• The effect of electronic word of mouth communications on intention to buy: A meta-analysis

      Ismagilova, Elvira; Slade, E.L.; Rana, Nripendra P.; Dwivedi, Y.K. (2020)
      The aim of this research is to synthesise findings from previous studies by employing weight and meta-analysis to reconcile conflicting evidence and draw a “big picture” of eWOM factors influencing consumers’ intention to buy. By using the findings from 69 studies, this research identified best (e.g. argument quality, valence, eWOM usefulness, trust in message), promising (e.g. eWOM credibility, emotional trust, attitude towards website) and least effective (e.g. volume, existing eWOM, source credibility) predictors of intention to buy in eWOM research. Additionally, the effect size of each predictor was calculated by performing meta-analysis. For academics, understanding what influences consumers’ intention to buy will help set the agenda for future research directions; for practitioners, it will provide benefit in terms of practical guidance based on detailed analysis of specific factors influencing consumers’ intention to buy, which could enhance their marketing activities.
    • The effect of export market-oriented culture on export performance: Evidence from a Sub-Saharan African economy

      Olabode, Oluwaseun E.; Adeola, O.; Assadinia, S. (2018-07)
      Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine how export learning capability and export environmental turbulence serve as mechanisms and boundary conditions to link export market-oriented culture to export performance. Design/methodology/approach: A quantitative approach was undertaken to analyse longitudinal data of 249 small- and medium-sized exporting firms in Nigeria, a Sub-Saharan African economy. Findings: Four major findings emerged from the study. First, export market-oriented culture positively influences export performance. Second, possessing an export market-oriented culture results in the development of high export learning capabilities. Third, export learning capability mediates the relationship between export market-oriented culture and export performance. Fourth, increases in export environment turbulence weaken the positive effect of export learning capability on export performance. Research limitations/implications: This study does not investigate moderating effects which might affect the relationship between export market-oriented culture and export learning capability as this was beyond the scope of this study. Originality/value: This study looks at developing economy environment as a unique context to examine the direct, mediating, and moderating effects of export market-oriented culture on export performance.
    • Effect of non-tariff measures on extensive and intensive margins of exports in seafood trade.

      Shepotylo, Oleksandr
      This paper explores the effects of non-tariff measures (NTM) on extensive and intensive margins of global exports of seafood in 1996-2011. The main result of this study is the differential and opposite effect of SPS and TBT measures. While SPS measures largely increase extensive margins of export and reduce intensive margins, TBTs mostly reduce exports at extensive margins and increase exports at intensive margins. Specific trade concerns (STC) have larger effect on exports than SPS and TBT notifications, both economically and statistically. Finally, there is substantial heterogeneity of response of exports to NTMs across HS six digit product lines, but the central tendency remains the same as for aggregated data.
    • The effect of supply chain management practices on supply chain and manufacturing firms’ performance

      Al-Shboul, M.A.R.; Barber, Kevin D.; Garza-Reyes, J.A.; Kumar, V.; Abdi, M. Reza (2017)
      The purpose of this paper is to theorise and develop seven dimensions (strategic supplier partnership, level of information sharing, quality of information sharing, customer service management, internal lean practices, postponement and total quality management) into a supply chain management (SCM) practices (SCMPs) construct and studies its causal relationship with the conceptualised constructs of supply chain performance (SCP) and manufacturing firms’ performance (MFP). The study also explores the causal relationship between SCP and MFP. Data were collected through a survey questionnaire responded by 249 Jordanian manufacturing firms. The relationships proposed in the developed theoretical framework were represented through three hypotheses: H1 – there is a significant relationship between SCMPs and SCP; H2 – there is a significant relationship between SCMPs and MFP; and H3 – there is a significant relationship between SCP and MFP. Linear regression, ANOVA and Pearson correlation were used to test the hypotheses. The results were further validated using structural equation modelling. The results indicate that SCMPs have a positive effect on SCP (H1), which in turn also positively affect MFP (H3). Despite this intermediary positive effect of SCMP on MFP through SCP, the study also suggests that SCMPs have a direct and positive effect on MFP (H2). This study provides hard evidence indicating that higher levels of SCMPs can lead to enhanced supply chain and firms’ performance. It also provides SC managers of manufacturing firms with a multi-dimensional operational measure of the construct of SCMPs for assessing the comprehensiveness of the SCMPs of their firms. This study is among the very first SCM researches conducted on the Jordanian manufacturing sector, particularly, in relation to the practices that manufacturing firms in this country need to adopt to make their supply chains a solid competitive vehicle for their development. The results have broader implications for all manufacturing companies, particularly in developing economies where the growth of manufacturing and the development of integrated supply chains are key stages in economic development.
    • The effect of telepresence, social presence and involvement on consumer brand engagement: An empirical study of non-profit organizations

