• The latent causes of rework in floating production storage and offloading projects

      Love, P.E.D.; Edwards, D.J.; Irani, Zahir; Forcada, N. (2014)
      There is growing demand for cost effective and reliable floating production systems to maximize marginal and new deepwater fields worldwide. Floating Production Storage and Offloading (FPSO) vessels are considered to be the most economical and viable options to meet this demand. Yet, FPSO projects are prone to significant cost and schedule growth. On average, FPSOs have been reported to experience a 20% cost growth and are delayed by six months. Overruns and delays represent uncertainties for owners, contractors and financial institutions. In-depth interviews with twenty-three practitioners about their experiences with FPSO projects revealed that rework arising from design and construction errors were major contributors to cost and schedule growth. Key latent conditions contributing to rework are classified according to people, organization and project. Using retrospective sensemaking an examination of the determinant histories in a new build and conversion FPSO that experienced rework was undertaken. The sharing of experience(s) is deemed pivotal for reducing rework in future projects, particularly through the use of communities of practice that are able to stimulate situated learning to take place. A reduction in rework will not only reduce cost and schedule growth, improve operational performance and augment safety.
    • Law Express Question and Answer: Employment Law

      Guth, Jessica; Singh, C. (2014)
      Law Express Question and Answer: Employment Law is designed to ensure you get the most marks for every answer you write by improving your understanding of what examiners are looking for, helping you to focus in on the question being asked and showing you how to make even a strong answer stand out.
    • Law Express Question and Answer: EU Law,

      Guth, Jessica; Connor, Timothy C. (2014)
      Law Express Question and Answer: EU Law is designed to ensure you get the most marks for every answer you write by improving your understanding of what examiners are looking for, helping you to focus in on the question being asked and showing you how to make even a strong answer stand out.
    • Law Express: Company Law

      Taylor, Chris W. (2015)
      The Law Express series is designed to assist students in effective exam revision by guiding users in understanding the basic concepts, the recall and application of key legislation in the exam environment.
    • Law Express: Evidence

      Taylor, Chris W. (2015)
      The Law Express series has been written to assist students in exam preparation. This title will guide users through understanding the essential concepts, and how to remember and and apply key legislation in an exam situation.
    • Leadership and charisma: A desire that cannot speak its name?

      Harding, Nancy H.; Lee, Hugh; Ford, Jackie M.; Learmonth, M. (2011)
      Leadership has proved impossible to define, despite decades of research and a huge number of publications. This article explores managers’ accounts of leadership, and shows that they find it difficult to talk about the topic, offering brief definitions but very little narrative. That which was said/sayable provides insights into what was unsaid/ unsayable. Queer theory facilitates exploration of that which is difficult to talk about, and applying it to the managers’ talk allows articulation of their lay theory of leadership. This is that leaders evoke a homoerotic desire in followers such that followers are seduced into achieving organizational goals. The leader’s body, however, is absent from the scene of seduction, so organizational heteronormativity remains unchallenged. The article concludes by arguing that queer and critical leadership theorists together could turn leadership into a reverse discourse and towards a politics of pleasure at work.
    • Leadership and process

      Kelly, Simon (2015-11)
    • Leadership: Time for a new direction?

      Alimo-Metcalfe, Beverly M.; Alban-Metcalfe, R.J. (2005)
      After reviewing the literature on leadership that culminated in what has been described as the `New Paradigm¿, this article discusses the research which has led to the development of what might be regarded as a `New New Paradigm¿ model. The research was based on a gender-inclusive and black and minority ethnic-inclusive sample of over 3,500 managers and professionals, at different levels (chief executives, top, senior and middle managers), working in the UK National Health Service and local government. The model that emerged, which led to the development of a diagnostic 360-degree feedback instrument, the Transformational Leadership Questionnaire, has been found to be sufficiently robust as to generalize to private sector and other public sector organizations. Apart from having been inclusive at all stages of its development, the model is new in that it is based on a `nearby¿ rather than `distant¿ or `heroic¿ approach to leadership, using a Grounded Theory methodology. It leads to an understanding of leadership that goes beyond transformational models and, recognizing the significance of Greenleaf¿s concept of `servant leadership¿, focuses on the development of the individual, in an organizational context.
    • Leadership: A categorical mistake?

