• Investigating fairness in global supply chains: applying an extension of the living wage to the Western European clothing supply chain.

      Mair, Simon; Druckman, A.; Jackson, T. (2018)
      This paper explores the issue of fairness in global supply chains. Taking the Western European clothing supply chain as a case study, we demonstrate how applying a normative indicator in Social Life Cycle Assessment (SLCA) can contribute academic and practical insights into debates on fairness. To do so, we develop a new indicator that addresses some of the limitations of the living wage for SLCA. We extend the standard form of living wage available for developing countries to include income tax and social security contributions. We call this extension 'living labour compensation'. Using publically available data, we estimate net living wages, gross living wages, and living labour compensation rates for Brazil, Russia, India, and China (BRIC) in 2005. We then integrate living labour compensation rates into an input-output framework, which we use to compare living labour compensation and actual labour compensation in the BRIC countries in the Western European clothing supply chain in 2005. We find that in 2005, actual labour compensation in the Western European clothing supply chain was around half of the living labour compensation level, with the greatest difference being in the Agricultural sector. Therefore, we argue that BRIC pay in the Western European clothing supply chain was unfair. Furthermore, our living labour compensation estimates for BRIC in 2005 are ~ 35% higher than standard living wage estimates. Indeed, adding income taxes and employee social security contributions alone increases the living wage by ~ 10%. Consequently, we argue there is a risk that investigations based on living wages are not using a representative measure of fairness from the employee's perspective and are substantially underestimating the cost of living wages from an employer's perspective. Finally, we discuss implications for retailers and living wage advocacy groups. Living labour compensation extends the living wage, maintaining its strengths and addressing key weaknesses. It can be estimated for multiple countries from publically available data and can be applied in an input-output framework. Therefore, it is able to provide a normative assessment of fairness in complex global supply chains. Applying it to the Western European clothing supply chain, we were able to show that pay for workers in Brazil, Russia, India, and China is unfair, and draw substantive conclusions for practice.
    • Investigating gender differences in consumers’ experience of guilt: A comparative study

      Kayal, G.G.; Simintiras, A.C.; Rana, Nripendra P. (2017-11)
      The literature of guilt in the context of consumer behavior is notably limited. It is particularly limited with respect to examining gender differences across nations. Existing studies have only evaluated gender differences, in terms of consumer guilt, in the United States. In addition, those studies evaluated gender differences in specific consumption situations such as consumer boycotting and food consumption. Thus, they do not give a comprehensive understanding of gender variations in consumer guilt. Notably, gender differences with regard to consumer guilt were shown to be limited in countries other than the United States. These studies provided contradictory results to established findings in social psychology. In view of this, by using quantitative techniques, numerous consumption settings, and samples from two distinct countries, this study provides a holistic assessment of gender differences in consumer guilt across nations. The findings indicate that gender differences, with respect to consumer guilt, are predominately present in individualistic countries and notably absent in collectivist countries. Hence, marketers should consider gender as an influential variable when devising guilt related strategies in individualistic countries. In contrast, marketers may reconsider allocating resources, with respect to gender related marketing strategies, in collectivist countries.
    • Investigating logistics-related food loss drivers: A study on fresh fruit and vegetable supply chain

      Surucu-Balci, Ebru; Tuna, O. (2021-10)
      Food loss is one of the significant threats to sustainable development. Although various studies investigating food loss drivers disclosed that logistics is a significant reason for food loss, logistics-related food loss drivers have not been thoroughly studied. Thus, this paper aims to identify, classify and rank the logistics-related food loss drivers, having more influence on the amount of food loss in the fruit and vegetable supply chain, with the help of a mixed-method approach. First, a literature review was conducted to identify potential logistics-related food loss drivers. A total of 49 articles were analyzed. Second, 21 semi-structured interviews were conducted with industry experts to finalize the drivers. Third, the analytical hierarchy process was employed to rank the drivers having more influence on the amount of food loss. Five main drivers and nineteen sub-drivers were identified at the end of the literature review and interview process. Categorization of main drivers is based on the logistics activities. According to results, warehousing-related drivers and transportation-related drivers are the two most influential drivers on the amount of food loss, while lack of coordination and improper packaging material are the two most influential sub-drivers. Following the ranking of drivers and sub-drivers, mitigation strategies to diminish food loss are also discussed. The findings of this study are intended to guide fruit and vegetable supply chain actors in tackling food loss.
    • Investigating success of an e-government initiative: Validation of an integrated IS success model

