• Paired Evaluation: Preliminary Report from the Pilot Evaluation of the Paired App

      Gabb, J.; Aicken, C.; Di Martino, Salvatore; Witney, T. (The Open University/The University of Brighton, 2021-03)
      Romantic relationships are extremely important to people’s happiness and well-being, yet many people do not seek advice with relationship issues or may do so only once serious problems arise. Paired is a commercially available relationships app. Launched in October 2020, it currently has over 12,000 daily active users, predominantly in the US and UK. Public self-management of care (i.e. self-help) is target for technological investment, as digital health and well-being apps gain popularity. There are currently over 318,000 health apps available worldwide, with a further 200+ new health apps coming onto the market each day. Research has shown that mobile health (mHealth, i.e. health and well-being apps) can be effective in supporting behaviour change: helping us to adopt and maintain healthy behaviours. However, many health and well-being apps are not based on reliable research evidence, the only indication of an app’s quality deriving from ‘user reviews’. Paired is evidence-based. Focusing on the area of romantic relationships, it seeks to support and enhance couple relationships, before the point when professional help may be needed. Researchers at The Open University (OU) and the University of Brighton evaluated the effectiveness of Paired, using a mixed methods approach... We created the Quality of Relationship Index (QRI), a rigorously-developed measure of overall relationship quality. We found that quality of communication – the underpinning dimension of all relationship maintenance behaviour – was most strongly related to overall relationship quality... In developing the QRI, we explored change in different aspects of relationship quality, whilst using Paired... Integration of the findings from our analyses of different data sources, and the ‘dose-response’ effect that we consistently observed, together give us confidence that Paired is responsible for the improvements to relationship quality that its users enjoy.
    • Parameters of managerial effectiveness and development of third sector managers: An empirical study of HIV/AIDS NGO managers in India

      Kazi, Shehnaz; Analoui, Farhad (2019-10)
      This paper reports on the findings of an empirical study that explores the perception of HIV third sector managers in India of their own effectiveness and the contextual factors in which they work. A qualitative methodology with case study design was employed. Semi-structured interviews with 16 Non-Governmental Organisation (NGOs) managers and two focus-group interviews with 16 non-managerial staff were carried out to generate primary data. The paper attempts to contextualise the model ‘parameters of managerial effectiveness’ (Analoui, 1999, 2002), and its related contextual factors in India. The findings identify managerial and leadership factors and influences that impact the effectiveness of NGO managers. It also confirms that, by and large, the framework is applicable to the NGO managers in India given the different context in which they must operate. These differences provided basis for the construction of a modified behavioural model for managerial behavioural analysis and their human resource development (HRD) needs. It provides a basis for HRD policy formulation for designing and implementing adequate training and development (T&D) for NGO managers in the third sector in India. This unique and first-time study contributes to the present stock of theoretical knowledge and understanding of the effectiveness of the managers in a sensitive untouched area within the third sector and organisations in a developing country.
    • Participant responses to photo-elicitation methods in the study of work-life balance

      Cassell, C.; Malik, Fatima; Radcliffe, L. (2015-01)
      This paper explores the responses of 17 participants to using photo-elicitation as part of a project exploring their daily experiences of work-life balance. We explicitly asked participants about their experiences of using the method that involved taking photographs of their work-life balance experiences and interpreting these photographs through participation in semi- structured interviews. Participants took 108 photographs in total. We explore important methodological issues for researchers seeking to use these methods and explain that photograph-elicitation has much to offer management and organizational researchers. A major benefit of the method is the role of photographs as a ‘conversational technology’ in encouraging re-interpretation and reflection of experiences in a manner not always achieved when using other qualitative techniques.
    • Partnership and process in the maritime construction industry.

