet of Things (IoT) offer a unique opportunity to help empower citizens and improve societies' engagement with their governments at both micro and macro levels. This study aims to examine the role of perceived value of IoT in improving citizens' engagement with public services. A survey of 313 citizens in the UK, engaging in various public services, enabled through IoT, found that the perceived value of IoT is strongly influenced by empowerment, perceived usefulness and privacy related issues resulting in significantly affecting their continuous use intentions. The study offers valuable insights into the importance of perceived value of IoT-enabled services, while at the same time, providing an intersectional perspective of UK citizens towards the use of disruptive new technologies in the public sector.

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