      Rana, Nripendra P.; Dwivedi, Y.K.; Williams, M.D.; Weerakkody, Vishanth J.P. (2015-02)
      The purpose of this paper is to examine the success (by measuring intention to use and user satisfaction) of the online public grievance redressal system (OPGRS) from the perspective of the citizens of India. The success of this e-government system is examined using an integrated IS success model. The model developed includes the constructs such as system quality, information quality, service quality, perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, perceived satisfaction, perceived risk, and behavioral intention. The proposed integrated research model of IS was validated using the response taken from 419 citizens from different cities of India. The empirical outcomes provided the positive significant connections between all 12 hypothesised relationships between eight constructs. The empirical evidence and discussion presented in the study can help the government to improve upon and fully utilise the potential of the OPGRS as a useful tool toward a transparent and corruption free country.
    • Investigating the antecedents of customer brand engagement and consumer-based brand equity in social media

      Algharabat, A.; Rana, Nripendra P.; Alalwan, A.A.; Baabdullah, A.M.; Gupta, A. (2020-03)
      The current research is concerned with identifying and testing the role of three main predictors: consumer involvement, consumer participation, and self-expressive brand on the customer brand engagement (CBE). The customer brand engagement is treated in the current study as multidimensional constructs comprising three main aspects: cognitive processing (CP), affection (AF), and activation (AC). It was also proposed a direct influence for these three aspects of CBE on consumer-based brand equity (CBBE). Using online surveys, we gathered data from fans/followers of mobile phone service providers, via Facebook fan pages in Jordan. The data were analysed using structural equation modelling. Based on structural equation modelling analyses (SEM), it was supported that CBE aspects were largely predicted by the role of consumer involvement (INV), consumer participation (COP), and self-expressive brand (SEB). However, we find that activation impact one dimension of the CBBE dimensions, namely, brand loyalty. Further, we find that brand awareness/associations affect perceived quality but not brand loyalty. To validate the CBE scale, future studies could investigate the impact of the scale using other social media platforms for different brands. The limited amount of empirical research on CBE was the motivation behind this research. In particular, there is no study that has investigated the main predictors of CBE and its consequences over developing context by proposing and testing the association between the antecedents of CBE with the dimensions of CBE, which in turn affect the dimensions of CBBE.
    • Investigating the effects of smart technology on customer dynamics and customer experience

      Foroudi, P.; Gupta, S.; Sivarajah, Uthayasankar; Broderick, A. (2018-03)
      Increased use of smart technologies by customers is leading to recognition of their influence on the shopping experiences of customers by practitioners. However, the academic literature fails to acknowledge the influence of smart technology usage, combined with behavioural intention of the customer, on the dynamics and experience of customers. This research utilises explanatory research at the preliminary stage to examine this phenomenon in a retail setting. A conceptual framework was created, based on the scholarly knowledge available in extant literature, and was tested using a survey of a convenience sample of 330 consumers shopping in a high-end retail store in London, United Kingdom. Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) via AMOS was employed to test the proposed model. This study contributes to technology adoption based consumer behaviour literature, by explaining the ability of learning commitment to drive the participation of an individual, but its inability to influence their behavioural intention. Findings of this research also reflect on the role of customer dynamics and customer experience in embracing innovative application of smart technologies in a retail setting. The results and implications included in our study also contribute to the understanding of the determinants that affect customer dynamics and customer experience when making use of smart technologies.
    • Investigating the laundry logistics system of small-sized public hospital: Can the efficiency of operations be improved under the constraints of Thailand’s administrative culture?

