• Experiences of Women Elite Leaders Doing Gender: Intra-gender Micro-violence between Women

      Mavin, Sharon A.; Grandy, G.; Williams, Jannine (2014)
      This paper responds to the dearth of research into women's negative intra-gender relations and lack of understanding as to why and how these relations manifest. Through a qualitative study of women elite leaders' experiences in UK organizations, the research considers how gendered contexts, women doing gender well and differently simultaneously, intra-gender competition and female misogyny may explain negative intra-gender social relations between women. We consider micro-aggression research and women's abjection and offer a unique conceptualization of intra-gender micro-violence with themes of disassociating, suppression of opportunity and abject appearance. The themes illustrate how the masculine symbolic order shapes and constrains women elite leaders' social relations with other women. We conclude that raising consciousness to intra-gender micro-violence between women is important as a means of disruption; to facilitate women and men's acceptance of intra-gender differences between women; and to open up opportunities and possibilities for women in organizations.
    • Expertise, credibility of system forecasts and integration methods in judgmental demand forecasting

      Alvarado-Valencia, J.; Barrero, L.H.; Onkal, Dilek; Dennerlein, J.T. (2017-01)
      Expert knowledge elicitation lies at the core of judgmental forecasting—a domain that relies fully on the power of such knowledge and its integration into forecasting. Using experts in a demand forecasting framework, this work aims to compare the accuracy improvements and forecasting performances of three judgmental integration methods. To do this, a field study was conducted with 31 experts from four companies. The methods compared were the judgmental adjustment, the 50–50 combination, and the divide-and-conquer. Forecaster expertise, the credibility of system forecasts and the need to rectify system forecasts were also assessed, and mechanisms for performing this assessment were considered. When (a) a forecaster’s relative expertise was high, (b) the relative credibility of the system forecasts was low, and (c) the system forecasts had a strong need of correction, judgmental adjustment improved the accuracy relative to both the other integration methods and the system forecasts. Experts with higher levels of expertise showed higher adjustment frequencies. Our results suggest that judgmental adjustment promises to be valuable in the long term if adequate conditions of forecaster expertise and the credibility of system forecasts are met.
    • An exploration of the drivers of employee motivation to facilitate value co-creation

      Waseem, Donia; Biggemann, S.; Garry, T. (2021-07-20)
      Purpose This paper aims to explore the drivers of employee motivation to facilitate value co-creation. Specifically, it enhances the understanding of social and contextual elements that contribute towards the co-creation of value. Design/methodology/approach Embracing an interpretive paradigm, the study draws on 57 in-depth interviews together with participant observation field notes. The data were analysed using thematic analysis. Findings The findings identify six key drivers that motivate employees to facilitate value co-creation: rewards and recognition, opportunities for life-long learning, interpersonal engagement, role responsibility and accountability, organisational vision and social purpose. Research limitations/implications This study is undertaken within a traditional organisation setting. Other organisational contexts such as working from home should also be considered. Second, this study focused on the individual relational orientations of employees. Also, there is an opportunity to explore the collective orientation of employees. Originality/value Drawing on service-dominant logic (S-D logic) as a theoretical lens, this study adopts and adapts Lindenberg and Steg’s (2013) goal-framing theory to conceptualise six drivers of employee motivation to facilitate value co-creation within three-goal frames that leads to in-role and extra-role job performance.
    • An exploratory study of reverse exchange systems used for medical devices in the UK National Health Service (NHS)

