• Toward a pedagogy for critical security studies: politics of migration in the classroom

      Bilgic, A.; Dhami, M.; Onkal, Dilek (2018-08)
      International Relations (IR) has increasingly paid attention to critical pedagogy. Feminist, post-colonial and poststructuralist IR scholarship, in particular, have long been advancing the discus-sions about how to create a pluralist and democratic classroom where ‘the others’ of politics can be heard by the students, who can critically reflect upon complex power relations in global politics. Despite its normative position, Critical Security Studies (CSS) has so far refrained from join-ing this pedagogical conversation. Deriving from the literatures of postcolonial and feminist pedagogical practices, it is argued that an IR scholar in the area of CSS can contribute to the pro-duction of a critical political subject in the 'uncomfortable classroom', who reflects on violent practices of security. Three pedagogical methods will be introduced: engaging with the students’ lifeworlds, revealing the positionality of security knowledge claims, and opening up the class-room to the choices about how the youth’s agency can be performed beyond the classroom. The argument is illustrated through the case of forced migration with specific reference to IR and Pol-itics students’ perceptions of Syrian refugees in Turkey. The article advances the discussions in critical IR pedagogy and encourages CSS scholarship to focus on teaching in accordance with its normative position.
    • Toward a periodic table of personality: mapping personality scales between the five-factor model and the circumplex model

      Woods, S.A.; Anderson, Neil (2016-04)
      In this study we examine the structures of ten personality inventories widely used for personnel assessment, by mapping the scales of personality inventories (PIs) to the lexical Big Five circumplex model resulting in a ‘Periodic Table of Personality’. Correlations between 273 scales from ten internationally popular PIs with independent markers of the lexical Big Five are reported, based on data from samples in two countries (UK N = 286; USA N = 1,046), permitting us to map these scales onto the AB5C framework. Emerging from our findings we propose a common facet framework derived from the scales of the PIs in our study. These results provide important insights into the literature on criterion-related validity of personality traits, and enable researchers and practitioners to understand how different PI scales converge and diverge and how compound PI scales may be constructed or replicated. Implications for research and practice are considered.
    • Towards a Circular Economy: An Emerging Economies Context

      Patwa, N.; Sivarajah, Uthayasankar; Seetharaman, A.; Sarkar, S.; Maiti, K.; Hingorani, K. (2020)
      Circular Economy (CE) and the adoption of its principles globally are more important than ever to sustain the rate of production of goods and services to meet the ever-increasing consumer demand that is burdening the environment and society. This study investigates the adoption of CE principles amongst emerging economies as the challenges faced by these economies are generally different in terms of resource availability, varying government policies and consumer behaviour from those of developed economies. This research presents an empirically validated CE adoption model using a sample of 183 consumer responses. The study highlights the strong influence of factors such as consumer behaviour on the acceptance of remanufactured products and using products as a service to encourage the adoption of CE practices in emerging economies. This research offers businesses, consumers and policy makers insights into measures that have been taken by emerging economies that are in line with CE principles.
    • Towards a framework for understanding ethnic consumers' acculturation strategies in a multicultural environment: a food consumption perspective

      Dey, B.L.; Alwi, S.; Yamoah, F.; Agyepong, S.A.; Kizgin, Hatice; Sarma, M. (2019-09-09)
      Purpose – While it is essential to further research the growing diversity in western metropolitan cities, little is currently known about how the members of various ethnic communities acculturate to multicultural societies. The purpose of this paper is to explore immigrants’ cosmopolitanism and acculturation strategies through an analysis of the food consumption behaviour of ethnic consumers in multicultural London. Design/methodology/approach – The study was set within the socio-cultural context of London. A number of qualitative methods such as in-depth interviews, observation and photographs were used to assess consumers’ acculturation strategies in a multicultural environment and how that is influenced by consumer cosmopolitanism. Findings – Ethnic consumers’ food consumption behaviour reflects their acculturation strategies, which can be classified into four groups: rebellion, rarefaction, resonance and refrainment. This classification demonstrates ethnic consumers’ multi-directional acculturation strategies, which are also determined by their level of cosmopolitanism. Research limitations/implications – The taxonomy presented in this paper advances current acculturation scholarship by suggesting a multi-directional model for acculturation strategies as opposed to the existing uni-directional and bi-directional perspectives and explicates the role of consumer cosmopolitanism in consumer acculturation. The paper did not engage host communities and there is hence a need for future research on how and to what extent host communities are acculturated to the multicultural environment. Practical implications – The findings have direct implications for the choice of standardisation vs adaptation as a marketing strategy within multicultural cities. Whilst the rebellion group are more likely to respond to standardisation, increasing adaptation of goods and service can ideally target members of the resistance and resonance groups and more fusion products should be exclusively earmarked for the resonance group.
    • Towards a negative ontology of leadership