      Bandoophanit, Thianthip; Breen, Liz; Naipinit, A.; Pila-Ngarm, P.; Permwanichagun, P.; Saenchaiyathon, K. (2017)
      Purpose All internal logistics systems contribute to the overall success of healthcare service delivery; laundry management (as a closed loop logistics system) is a critical system which facilitates patient recovery and rehabilitation. Studies indicate that applying efficiency measures/improvement tools in such systems, can deliver financial savings and strengthening of in-house competencies (Banerjea-Brodeur et al. 1998; Golden et al. 2008). This study focuses on the review and improvement of laundry management systems in a Thailand Hospital and the organizational culture underpinning this. This hospital was awarded the highest level of hospital accreditation (high level of quality and environmental compliance within this site). Despite this, problems existed at a very basic level with the laundry management, which can undermine patient dignity and respect and increase risk infection and health complications. This study contributes to the Thai healthcare agenda, a core mission of which is to “Develop efficient and equitable integrated health service system for both normal situation and emergency with emphasis on basic rights, specialized service and emergency medicine, surveillance system, disease prevention and control and health threats” (MOPH 2003). Research Approach The key research methods employed include literature review, in-depth interview, observation, documentation and content analysis. A mixed methods methodology was considered appropriate for this study for a number of reasons including a lack of previous insight into this system and the number of actors involved. To this end a triangulated view of the laundry management system was realized. Findings and Originality Delays in the provision of linen and patient clothing (1-4 days bottleneck) were adversely affected by unstructured laundry operations, insufficient personnel, poor job design and worn-out equipment. As a result of this analysis several solutions were steadily implemented which led to: (i) linen shortage was reduced by 12.12% - 28.48%, and (ii) the total cleaning time per cycle was reduced by 130 minutes (45.12%). The impact of the improvement practices in place were perceived to be undermined by cultural factors such as very high internal conflict, the new hospital Director with relatively low power, and limited budget allocated to purchasing linen. Research Impacts Very few studies have explored a closed-loop supply chain of hospital laundry management systems, fewer collected data from key users using a mixed methods methodology. Reverse Exchanges (RE), a new theoretical framework, was adopted to examine the laundry processes. This study attempts to this study fill these gaps. Although this research studied one district hospital; the practices can be greatly generalized; and the diagram of laundry operations and this research design can be replicated. Practical Impacts Improvement measures have been identified which directly impact on the effectiveness and efficiency of this operation. Whilst this is once case study site analysis, this can offer a positive contribution to the healthcare agenda within this country.
    • Investment behaviour, corporate control, and private benefits of control: Evidence from a survey of Ukrainian firms

      Mykhayliv, Dariya; Zauner, K.G. (2015)
      We analyse the impact of ownership and corporate control on firms’ investment using the 2001survey of Yacoub et al. on Ukrainian firms. The model explains investment by output, financial and soft budget constraints, and corporate control (and ownership) categories potentially enjoying private benefits of control. We find that the corporate control model fits better than the ownership model,a negative relationship between state and employee control and firms’ investment, and evidence forthe presence of soft budget constraints. A negative relationship between firms’ investment and the relative size of non-monetary transactions strengthens the conclusion of private benefits of control impacting investment.
    • Investment decisions with finite-lived collars

      Adkins, Roger; Paxson, D.; Pereira, P.J.; Rodrigues, A. (2019-06)
      The duration of most collar arrangements provided by governments to encourage early investment in infrastructure, renewable energy facilities, or other projects with social objectives are finite, not perpetual. We extend the previous literature on collar-style arrangements by providing an analytical solution for the idle and active values, as well as the investment triggers, for projects where collars are either finite-lived or retractable. What is the difference between these types of arrangements with their perpetual counterpart? Lots, including different vega signs, and substantially different values for different current price levels. Often, finite and retractable collars justify earlier investment timing than perpetual collars. In general, we demonstrate that the finite-lived and retractable versions have a significant impact on optimal behavior, relative to the perpetual case. An important consideration when negotiating the floors, ceilings, and duration (or signalling the expected duration) of a finite or a retractable collar is the current price level of the output and its expected volatility over the life of the contract.
    • Investor Sentiment and Stock Returns: Global Evidence

      Wang, Wenzhao; Su, C.; Duxberry, D. (2021-09)
      We assess the impact of investor sentiment on future stock returns in 50 global stock markets. Using the consumer confidence index (CCI) as the sentiment proxy, we document a negative relationship between investor sentiment and future stock returns at the global level. While the separation between developed and emerging markets does not disrupt the negative pattern, investor sentiment has a more instant impact in emerging markets, but a more enduring impact in developed markets. Individual stock markets reveal heterogeneity in the sentiment-return relationship. This heterogeneity can be explained by cross-market differences in culture and institutions, along with intelligence and education, to varying degrees influenced by the extent of individual investor market participation.
    • Investor sentiment and the mean-variance relationship: European evidence

      Wang, Wenzhao (2018-12)
      This paper investigates the impact of investor sentiment on the mean-variance relationship in 14 European stock markets. Applying three approaches to define investors’ neutrality and determine high and low sentiment periods, we find that individual investors’ increased presence and trading over high-sentiment periods would undermine the risk-return tradeoff. More importantly, we report that investors’ optimism (pessimism) is more determined by their normal sentiment state, represented by the all-period average sentiment level, rather than the neutrality value set in sentiment surveys.
    • Invoking Satan or the ethics of the employment contract.