      Kelly, Simon (2008)
      As growing numbers of scholars become disaffected by the research traditions laid down by leadership psychology, there is a steady turn towards treating leadership as a discursive phenomenon. In response, leadership researchers are increasingly adopting interpretive and observational methods in the search for the practices of leadership in everyday life. This article suggests that while there are many advantages to an interest in discourse and action, there are also many subtle difficulties in making leadership observable and knowable in the field. Taking Louis Pondy's notion of leadership as a language-game as its starting point, this article argues that leadership studies as a discipline suffers from a persistent category mistake; a category mistake that some recent interpretive studies of leadership reveal, but inadvertently reproduce in the search for leadership's essential character. Instead, this article takes Pondy's thesis to its logical conclusion and outlines a programme of research that confronts this category mistake, whilst demonstrating the potential for, and limitations of, treating leadership as a language-game.
    • Lean and Agile Supply Chain Management: A Case of IT Distribution Industry in the Middle East

      Abdi, M. Reza; Edalat, F.D.; Abumusa, S. (2016)
      Supply chain management (SCM) as one of the important research topics plays a major role in performance of organizations/stakeholders operating as the supply chain tiers. Many studies have been published to find the best theory and strategy, which can be applied to each industry or market. SCM is still a developing field and there are still gaps in understanding what its design strategies and boundaries are. There are two major modes of managing supply chain (i) lean supply chain which emphasize supply chain efficiency and (ii) agile supply chains which emphasize supply chain responsiveness and flexibility. This chapter reviews two modes of lean and agile supply chain in Information Technology (IT) distribution field in the emerging markets in the Middle East. The chapter presents key characteristics of lean and agile supply chains in IT industry. It investigates how a suitable supply chain policy can be adopted by IT hardware and services distributors in the Middle East through a case study. Is it a lean supply chain policy which emphasizes efficiency? Or is it an agile supply chain policy which emphasizes responsiveness and flexibility? Or is it an integrated lean-agile policy based on specific activities aimed at specific results? The chapter discusses leanness and agility with a focus on the main activities carried out by IT distributors that include orders processing, professional services, inventory and logistic services. IT industry has been characterized by continuous and rapid market and customer requirements changes. These changes are applicable on all IT products/services such as networking, information security, software, service support, smart phones, IP telephony, CCTV, wireless…etc. Therefore, in IT industry, both manufacturing and service operation should be included in planning processes across its supply chain. The primary data was acquired through specifically designed interviews. The questions were based on the core factors investigated in the literature of operation management, strategic management and marketing related to IT supply chain. The core factors, which are found critical are customer satisfaction, process management, inventory levels, capabilities and services provided, are explored and analyzed through a case study in the Middle East.
    • Lean and Operations Strategy in Healthcare– strangers or soulmates?

      Matthias, Olga; Brown, S. (2016-05)
      ‘Lean’ is an operations management initiative that has received significant attention from both practitioners and scholars within service environments (Panchak 2003, de Souza 2009, Mazzocato et al. 2010, Burgess and Radnor 2012, Vegting et al. 2012, Toussaint and Berry 2013, Bhat and Jnanesh 2014). The application of Lean processes is alluring for healthcare managers globally because of the promise of combining cost reductions with outstanding standards of health service to patients.
    • Learning about customers: Managing B2B alliances between small technology startups and industry leaders

      Perez, L.; Whitelock, Jeryl M.; Florin, J. (2013)
      Purpose - The aim of this paper is to gain a better understanding of how small technology start-ups learn about a key customer in the context of B2B relationships, and to propose a model of interfirm learning with customers. Design/methodology/approach - Using a qualitative case-based approach, the authors immerse themselves in the development of three learning alliances between technology startups and industry leaders, two successes and one failure, to gain an in-depth understanding of the dynamics involved. Data were collected on both sides of the alliance dyad. Findings - The paper delineates four learning cycles: alliance inception, joint-learning, specialization and discovery. These learning cycles constitute sequences of increasing understanding, cooperation, and higher order learning between the partners; evolving from an exchange of existing knowledge to the joint development of new knowledge. Originality/value - This study contributes to an integration of the alliance and marketing literatures by offering empirical evidence of a different type of alliance, namely the reciprocal learning alliance. It also contributes to broadening our understanding of market orientation in inter-organizational settings. In the context of business-to-business relationships, the study has identified four critical dimensions of learning alliance success, and proposed how they could be measured: Learn about customers; Interact with customers; Customer-specific investments; and Co-develop breakthrough innovations. Finally, the study demonstrates the significant role played by 'committed champions'.
    • Learning orientations and growth in smaller firms