      McBride, Jo; Stirling, J. (2002)
      The authors provide a case study of a partnership agreement in the Tyneside maritime construction industry. They focus on the role of trade unions and the complex tensions that emerge between regional and local officials and workplace representatives. They argue that agreements can only be understood within the context of existing employee relations structures. Their conclusion suggests that the agreement had little impact on a ¿branch plant¿ of a national company and that it was often received with hostility and little commitment. As a consequence the partnership became a symbolic agreement with potential significance for external customers but no role in shaping workplace employee relations.
    • The Party is Over and Microsoft Have Lost: The Key Issues and Ramifications of the Microsoft Judgement

      Guth, Jessica (2008)
      The Microsoft Case is a battle between Microsoft, the global software giant, and the European Commission. The Commission found Microsoft to be in breach of Arti-cle 82 of the EC Treaty because of their refusal to sup-ply interoperability information in the Work Group Server (WGS) market and tying in Windows Media Player (WMP) with Windows. Microsoft appealed to the Euro-pean Court of First Instance (CFI) where they lost their nine year battle on 17 September 2007. Microsoft will not be appealing the decision1. The case is a modern day David and Goliath with the Commission coming out the champion. This edition of Law in Brief will look at the main outcomes of the decision and its likely impact in particularly on future clashes of competition law and intellectual property law within the European Union (EU).
    • Pension scheme redesign and wealth redistribution between the members and sponsor: The USS rule change in October 2011

      Platanakis, Emmanouil; Sutcliffe, C.
      The redesign of defined benefit pension schemes usually results in a substantial redistribution of wealth between age cohorts of members, pensioners, and the sponsor. This is the first study to quantify the redistributive effects of a rule change by a real world scheme (the Universities Superannuation Scheme, USS) where the sponsor underwrites the pension promise. In October 2011 USS closed its final salary scheme to new members, opened a career average revalued earnings (CARE) section, and moved to ‘cap and share’ contribution rates. We find that the pre-October 2011 scheme was not viable in the long run, while the post-October 2011 scheme is probably viable in the long run, but faces medium term problems. In October 2011 future members of USS lost 65% of their pension wealth (or roughly £100,000 per head), equivalent to a reduction of roughly 11% in their total compensation, while those aged over 57 years lost almost nothing. The riskiness of the pension wealth of future members increased by a third, while the riskiness of the present value of the sponsor’s future contributions reduced by 10%. Finally, the sponsor’s wealth increased by about £32.5 billion, equivalent to a reduction of 26% in their pension costs.
    • People, process and policy perspectives on food security: An exploration using systems archetypes

      Sharif, Amir M.; Irani, Zahir (2016)
      This paper aims to identify a wider holistic view of the inter-relationships relating to food security from a people, process and policy perspective. This is so that decision and policy makers can identify relevant alignments between disparate and conflicting priority elements in the field. Noting the complexity of inter-related challenges posed by food security, food supply chains and growing concerns over food waste, this paper also seeks to identify cross-cutting themes relative to shared energy and water security objectives also. The authors develop and adapt an existing food security framework to encapsulate the above culminating in a systems archetype that defines the intimate feed-forward relationship. As a viewpoint piece, there is no empirical work to report in this paper. An exploratory review of the literature has allowed for the extraction of food security concerns that need the attention of stakeholders across the enterprise to ensure robust food supply chains can be created, maintained and sustained through a better understanding and usage of information, knowledge and data. The authors present an adaptation of an existing food security framework to include dimensions of people, process and policy through the inclusion of a number of broad thematic areas including (amongst others): management best practices; sustainable business operations; consumption rights, behaviours and trading policies; lifecycle management; recovery and extraction; regulatory changes and policy reform; environmental and climate change impacts. The authors outline an overarching systems archetype based upon a combination of the Limits of Growth, Tragedy of the Commons and Attractiveness Principle archetypes. In doing so, providing decision and policy makers to identify and explore a range of food security scenarios and potential outcomes. This paper is a position paper that provides strategic directions on the impact of people, process and policy aspects on the development of food security policies from the perspective of local and central government decision makers. This paper provides a holistic worldview on key aspects of the global and national food security debate that seeks to assist decision and policy makers frame their decisions and policy interventions across dimensions of people, process and policy. Noting the impact of securing and maintaining the production, supply, consumption, health benefits and waste recovery aspects of food this paper provides a perspective on the inter-relationships that exist within the topical area and the socially mediated inter-relationships which exist and should be considered when engaging with the food security and food supply chain topical area. The paper raises awareness and highlights inherent inter-relationships within the food debate for the benefit of decision and policy makers present at the organisational level, specifically around people, process and policy.
    • Perceived helpfulness of eWOM: emotions, fairness and rationality