      Xie, Y.; Breen, Liz; Cherrett, T.; Zheng, D.; Allen, C.J.
      Purpose This study aims to provide insights into the scale and use of Information Communication Technology (ICT) in managing medical devices in the NHS, with a focus on Reverse Exchange (RE) systems, as part of the broader Reverse Logistics (RL) systems, within which medical devices are returned and exchanged. Design/Methodology/Approach Two case studies were conducted with NHS Hospital Trusts, while another was built upon secondary resources. Primary findings were triangulated with information collected from the NHS Trusts’ reports, direct observation and a preliminary round of consultations with 12 healthcare professionals working in other NHS Trusts or Integrated Equipment Community Services. Findings The findings suggest that the sophistication of ICT implementation increases with the risks and value associated with medical devices. Operational attributes are derived from ICT implementations which can positively impact on RE performance. The forces that drive the adoption of ICT in the NHS include pressure from government, business partners and patients, competitive pressure, perceived benefits, organisation size, top management support and the availability of sufficient resources. Obstacles are mainly centred around the lack of sufficient resource. Research limitations/implications Although the Trusts that participated in this research are representative of different regions, the generalisation of the study results may be limited by the size of the sample organisations, so the results can only provide insights into the research problem. As this work is exploratory in nature, there is insufficient data on which to form definitive recommendations. Practical implications NHS Trusts may use the 6 operational attributes identified and verified by the case studies to benchmark their ICT implementation for device management. The actual and potential benefits of ICT implementation could inform technology development and encourage the uptake of ICT in healthcare. Governmental bodies can utilise this information to develop directives to actively drive ICT adoption in device management and the associated RE system. A well-considered training programme is needed to improve staff ICT skills in order to fully realise the potential of ICT systems which support the effective RE of medical devices. Originality/value The results suggest that ICT supported reverse exchange of medical devices backs up the supply chain reduces capital costs and medical risks and, facilitates the redeployment of funds to frontline medical treatment.
    • Exploring barriers of m-commerce adoption in SMEs in the UK: Developing a framework using ISM

      Rana, Nripendra P.; Barnard, D.J.; Baabdullah, A.M.; Rees, D.; Roderick, S. (2019-02)
      In the modern business era, mobile commerce (m-commerce) is changing the way the business is conducted using the Internet. However, the prominence of m-commerce among small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in the UK is minimal. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the existing literature and to extend the research surrounding the barriers that prevent the adoption of m-commerce amongst SMEs. The study uses an Interpretive Structural Modelling (ISM) and MICMAC approach for guiding and helping managers of SMEs. Data was collected from an expert participant group each of whom had extensive knowledge of m-commerce. The findings represent the unstable nature of variables in the context of their impact on each other, their relationships, and themselves. The listed factors in the proposed framework and the interrelationships between them highlight the multi-dimensional element of m-commerce adoption prevention. This observation proves criticality of analysing data as a collective entity rather than viewing the barriers in isolation. The findings also indicated ‘perceived risk’ being a key barrier that demonstrates how personal opinions of the concept of adoption can have a great significance on the outcome and whether other variables will come into effect.
    • Exploring change in small firms' HRM practices

      Wapshott, R.; Mallett, O.; Spicer, David P. (Springer, 2014)
      The academic literature widely acknowledges changes and variation in the practices of small firms but only a small amount of empirical work has explored the processes through which HRM practices undergo change. Research has tended, instead, to examine the presence and effectiveness of HRM in small firms and has often viewed this in terms of a deficit model relating such practices to an understanding of HRM derived from larger firms. This chapter focuses on the recruitment and selection and staff payment practices in use in three small services firms to explore the everyday, ongoing detail of their HRM processes and practices. Identifying the different processes through which recruitment and selection and staff payment practices changed in the participant firms provides a base for discussing persistent forms of informality and the lack of stability that reflects the everyday realities of the firms, not only in contrast to their formalized policies but in engagement with them. This chapter advances understanding of selected HRM practices in small services firms after periods of formalization and adoption of HRM policies and practices. The chapter also discusses how developing knowledge of small firms’ HRM practices in this way has implications for researchers and practitioners.
    • Exploring circular economy in the hospitality industry: empirical evidence from Scandinavian hotel operators