      Spicer, David P.; Sadler-Smith, E.; Chaston, I. (2001)
      Organisational learning is often presented as one way in which firms may respond to increasingly competitive market conditions by managing their knowledge assets in more effective ways. Although theoretically and conceptually plausible, there is limited empirical evidence, particularly from smaller firms, in support of this view. This study aims to provide some evidence that links organisational learning and performance. Extant theory suggests that organisational learning may range from a passive orientation (working within a current paradigm) to an active orientation (questioning a current paradigm) at both the individual and the collective levels. This study examines the learning orientations of 300 smaller manufacturing and service firms in terms of an active¿passive learning construct. The results suggest that higher-growth manufacturing firms have a more active learning orientation. These firms make greater use of knowledge assets than do their lower growth counterparts, and this may have important implications for the management of learning in smaller manufacturing firms.
    • Legislative budgetary power and fiscal discipline in the Euro Area

      Catania, M.; Litsios, I.; Baimbridge, Mark J. (2021)
      Purpose – The objective of this study is to understand the budgetary role of national legislatures in Euro Area (EA) countries and to analyse implications for fiscal discipline. Design/methodology/approach – Building on the budget institutions literature, a legislative budgetary power index for all the 19 EA countries is constructed using OECD and European Commission data as well as data generated from questionnaires to national authorities. A two-way fixed effects panel data model is then used to assess the effect of legislative budgetary power on the budget balance in the EA during 2006-15. Findings - Overall, in the EA, formal legislative powers vis-à-vis the national budgetary process are weak but there is more legislative involvement in SGP procedures and legislative budgetary organisational capacity is generally quite good. In contrast to the traditional view in the budget institutions literature, our empirical findings show that strong legislative budgetary power does not necessarily result in larger budget deficits. Research limitations/implications – Data on legislative budgeting was available from different sources and timeseries data was very limited. Practical implications – There is scope to improve democratic legitimacy of the national budgetary process in the EA, without necessarily jeopardising fiscal discipline. Originality/value – The constructed legislative budgetary power index covers all the 19 EA countries and has a broad scope covering various novel institutional characteristics. The empirical analysis contributes to the scarce literature on the impact of legislative budgeting on fiscal discipline.
    • Legitimacy-seeking organizational strategies in controversial industries: a case study analysis and a bidimensional model

      Reast, Jon; Maon, F.; Lindgreen, A.; Vanhamme, J. (2012)
      Controversial industry sectors, such as alcohol, gambling, and tobacco, though long-established, suffer organizational legitimacy problems. The authors consider various strategies used to seek organizational legitimacy in the U.K. casino gambling market. The findings are based on a detailed, multistakeholder case study pertaining to a failed bid for a regional supercasino. They suggest four generic strategies for seeking organizational legitimacy in this highly complex context: construing, earning, bargaining, and capturing, as well as pathways that combine these strategies. The case analysis and proposed bidimensional model of generic legitimacy-seeking strategies contribute to limited literature on organizational legitimacy in controversial industry sectors. In addition, beyond organizations active in controversial contexts, this study and its implications are useful for individuals and organizations supporting or opposing the organizational legitimacy of organizations in controversial industries.
    • Legitimisation strategies and managerial capture: a critical discourse analysis of employment relations in Nigeria

      Oruh, E.S.; Nwagbara, U.; Mordi, C.; Rahman, Mushfiqur M. (2019)
      Irrespective of the fundamental role of legitimacy in industrial relations as well as social and organisational life, little is known of the subtle meaning-making strategies through which organisational concepts, such as employment relations and engagement, are legitimised in modern world of work, particularly in developing countries such as Nigeria, which results in managerial capture. As a result, this paper explores the discursive legitimisation strategies used when making sense of employment relations in Nigeria’s conflictual, non-participatory employment relations terrain. Relying on Leeuwen’s (1995) legitimisation strategies, critical discourse analysis (CDA) and call by Bailey, Luck & Townsend (2009) and Legge (1995) to widen employment relations discourse, we explore interview, focus group and shadow report data, and distinguish and analyse five legitimisation strategies. The strategies include authorisation, moralisation, mythopoesis, rationalisation, and management. Therefore, we contend that while these specific legitimisation strategies appear in separate data source, their recurrent manifestation and application underscores legitimising discourse of managerial capture in Nigeria’s employment relations.