      Kelly, Simon (2014)
      Drawing on recent critical debates concerning the ontology of leadership, this article outlines a radical rethinking of the concept – not as the study of heroic individuals, skilled practitioners, collaborators or discursive actors – but as the marker of a fundamental and productive lack; a space of absent presence through which individual and collective desires for leadership are given expression. Where current critical debates tend to oscillate between variants of the physical and the social in their analyses, this article considers the potential for a negative ontology of leadership; one in which absence, ideological practices and the operation of empty signifiers form the basis for empirical investigation and critical reflection.
    • Towards a performative theory of resistance: Senior managers and revolting subject(ivitie)s

      Harding, Nancy H.; Ford, Jackie M.; Lee, Hugh (2017)
      This paper develops a performative theory of resistance. It uses Judith Butler’s and Karen Barad’s theories of performativity to explore how resistance (to organisational strategies and policies) and resistants (those who resist such strategies and policies) co-emerge, within and through complex intra-actions of entangled discourses, materialities, affect and space/time. The paper uses empirical materials from a case study of the implementation of a talent management strategy. We analyse interviews with the senior managers charged with implementing the strategy, the influence of material, non-sentient actors, and the experiences of the researchers when carrying out the interviews. This leads to a theory that resistance and resistants emerge in moment-to-moment co-constitutive moves that may be invoked when identity or self is put in jeopardy. Resistance, we suggest, is the power (residing with resistants) to say ‘no’ to organizational requirements that would otherwise threaten to render the self abject.
    • Towards a Settlement

      Baimbridge, Mark J.; Whyman, P.B. (2016)
    • Towards Cyberbullying-free social media in smart cities: a unified multi-modal approach

      Kumari, K.; Singh, J.P.; Dwivedi, Y.K.; Rana, Nripendra P. (2020-08)
      Smart cities are shifting the presence of people from physical world to cyber world (cyberspace). Along with the facilities for societies, the troubles of physical world, such as bullying, aggression and hate speech, are also taking their presence emphatically in cyberspace. This paper aims to dig the posts of social media to identify the bullying comments containing text as well as image. In this paper, we have proposed a unified representation of text and image together to eliminate the need for separate learning modules for image and text. A single-layer Convolutional Neural Network model is used with a unified representation. The major findings of this research are that the text represented as image is a better model to encode the information. We also found that single-layer Convolutional Neural Network is giving better results with two-dimensional representation. In the current scenario, we have used three layers of text and three layers of a colour image to represent the input that gives a recall of 74% of the bullying class with one layer of Convolutional Neural Network.
    • Towards integrated manufacturing planning with common tools and data sets.

      Dewhurst, F.; Barber, Kevin D.; Rogers, J.J.B. (2001)
      The performance of manufacturing systems needs to be continuously reviewed in response to increasingly evolving market conditions. In recent years, a large volume of research has concentrated on improving manufacturing performance. Some research has been directed at senior management emphasising the strategic need for change and how to initiate change; other research has been directed at shop floor level and the provision of tools for continuous improvement; whilst more recent research has focused on business process re-engineering and supporting methodologies. However, there is a very limited set of tools available for middle managers to encapsulate the aspirations of senior management (e.g. the strategic objectives of a company) and translate these into shop floor actions. This paper proposes a methodology to support management of the introduction of new processes, products and systems and to improve the performance of manufacturing systems. The paper presents a case and methodology for an integrated system for strategic, tactical, operational and project planning. The proposed methodology is based on structured systems analysis and simulation of a manufacturing plant. Feasibility of the approach is demonstrated through application to two small to medium-sized enterprises.
    • Trade credit terms: asymmetric information and price discrimination evidence from three continents