      Fabrice, Sorin; Sivarajah, Uthayasankar (2021)
      The circular economy is gaining momentum in corporate circles and European economic policies. However, its relevance and applicability to service dominated industries, such as tourism and hospitality, is poorly researched. This study investigates Scandinavian hotel operators’ understanding of the circular economy, its drivers, enablers, barriers, and value creation potential. This exploratory study gathers feedback from ten Scandinavian hotel chains managers and proposes a circular economy applicability framework to test the concept’s relevance to hotel operators. The research findings highlight respondents’ interest and expose introductory to intermediate level of understanding of the circular economy. Conditional to specific enabling levers, the research confirms the applicability and value creation potential of the circular economy to hotel operators. The research provides hotel operators with recommendations on circular economy value creation opportunities, deployment pathways and suggests future research directions.
    • Exploring Consumer and Patient Knowledge, Behavior, and Attitude Toward Medicinal and Lifestyle Products Purchased From the Internet: A Web-Based Survey

      Assi, S.; Thomas, J.; Haffar, Mohamed; Osselton, D. (2016-07-18)
      In recent years, lifestyle products have emerged to help improve people’s physical and mental performance. The Internet plays a major role in the spread of these products. However, the literature has reported issues regarding the authenticity of medicines purchased from the Internet and the impact of counterfeit medicines on public health. Little or no data are available on the authenticity of lifestyle products and actual toxicity associated with their use and misuse. Our aim was to investigate consumer and patient attitudes toward the purchase of lifestyle products from the Internet, their knowledge of product authenticity and toxicity, and their experiences with counterfeit lifestyle products. A Web-based study was performed between May 2014 and May 2015. Uniform collection of data was performed through an anonymous online questionnaire. Participants were invited worldwide via email, social media, or personal communication to complete the online questionnaire. A total of 320 participants completed the questionnaire. The results of the questionnaire showed that 208 (65.0%) participants purchased lifestyle products from the Internet mainly due to convenience and reduced cost. More than half (55.6%, 178/320) of participants purchased cosmetic products, whereas only a minority purchased medicinal products. Yet, 62.8% (201/320) of participants were aware of the presence of counterfeit lifestyle products from the Internet, and 11.9% (38/320) experienced counterfeit products. In only 0.9% (3/320) of those cases were counterfeit lifestyle products reported to authorities. Moreover, 7.2% (23/320) of the participants experienced adverse effects due to counterfeit lifestyle products. In summary, patients experienced counterfeit lifestyle products that resulted in adverse effects on their health. Although certain adverse effects were reported in this study, counterfeit products were underreported to authorities. Further public awareness campaigns and patient education are needed.
    • Exploring de-facto accountability regimes in Muslim NGOs

      Yasmin, S.; Ghafran, Chaudhry; Haniffa, R. (2018-09)
      This paper aims to deepen and advance our understanding of the de-facto accountability processes and practices within Muslim non-governmental organisations (NGOs). We employ a three-fold accountability framework of felt, imposed and adaptive accountability, supported by insight from the Islamic perspective to elucidate our empirical findings. We adopt this framework because it enables us to localise the notions of accountability, allowing a more complete understanding of the de-facto nature of Muslim NGO accountability to emerge within the context of religious ideals and between accountabilities that are externally imposed and those that are internally generated.
    • Exploring human resource management practices in small and medium sized enterprises

      Nadin, Sara J.; Cassell, C.; Older-Gray, M.T.; Clegg, C. (2002)
      This paper reports on empirical work recently conducted about the use and effectiveness of HRM practices in small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs). A telephone survey was conducted with 100 senior managers of SMEs to ascertain their use of a range of human resource practices and the extent to which they had found those practices successful in aiding the achievement of company objectives. Additionally in-depth interviews were conducted with senior managers from a further 22 SMEs. Findings suggest that there is considerable diversity amongst SMEs in relation to their use of HR practices. A model is provided that identifies the key criteria that underlie the adoption of HRM practices, and the implications of the model are discussed.
    • Exploring mispricing in the term structure of CDS spreads