      Ford, Jackie M.; Harding, Nancy H. (2003)
      Studies of mergers of organizations focus upon the financial and economic outcomes, with little attention paid to the effect on the people working in the merging organizations. This paper reports the findings of a study of the impact on managers of an organizational merger. Rather than the cool calculations of accountants and economists and the rational application of a managerial logic, we found the impact on these managers was upon their emotions, which seemed sometimes too buffeted to allow them to continue in their work. A narrative analysis of the stories told by these managers suggested they experienced their involvement with the merging organizations as akin to a Faustian contract, whereby they had sold their souls to the organizational devil and were now reaping the costs. When we came to write this paper we found that using the usual rubrics of academic writing suppressed the sheer emotionality of their experiences. We have therefore followed the imperative of our conclusions, and written our analysis in the form of a play, based upon Christopher Marlowe's Dr Faustus, which allows us to use our interviewees' own words to illustrate the impact of the merger. The play is, of course, in the format of a tragedy: it has four main characters ¿ the narrator, the manager, Faustus and Mephistopheles ¿ and five acts. We use the Prologue to insert our own words, where we argue for a turn away from the 'hard' school of human resource management towards one that is ethically informed. Programme notes contain the technical details which justify our research methods. We remain totally unapologetic for intruding emotions into the rational world of academia.
    • Involve me and I learn”: Mentoring as a strategy for development, satisfaction and coping with conflict. Executive Summary Report

      Perrett, Robert A. (2014-06-01)
      This summary document presents the main areas of enquiry and summarises the key findings from the quantitative stage of this study; a survey of PCS lay officials undertaken in March 2013. It is presented here as a quick reference document to summarise, in bullet point form, the key findings from the full research report which presents detailed top level results, by gender, for the whole survey.
    • Involvement in emergency supply chain for disaster management: a cognitive dissonance perspective

      Dwivedi, Y.K.; Shareef, M.A.; Mukerji, B.; Rana, Nripendra P.; Kapoor, K.K. (2018-01)
      An integrated process, interlinked operation and interoperable communication network amongst operating agencies are critical for developing an effective disaster management supply chain. The traditional managerial problems observed across disaster management operations are: non-cooperation among members, disrupted chain of commands, misuse of relief items, lack of information sharing, mistrust and lack of coordination. This study aims to understand the issues affiliated with negative attitude towards disaster management operations using theory of cognitive dissonance. A qualitative investigation was undertaken across 64 districts in Bangladesh. Five constructs were examined for their influences on attitude and behavioural intention of members participating in government emergency supply chain for disaster management. The results indicate that administrative conflict, political biasness and professional growth have significant effects on attitude. Impact of insecurity is non-significant on attitude. This research offers substantial theoretical contribution to the cognitive dissonance theory in the context of disaster management supply chain.
    • IPR Law Protection and Enforcement and the Effect on Horizontal Productivity Spillovers from Inward FDI to Domestic Firms: A Meta-Analysis

      Christopoulou, D.; Papageorgiadis, N.; Wang, Chengang; Magkonis, G. (2021-04-23)
      We study the role of the strength of Intellectual Property Rights (IPR) law protection and enforcement in influencing horizontal productivity spillovers from inward FDI to domestic firms in host countries. While most WTO countries adopted strong IPR legislation due to exogenous pressure resulting from the signing of the Trade-Related Aspects of IPR (TRIPS) agreement, public IPR enforcement strength continues to vary significantly between countries. We meta-analyse 49 studies and find that public IPR enforcement strength has a direct positive effect on horizontal productivity spillovers from inward FDI to domestic firms and a negative moderating effect on the relationship between IPR law protection strength and horizontal productivity spillovers from inward FDI to domestic firms.
    • Is cost transparency necessarily good for consumers?