      Algharabat, R.; Rana, Nripendra P.; Dwivedi, Y.K.; Alawan, A.; Qasem, Z. (2018-01)
      Although there are several marketing implications that have been considered in the context of social media marketing, less attention has been paid to the influence of antecedents of consumer brand engagement (telepresence, social presence and involvement) and their consequences for non-profit organizations. Thus, the main purpose of current research is to examine the influence of telepresence, social presence and involvement on consumer brand engagement (CBE) (second-order), which in turn affects electronic word of mouth and willingness to donate. To test the proposed model, this paper used social media platforms. We employed a Facebook page that presents non-profit organizations (brands) using a sample of non-students. We found that telepresence, social presence and involvement positively impact CBE, which in turn impacts electronic word of mouth and willingness to donate. The findings of our research demonstrate how CBE is formed in this particular context and what outcomes are to be expected, with important implications for both marketing theory and practice.
    • Effective autonomy, organisational relationships and skilled jobs in subsidiaries.

      McDonald, Frank; Gammelgaard, J.; Tüselmann, H-J.; Dörrenbächer, C.; Stephan, A. (2011)
      Abstract Purpose ¿ The purpose of this paper is to explore how the proportion of skilled jobs in subsidiaries is influenced by resource gaps created by subsidiary development. Design/methodology/approach ¿ This paper develops a range of propositions that connect the constructs of effective autonomy and organisational relationships with subsidiary employment. Propositions are built on an extensive literature review based on such approaches as the resource-based view, transaction cost economics, network approach, and institutional theory. Findings ¿ The framework developed in the paper suggests that a higher proportion of employment in skilled jobs in subsidiaries is most likely in cases where subsidiary entrepreneurship, role specialization, and absorptive capacity are higher. Conversely, the proportion is likely to be lower in cases of increased institutional distance from the parent company. Practical implications ¿ The conceptual model can help parent company managers assess the likely effects of developments in effective autonomy and organisational relationships in their subsidiaries. Subsidiary managers can assess the possible impact of such factors as development of entrepreneurial activities, specialization within the multinational corporation supply chain and enhancement of absorptive capacity on the proportion of skilled jobs. Originality/value ¿ This paper is the first to describe subsidiary development from a skilled job perspective. It further develops the concept of autonomy and introduces the term ¿effective autonomy¿.
    • Effectiveness of performance appraisal: An integrated framework

      Iqbal, M.Z.; Akbar, Saeed; Budhwar, P. (2015-10)
      Based on a robust analysis of the existing literature on performance appraisal (PA), this paper makes a case for an integrated framework of effectiveness of performance appraisal (EPA). To achieve this, it draws on the expanded view of measurement criteria of EPA, i.e. purposefulness, fairness and accuracy, and identifies their relationships with ratee reactions. The analysis reveals that the expanded view of purposefulness includes more theoretical anchors for the purposes of PA and relates to various aspects of human resource functions, e.g. feedback and goal orientation. The expansion in the PA fairness criterion suggests certain newly established nomological networks, which were ignored in the past, e.g. the relationship between distributive fairness and organization‐referenced outcomes. Further, refinements in PA accuracy reveal a more comprehensive categorization of rating biases. Coherence among measurement criteria has resulted in a ratee reactions‐based integrated framework, which should be useful for both researchers and practitioners.
    • Effectiveness of Performance Appraisal: Evidence on the Utilization Criteria

      Iqbal, M.Z.; Akbar, Saeed; Budhwar, P.; Shah, S.Z.A. (2019-08)
      This study examines the relationships between performance appraisal (PA) purposes and immediate and ultimate outcomes. Drawing upon expectancy theory and Greenberg's taxonomy, we explore the roles of multiple mediators as sets of person- and organization-referenced ratee reactions and reveal the multiple why-related aspects of the relationships between PA purposes and PA effectiveness. Our research is based on a questionnaire survey of 563 employees from the telecommunications sector of Pakistan. The results of structural equation modeling analysis suggest that individual-focused PA better serves the employee perspective, whereas position- and organization-focused PA better serves the organizational perspective. These findings indicate that inclusion of role definition and strategic purposes in the PA system is likely to render PA more effective and practical. The findings also corroborate that ratee reactions mediate the relationship between PA purposes and PA effectiveness, albeit to varying degrees. Our findings have theoretical and practical implications.
    • Effectiveness of pull-based print advertising with QR codes Role of consumer involvement and advertisement appeal