      Jarrow, R.; Li, H.; Ye, Xiaoxia; Hu, M. (2019-02)
      Based on a reduced-form model of credit risk, we explore mispricing in the CDS spreads of North American companies and its economic content. Specifically, we develop a trading strategy using the model to trade out of sample market-neutral portfolios across the term structure of CDS contracts. Our empirical results show that the trading strategy exhibits abnormally large returns, confirming the existence and persistence of a mispricing. The aggregate returns of the trading strategy are positively related to the square of market-wide credit and liquidity risks, indicating that the mispricing is more pronounced when the market is more volatile. When implemented on the Markit data, the strategy shows significant economic value even after controlling for realistic transaction costs.
    • Exploring reviews and review sequences on e-commerce platform: A study of helpful reviews on Amazon.in

      Kaushik, K.; Mishra, R.; Rana, Nripendra P.; Dwivedi, Y.K. (2018-11)
      Prominent e-commerce platforms allow users to write reviews for the available products. User reviews play an important role in creating the perception of the product and impact the sales. Online reviews can be considered as an important source of e-word of mouth (e-WOM) on e-commerce platforms. Various dimensions of e-WOM on product sales have been examined for different products. Broadly, studies have explored the effect of summary statistics of reviews on product sales using data from various e-commerce platforms. Few studies have utilized other review characteristics as length, valence, and content of the reviews. The sequence of reviews has been hardly explored in the literature. This study investigates the impact of sequence of helpful reviews along with other review characteristics as ratings (summary statistics), volume, informativeness, and valence of reviews on product sales. Hence, a holistic approach has been used to explore the role of summary statistics, volume, content and sequence of reviews on product sales with special emphasis on sequence of reviews. Relevant theories such as message persuasion, cognitive overload and belief adjustment model have also been explored during the construction of the model for review data. The proposed model has been validated using the helpful reviews available on Amazon.in website for various products.
    • Exploring Statistical Arbitrage Opportunities in the Term Structure of CDS Spreads

      Jarrow, R.A.; Li, H.; Ye, Xiaoxia (2016-08-01)
      Based on a reduced-form model of credit risk, we explore statistical arbitrage opportunities in the CDS spreads of North American companies. Specifically, we develop a trading strategy using the model to trade market-neutral portfolios while controlling for realistic transaction costs. Empirical results show that our arbitrage strategy is of significant economic value, and also cast doubt on the efficiency of the CDS market. The aggregate returns of the trading strategy are positively related to the square of market-wide credit and liquidity risks, indicating that the market is less efficient when it is more volatile.
    • Exploring the drivers of customers’ brand attitudes of online travel agency services: A text-mining based approach

      Ray, A.; Bala, P.K.; Rana, Nripendra P. (2021-05)
      This paper aims to explore the important qualitative aspects of online user-generated-content that reflects customers’ brand-attitudes. Additionally, the qualitative aspects can help service-providers understand customers’ brand-attitudes by focusing on the important aspects rather than reading the entire review, which will save both their time and effort. We have utilised a total of 10,000 reviews from TripAdvisor (an online-travel-agency provider). This study has analysed the data using statistical-technique (logistic regression), predictive-model (artificial-neural-networks) and structural-modelling technique to understand the most important aspects (i.e. sentiment, emotion or parts-of-speech) that can help to predict customers’ brand-attitudes. Results show that sentiment is the most important aspect in predicting brand-attitudes. While total sentiment content and content polarity have significant positive association, negative high-arousal emotions and low-arousal emotions have significant negative association with customers’ brand attitudes. However, parts-of-speech aspects have no significant impact on brand attitude. The paper concludes with implications, limitations and future research directions.
    • Exploring the effects of financial and fiscal vulnerabilities on G7 economies: Evidence from SVAR analysis

      Magkonis, Georgios; Tsopanakis, Andreas (2014-07)
      We examine the possible interactions of the financial cycle and fiscal position for G7 economies. We employ the innovative aggregate financial and fiscal stress indexes which are able to depict the perplexed nature of modern economies. A SVAR model is developed to investigate the effects of both financial and fiscal stress on key macroeconomic variables. The results, using two different identification methods, reveal that financial and fiscal shocks affect negatively the key macroeconomic variables. Additionally, there is a weak feedback effect from a financial shock to fiscal sector and vice versa.
    • Exploring the ethical identity of Islamic financial institutions via communication in the annual reports.