      Pike, Richard H.; Lamminmäki, D.; Cravens, K.; Cheng, N.S. (2005)
      Trade credit terms offer firms contractual solutions to informational asymmetries between buyers and sellers. The credit period permits buyers to reduce uncertainty concerning product quality prior to payment, while the seller can reduce uncertainty concerning buyer payment intentions by prescribing payment before/on delivery or through two¿part payment terms and other mechanisms. Variation in trade credit terms also offers firms price discriminating opportunities. This study, drawing on the responses of 700 large firms in the US, UK and Australia, explores trade credit terms through the twin objectives of reducing information asymmetries and discriminatory pricing. Support is found for both theories.
    • The trade development path and export spillovers in China: A missing link.

      Buck, T.; Liu, X.; Wei, Yingqi; Liu, X. (2007)
      A two-step modelling strategy is applied to a panel of 5,861 foreign-invested and 7,697 indigenous Chinese firms for the period 1998¿2001 to investigate whether export spillovers may represent a mechanism underpinning Dunning¿s Trade Development Path hypothesis. ¿ Such spillovers are found, and the results emphasize the importance of a wide spectrum of spillover channels involving labour mobility, spatial agglomeration, technological imitation and the diffusion of exporting experience. ¿ Multinational enterprises in China positively affect local Chinese firms¿ exports through various spillover channels, and inward FDI brings significant, indirect spillovers.
    • Trade union learning strategies and migrant workers: policies and practice in a new-liberal environment

      Perrett, Robert A.; Lucio, M.M.; McBride, Jo; Craig, S. (2012)
      This paper examines trade union networking and community-oriented activity through the recent development of learning strategies in relation to migrant workers. The paper locates the discussion on learning in relation to union attempts to develop a broader urban and community-based view of the union as an organisation. It assesses the innovative ways trade unions deploy their learning strategies given the challenges associated with a liberal market economy, in particular, in relation to poor levels of co-ordination amongst key social organisations and low levels of state commitment to the area of training. The paper draws on five empirical case studies of such innovative union approaches and concludes that many of these learning initiatives represent a significant intervention by unions in local urban and community-based contexts. However, it also notes that these appear to be disconnected from stable and consistent forms of local community-based organisation and, in part, remain enveloped in a marketised project-based approach which is piecemeal and in many aspects financially dependent on the state.
    • Trading activity in options and stock around price-sensitive announcements

      Mazouz, Khelifa; Wu, Yuliang; Yin, S. (2015-12)
      This study investigates the trading activity in options and stock markets around informed events with extreme daily stock price movements. We find that informed agents are more likely to trade options prior to negative news and stocks ahead of positive news. We also show that optioned stocks overreact to the arrival of negative news, but react efficiently to positive news. However, the overreaction patterns are unique to the subsample of stocks with the lowest pre‐event abnormal option/stock volume ratio (O/S). This finding suggests that the incremental benefit of option listing is related to the level of option trading activity, over and beyond the presence of an options market on the firm’s stock. Finally, we find that the pre‐event abnormal O/S is a better predictor of stock price patterns following a negative shock than is the pre‐event O/S, implying that the former may contain more information about the future value of stocks than the latter.
    • Trading Frictions and Market Structure: An Empirical Analysis

      Cai, Charlie X.; Hillier, D.; Hudson, R.; Keasey, K. (2008)
      Market structure affects the informational and real frictions faced by traders in equity markets. Using bid-ask spreads, we present evidence which suggests that while real frictions associated with the costs of supplying immediacy are less in order-driven systems, informational frictions resulting from increased adverse selection risk are considerably higher in these markets. Firm value, transaction size and order location are all major determinants of the trading costs borne by investors. Consistent with the stealth trading hypothesis of Barclay and Warner (1993), we report that informational frictions are at their highest for medium size trades that go through the order book. Finally, while there is no doubt that the total costs of trading on order-driven systems are lower for very liquid securities, the inherent informational inefficiencies of the trading format should not be ignored. This is particularly true for the vast majority of small to mid-size stocks that experience infrequent trading and low transaction volume.
    • Transcultural identity development among third generation minority consumers