      Kuah, A.T.H.; Weerakkody, Vishanth J.P. (2015)
      The purpose of this paper is to present a critical viewpoint on the negative aspects of market, price and cost transparencies to consumers in terms of its costs. It adopts an inter-disciplinary approach from the marketing, economics and accounting literature. The paper explores market transparency in the ever-changing world and uses brand names like Starbucks and iPhone to illuminate instances where imperfect markets are supported by consumers. Recognizing the role that the Internet plays in promoting price transparency, it espouses how extant information can add costs and risks to the consumer’s value judgement. Finally, the paper advocates that arbitrary judgements existing in cost accounting make it difficult to compare unit cost. This could result in consumers paying extra money to benefit from cost transparency. This paper argues that three main issues may arise in providing unit cost to the consumers. First, transparency entails built-in costs, whether they are in taxes or product prices. Second, in accounting, unit cost information is currently not equitable between businesses. Finally, the paper argues that extra time and effort in making sense of unit cost information lead to questions about the viability of transparent costing. The arguments for transparency have been widely discussed, supported and promoted by many. While negative aspects are known to businesses, few consider the consumer’s perspective. By amalgamating evidence and arguments from different disciplines, this paper lends value, providing a critical perspective where transparent unit cost revelation can be more costly and less viable than what is assumed.
    • Is it too early to learn lessons from the developed world on the potential of big data technology: Harnessing and nurturing intuition in organisational decision makers

      Hussain, Zahid I.; Asad, M.; Chamas, H.B. (2017)
      As big data (BD) and data analytics gain significance in Europe, the industry expects that executives will eventually move towards evidence based decision making, and consequently would build sustainable competitive advantages for their organisations. Therefore, the lessons learned from experiences of European executives can be key for human development and also economic development. However, it also seems that in some cases decision makers in Europe seem to not use business intelligence systems at all. Since, executives are intelligent human beings with credible and proven expertise, it seems to raise a question mark on effectiveness of business intelligence systems, and the potential it has in human and economic development. Furthermore, repeated evaluation of literature pointed out that ultimately executives in Europe make decisions by intuition, and this leads to the question whether big data would ever replace intuition. In this paper, the mind-sets of executives about application and limitations of big data have been explored, by taking into account the cognitive factors in decision making. By using this, it is evaluated whether BD technologies can use to accelerate intuition development of the executives, and consequently lead to faster and sustainable economic development in the developing world.
    • Is Radiative Forcing Cointegrated with Temperature? A Further Examination Using a Structural Time Series Approach

      Balcombe, K.; Fraser, I.M.; Sharma, Abhijit (2019)
      This paper re-examines the long-run relationship between radiative forcing (including emissions of carbon dioxide, sulphur oxides, methane, and solar radiation) and temperatures from a structural time series modeling perspective. We assess whether forcing measures are cointegrated with global temperatures using the structural time series approach.
    • Is there evidence to support Porter-type policies?

      McDonald, Frank; Huang, Q.; Tsagdis, D.; Tüselmann, H-J. (Routledge / Taylor and Francis, 2007-02)
      The paper examines the views, often associated with Porter, that clusters with deep collaborative networks and established local supply chains have good performance. The view that good cluster performance is not connected to the industrial sector is also assessed. Data from a Department of Trade and Industry (DTI) study on UK clusters are used to assess the impact on performance (employment growth and international competitiveness) of cluster depth, the stage of development of local supply chains, and industrial sector. The results of the analysis of the DTI data on clusters do not provide strong support for Porter-type views on cluster policy. Although established clusters are linked to employment growth, deep clusters are not associated with employment growth or international competitiveness, and clusters in the services, and media, computer-related and biotechnology sectors are more likely than manufacturing clusters to have good performance. Some of the major policy implications of the results are discussed in the light of the literature on the importance of regional, national, and international networks for the performance of clusters.
    • Islamic Governance, National Governance, and Bank Risk Management and Disclosure in MENA Countries

      Elamer, Ahmed A.; Ntim, C.G.; Abdou, H.A. (2020-06-01)
      We examine the relationships among religious governance, especially Islamic governance quality (IGQ), national governance quality (NGQ), and risk management and disclosure practices (RDPs), and consequently ascertain whether NGQ has a moderating influence on the IGQ–RDPs nexus. Using one of the largest data sets relating to Islamic banks from 10 Middle East and North Africa (MENA) countries from 2006 to 2013, our findings are threefold. First, we find that RDPs are higher in banks with higher IGQ. Second, we find that RDPs are higher in banks from countries with higher NGQ. Finally, we find that NGQ has a moderating effect on the IGQ–RDPs nexus. Our findings are robust to alternative RDP measures and estimation techniques. These results imply that the quality of disclosure depends on the nature of the macro-social-level factors, such as religion that have remained largely unexplored in business and society research, and, therefore, have important implications for policy makers.