      Haniffa, Roszaini M.; Hudaib, Mohammad (2007)
      Islamic Banks (IBs) are considered as having ethical identity, since the foundation of their business philosophy is closely tied to religion. In this article, we explore whether any discrepancy exists between the communicated (based on information disclosed in the annual reports) and ideal (disclosure of information deemed vital based on the Islamic ethical business framework) ethical identities and we measure this by what we have termed the Ethical Identity Index (EII). Our longitudinal survey results over a 3-year period indicate the overall mean EII of only one IB out of seven surveyed to be above average. The remaining six IBs suffer from disparity between the communicated and ideal ethical identities. We further found the largest incongruence to be related to four dimensions: commitments to society; disclosure of corporate vision and mission; contribution to and management of zakah, charity and benevolent loans; and information regarding top management. The results have important implications for communication management if IBs are to enhance their image and reputation in society as well as to remain competitive.
    • Exploring the role of supplier relationship management for sustainable operations: an OR perspective

      Sharif, Amir M.; Alshawi, S.; Kamal, M.M.; Eldabi, T.; Mazhar, A. (2014-06)
      This paper provides a systems-based approach to the exploration of the relationship and integration between Supplier Relationship Management (SRM) factors as part of a Sustainable Operations Management (SOM) agenda. The authors have chosen electronic procurement (e-Procurement) as a suitable context in this light. Through a review of extant literature, a Systems Archetype (SA) model was developed (based on the ‘Accidental Adversaries’ archetype) and findings from a quantitative pilot study exploring key factors pertinent to e-Procurement SRM were gathered, and hence evaluated against SOM factors. The objective of this research was to describe and visualise the causal interrelationships involved in SRM-SOM through the application of a SA (as an Operations Research tool). The authors believe that this research also provides a unique approach to developing and harnessing the useful and unique properties of Systems Thinking (ST), by attempting to reduce and organise the (generally ad hoc and wide-ranging) sequence of subjective perspectives commonly experienced in causal mapping experiments. The paper builds upon the extant literature, and provides further basis for continuing research in the areas of ST, SAs and the application of operational research to plan sustainable operations.
    • Expropriation risk by block holders, institutional quality and expected stock returns

      Hearn, Bruce; Phylaktis, K.; Piesse, J. (2017-08)
      We study the asset pricing implications arising from imperfect investor protection using a new governance measure. This is defined as the product of institutional quality in a country and the proportion of free float shares, which captures the impact of controlling block holders. Using monthly returns of 4756 blue chip firms from 50 international equity markets for 13 years, we show through tests of variants of the augmented-CAPM, that a two factor CAPM augmented with a factor mimicking portfolio based on our new investor protection metric yields the highest explanatory power, especially for markets that exhibit true variation in ownership types.
    • The extended Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT2): A systematic literature review and theory evaluation

      Tamilmani, Kuttimani; Rana, Nripendra P.; Wamba, S.F.; Dwivedi, R. (2021-04)
      The extended unified theory of acceptance and use of technology (UTAUT2) is less than ten years old and has already garnered more than 6,000 citations with extensive usage in information systems and beyond. This research employed cited reference search to systematically review studies that cited UTAUT2 originating article. Based on UTAUT2 usage, the downloaded articles were classified into four categories such as: 1) General citation, 2) UTAUT2 application, 3) UTAUT2 integration, and 4) UTAUT2 extensions. Weber's (2012) theory evaluation framework revealed UTAUT2 as a robust theory on most dimensions except for parsimony arising from the complex model. UTAUT2 extensions emerged as popular UTAUT2 utilization category as researchers extended the model with context specific variables. Finally, UTAUT2 extensions were mapped to Johns' (2006) context dimensions to identify various limitations of the existing technology adoption research and to provide multi-level framework for future researchers with libraries of context dimensions.