      Takhar, A.; Jamal, A.; Kizgin, Hatice (2021-09)
      This study explores how global and local forces influence the processes of consumer re-acculturation amongst third-generation British Sikhs in the United Kingdom (U.K.). Data is collected over a three-year period using multiple methods that focus on the experiential consumption of shaadi.com by third-generation British-born Sikhs. Data is analysed using thematic analysis, and findings reveal three transcultural identity patterns: accommodating, re-acculturating, and resisting Sikh culture. We argue that the emergent identity patterns are fluid, as our participants feel neither wholly British, wholly Sikh, nor wholly British-Sikh, positioning themselves beyond, rather than against, Sikh or British culture. We uncover the connectedness between the traditional cultural practices of arranged marriages and the space of shaadi.com, a matrimonial website. We interpret this website as a medium through which transcultural identities are constructed. We contribute to theory by showing the development of transcultural patterns of consumption and consistent transcultural identity construction in non-migrating ethnic communities.
    • Transforming the European Legal Order: The European Court of Justice at 60+

      Guth, Jessica (2016)
      The European Court of Justice has played a pivotal role in the transformation of international law obligations between Member States into an integrated legal order with direct applicability and effect in those Member States. This article explores whether or not the ECJ continues to be relevant to EU governance and integration and whether it continues to transform the legal orders of the member states. It briefly outlines the early case law which transformed the legal order and the preliminary reference procedure as an important element of that transformation and then considers the extent to which the ECJ continues to act in ways which are transformational even though the legal order itself has remained relatively static. The EU citizenship jurisprudence serves as a useful example of how integration is driven forward by the Court. This paper argues that the Court’s decisions do continue to have significant impact on areas of law and policy and EU governance generally. It illustrates this argument using gender equality law and the Human Rights as pertinent examples and concludes that the ECJ remains relevant in governance terms as it continues to drive forward EU integration in many areas and influence the development of law and policy across the member states.
    • A translation invariant pure DEA model

      Vincent, Charles; Färe, R.; Grosskopf, S. (2016-02-16)
      This communication complements the DEA model proposed by Lovell and Pastor (1999), by incorporating both positive and negative criteria in the model. As such, we propose a DEA model, known as pure DEA, using a directional distance function approach.
    • Transnational organizing: a case study of contract workers in the Colombian mining industry

      Royle, Tony; Cotton, E. (2014)
      This article examines recent organising successes in the Carbones del Cerrejón coal mine, reversing the organisational crisis of the Colombian mining union, Sintracarbon. Using Wever's concept of ‘field-enlarging strategies’, we argue that these events were facilitated by the dissemination of organising experiences between affiliates of a Global Union Federation, International Federation of Chemical, Energy, Mine and General Workers' Unions (ICEM), which recently merged to form IndustriALL. Additionally, we argue that this articulation between international and national unions, based on the principle of subsidiarity, was facilitated through sustained ICEM educational project activity, providing multiple entry points for Sintracarbon to operationalise its strategy and re-establish bargaining with multinational employers.
    • A Truly Future-Oriented Legal Framework for Fintech in the EU

      Kapsis, Ilias (May 2020)
      This article reviews critically the recent EU legislation and proposals for the regulation of financial technology (‘fintech”) and makes recommendations for legal improvements in the proposed frameworks, which will help to accelerate fintech growth, a declared EU goal, in the years to come. The rise of fintech driven by non-bank entities (technology startups, finance, big tech and big retail companies) helps to transform financial services industry, but also threatens the market positions of traditional banks and through them potentially the stability of the financial system. The current EU proposals, as presented in the Commission’s Fintech Action Plan published in 2018 and follow-up measures, outlined a number of steps to support fintech, while ensuring the protection of market stability and consumers and the maintenance of level playing field in the financial services markets. The article argues that, while the Commission’s proposed policy mix contains certain positive measures for fintech, it remains, overall, conservative and favours the incumbents. It also argues that unless the Commission becomes bolder and adopts a more flexible legal framework for fintech (for which the article makes specific recommendations), the latter will not grow at the pace needed to help build a competitive ad-vantage for the EU financial sector. The Commission’s continuing support of the established market landscape dominated by financial conglomerates employing traditional business models risks undermining the ability of the European financial system to adapt to the changing competition landscape created by advancing financial technologies and to fully address stability concerns, which emerged as a result of the financial crisis.