      Trivedi, Rohitkumar; Teichert, T.; Hardeck, D. (2019-12-12)
      Despite quick response (QR) codes’ prominence, little is known about their embedding in pullbased communications. This study aims to measure QR code effects in print advertising along five different stages of consumer decision making, using advertisement appeals with moderating effects of product category involvement. Data were derived from a German market research initiative with 326,212 consumer evaluations for 792 real print advertisements from 26 product categories. Multinomial logit models were used to investigate the effects of QR code presence on consumer reactions. QR codes steer purchase intention in a low-involvement product category if used alongside an emotional appeal. Advertisements for high-involvement products benefit if QR codes are combined with an overall informational appeal. QR codes do not enhance the persuasive effects of advertisements’ informational appeals in a low-involvement product category. The effects of QR codes on consumers’ responses cannot be analysed in isolation but depend on advertisement context. They interact with advertisements’ informational and emotional appeals and product category involvement. Marketers should not use QR codes indiscriminately but should carefully consider advertisement context. QR codes should be used alongside an emotional appeal if the marketer’s objective is to induce purchase intention in low-involvement settings. Advertisements for high-involvement products need to combine QR codes with an informational appeal. This study highlights the interplay of effects in print advertisements, which are typically considered push-based when they are combined with QR codes as pull-based communications in the digital marketing area.
    • The effects of an uncertain abandonment value on the investment decision

      Adkins, Roger; Paxson, D. (2016)
      Using a three-factor stochastic real option model framework, this paper examines the effects of abandonment on the investment decision. Abandonment is classified according to whether the opportunity arises for an active operating asset post-investment, or for holding the project opportunity pre-investment. Separate analytical models are developed for the alternative forms of abandonment optionality. Numerical sensitivity analysis shows that the presence of a post-investment abandonment opportunity makes the investment opportunity appear to be more attractive because of the abandonment option value, but not by a considerable amount. Also, in contrast to the standard real option finding, an abandonment value volatility increase produces a project value threshold fall owing to the increase in the abandonment option value.
    • Effects of energy management practices on environmental performance of Indian small- and medium- sized enterprises

      Patel, J.D.; Shah, R.; Trivedi, Rohitkumar (2022-01-20)
      Achieving energy efficiency through adoption of energy management practices remain top priorities among industry. Studies focusing on energy management practices are scarce and this area needs to be focused. Building on the perspective of resource-based view and behavioral theory of corporate governance, the purpose of the study is to develop and test an integrative framework linking manufacturing firm's energy management practices (EMPs) to environmental and financial performance through mediating roles played by energy efficiency and audit. The moderating role played by the top management commitment is further examined. Structural equation modeling was employed to test the hypotheses alongside Hayes' PROCESS to check moderation effects. Results from a survey of 637 employees working in Small- and Medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs) of Indian manufacturing firms indicate that EMPs result into increased environmental as well as financial performance of the firm. It was also found that energy efficiency mediates the relationship between the adoption of EMPs and environmental performance, amplified by top management commitment. Further, energy audit mediates the effect of EMPs on energy efficiency. The study contributes to offering the new research directions to identify alternatives that monetises environmental concepts such as energy efficiency, leading to higher performance of SMEs.
    • Effects of ethical certification and ethical eWoM on talent attraction

      Osburg, V.S.; Yoganathan, Vignesh; Bartikowski, B.; Liu, H.; Strack, M. (2020)
      Whilst previous studies indicate perceived company ethicality as a driver of job seekers’ job-pursuit intentions, it is poorly understood how and why ethical market signals actually affect their application decisions. Perceptions of company ethicality result from market signals that are either within the control of the company (e.g. ethical certifications) and from market signals that are beyond the company’s control (e.g. ethical eWoM). Building on communication and information processing theories, this study therefore considers both types of ethical market signals, and examines the psychological mechanisms through which they affect job seekers’ intention to apply for a job. The results from a controlled online experiment show that both types of ethical market signals increase job seekers’ job-pursuit intentions. These relationships are mediated by applicants’ attitude towards the job advertisement, their perceptions of corporate employment image and self-referencing. Consequently, the present study alerts practitioners to consider the effects of company-controlled and non-company-controlled ethical market signals, particularly when aiming to recruit highly-qualified millennial candidates.
    • Effects of history, location, and size of ethnic enclaves and ethnic restaurants on authentic cultural and gastronomic experiences

      Song, Hanqun; Kim, J-H. (Emerald Publishing, 2022)
      Purpose – The extant gastronomy literature has rarely examined a connection between authentic gastronomic experiences and destinations. Specifically, ethnic enclaves, which are unique gastronomic and cultural destinations providing ethnic cuisine and cultural experiences to visitors, have been under-researched. Thus, the current study aims to address this knowledge gap. Design/methodology/approach – Employing a 2 (history: long vs short) x 2 (location: Central Business District [CBD] vs rural; main street vs alleyway) x 2 size/ownership type (big vs small; chain vs independent) between-subjects design, two experiments were conducted using a sample of 557 British consumers to test the effect of history, location, and size of ethnic enclaves and ethnic restaurants on consumers’ authentic cultural and gastronomic experiences in a UK context. Findings – In Study 1, ethnic enclave’s size affected consumers’ authentic cultural experiences. In Study 2, restaurants’ history and ownership type positively influenced consumers’ authentic gastronomic experiences. Both studies consistently reported the positive relationship between authentic experiences and behavioral intentions. Practical implications – For ethnic enclaves, the management team may consider expanding the size of ethnic enclaves to increase consumers’ authentic cultural experience. For those ethnic restaurants within the ethnic enclave, any independent or old ethnic restaurants should actively promote both characteristics in their marketing materials to create a feeling of offering authentic gastronomic experiences to customers. Originality/value – This study identified important ethnic enclave-related factors and ethnic restaurant-related factors forming consumers’ authentic cultural and gastronomic experiences.
    • The effects of knowledge integration and contextual ambidexterity on innovation in entrepreneurial ventures

      Amankwah-Amoah, J.; Adomako, Samuel (Elsevier, 2021-04)
      This paper utilizes insights from the knowledge-based view and ambidexterity literature to examine the effects of knowledge integration (KI) on innovation via contextual ambidexterity (CA). The paper also investigates the potential moderating role of human resource (HR) slack on the relationship between KI and CA. Using survey data collected from 245 entrepreneurial firms operating in Ghana, the findings show that KI positively relates to CA, and this relationship is moderated by HR slack. In addition, we observed that CA mediates KI and innovation. The broader theoretical and practical implications of the study are outlined.
    • The effects of stakeholder integration on firm-level product innovativeness: insights from small and medium-sized enterprises in Ghana

      Adomako, Samuel; Amankwah-Amoah, J.; Danso, A. (2019-11)
      In spite of growing research on the influence of external stakeholders on firm outcomes, there is a paucity of research on how they influence innovation in emerging economies. In addition, the specific environmental factors that may influence the effect of stakeholder integration (SI) on firm innovation is less understood. Using data collected from 248 small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in Ghana, this paper develops and tests a model that examines the relationship between SI and firm-level product innovativeness. The findings from the study indicate SI positively relates to product innovativeness. Moreover, under conditions of higher competitor pressure and greater customer expectations, the effect of SI on product innovativeness is amplified. Contributions for theory and practice are discussed.
    • The effects of the Asian crisis on German FDI in Southeast Asia.

      Mohr, Alexander T.; Kumar, B.N. (Gabler Publishing, 2001)
      No Abstract
    • Electronic reverse auctions: emerging from the shadows?

      Tassabehji, Rana (2014)
      This chapter examines the role of business-to-business electronic reverse auctions (eRAs), one tool in the armoury of e-purchasing used by businesses including retailers. It tracks the development of this particular technology through the hype cycle and presents some propositions to maximise the use of eRAs as an effective e-purchasing tool. It also explains the damaging effect of the early negative perceptions and underlines the difficulty in overcoming them.
    • Electronic Word of Mouth (eWOM) in the marketing context: A state of the art analysis and future directions

      Ismagilova, Elvira; Dwivedi, Y.K.; Slade, E.; Williams, M. (Springer International Publishing, 2017)
      This SpringerBrief offers a state of the art analysis of electronic word-of-mouth (eWOM) communications and its role in marketing. The book begins with an overview of traditional word-of-mouth (WOM) and its evolution to eWOM. It discusses the differences between traditional and online WOM. The book examines why people engage in eWOM communications, but also how consumers evaluate its persuasiveness. It also looks at the effects of eWOM. The book identifies current gaps in the eWOM research, but also highlights future directions for this growing field. eWOM is an important marketing technique in brand communications, and it plays an important role in modern e-commerce. Marketers become extremely interested in enhancing the power of eWOM developing loyalty programs and building brands. Studying the effect of eWOM can be beneficial for companies. This book should be a good resource for scholars and practitioners that need to understand the pervasive effects of eWOM.
    • Electronic word of mouth in social media: the common characteristics of retweeted and favourited marketer-generated content posted on Twitter

      Alboqami, H.; Al-Karaghouli, W.; Baeshen, Y.; Erkan, I.; Evans, C.; Ghoneim, Ahmad (2015)
      Marketers desire to utilise electronic word of mouth (eWOM) marketing on social media sites. However, not all online content generated by marketers has the same effect on consumers; some of them are effective while others are not. This paper aims to examine different characteristics of marketer-generated content (MGC) that of which one lead users to eWOM. Twitter was chosen as one of the leading social media sites and a content analysis approach was employed to identify the common characteristics of retweeted and favourited tweets. 2,780 tweets from six companies (Booking, Hostelworld, Hotels, Lastminute, Laterooms and Priceline) operating in the tourism sector are analysed. Results indicate that the posts which contain pictures, hyperlinks, product or service information, direct answers to customers and brand centrality are more likely to be retweeted and favourited by users. The findings present the main eWOM drivers for MGC in social media.