      Ismagilova, Elvira; Dwivedi, Y.K.; Slade, E. (2020-03)
      Consumers use online reviews to help make informed purchase decisions. This paper extends existing research by examining how content of online reviews influences perceptions of helpfulness by demonstrating how different emotions can influence helpfulness of both product and service online reviews beyond a valence-based approach using cognitive appraisal theory and attribution theory. This research contributes to existing knowledge regarding the theory of information processing, attribution theory, and cognitive appraisal theory of emotions. Using findings from this study, practitioners can make review websites more user-friendly which will help readers avoid information overload and make more informed purchase decisions.
    • Perceived institutional support and small venture performance: The mediating role of entrepreneurial persistence

      Ahsan, M.; Adomako, Samuel; Mole, K.F. (Sage, 2021-03)
      This article examines the entrepreneurial persistence of opportunity-motivated entrepreneurs in Ghana. Specifically, it develops a theoretical model focusing on the relationships among perceived institutional support, entrepreneurial persistence and small venture performance, including how entrepreneurial networks condition the relationship between institutional support and entrepreneurial persistence. Using time-lagged data from 373 opportunity-motivated entrepreneurs leading small ventures in Ghana, we find broad support for our hypotheses. The insights from our study provide an integrative understanding of the relationships among perceived institutional support, entrepreneurial persistence and venture performance in an adverse environment. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.
    • Perceived service quality, repeat use of healthcare services and inpatient satisfaction in emerging economy: Empirical evidences from India

      Trivedi, Rohitkumar; Jagani, K. (2018)
      Purpose: The chief objective of the study is to understand that how different demographic variables and repeated availing of service from the same doctor or same hospital shapes the overall perception of healthcare service quality and satisfaction among inpatients admitted in private hospitals in an emerging economy. Methodology: A self-administered, cross-sectional survey of inpatients using a questionnaire translated into Hindi and Gujarati. The data was collected from 702 inpatient from 18 private clinics located in three selected cities from Western India. Findings The results indicate that experience with hospital administration, doctors, nursing staff, physical environment, hospital pharmacy and physical environment is significant predictor of inpatient satisfaction. Physical environment was found to be significantly associated with satisfaction only among female inpatient. It was also found that repeat availing of services either from the same hospital or doctor does not increases patient satisfaction. The feasibility, reliability and validity of the instrument that measures major technical and non-technical dimensions of quality of healthcare services were established in the context of a developing country. Originality/Value: The study makes important contribution by empirically investigating the inpatient assessment of healthcare service quality based upon their demographic information and repeated availing of services to understand how repeat visit shapes the service quality perception.
    • Perceptions of institutional complexity and lobbyists’ decisions to join lobbying coalitions – evidence from the European Union context

      Barron, A.; Trouille, Jean-Marc (2015-11-24)
      We use data from in-depth interviews with business lobbyists in Brussels to investigate why they choose to join lobbying coalitions. We find that lobbyists face two competing institutional incentives. First, they are confronted with incentives to ally with other European organisations, develop multilateral policy messages, and communicate messages to the Commission and the Parliament. Simultaneously, they face inducements to join narrower coalitions, develop bilateral policy messages, and direct those messages at the Council. Lobbyists’ receptivity to these incentives – and thus their choices of lobbying coalitions – differs with their age, educational background, and with the type and ownership structure of the organisations they represent. Combined, our findings contribute to the limited, mainly American literature on interest coalitions by demonstrating that lobbyists operate in complex institutional environments, and that their interpretations of and reactions to institutional complexity are shaped by individual- and organisational-level factors.
    • Performance evaluation of bankruptcy prediction models: An orientation-free super-efficiency DEA-based framework

      Mousavi, Mohammad M.; Quenniche, J.; Xu, B. (2015-12)
      Prediction of corporate failure is one of the major activities in auditing firms risks and uncertainties. The design of reliable models to predict bankruptcy is crucial for many decision making processes. Although a large number of models have been designed to predict bankruptcy, the relative performance evaluation of competing prediction models remains an exercise that is unidimensional in nature, which often leads to reporting conflicting results. In this research, we overcome this methodological issue by proposing an orientation-free super-efficiency data envelopment analysis model as a multi-criteria assessment framework. Furthermore, we perform an exhaustive comparative analysis of the most popular bankruptcy modeling frameworks for UK data including our own models. In addition, we address two important research questions; namely, do some modeling frameworks perform better than others by design? and to what extent the choice and/or the design of explanatory variables and their nature affect the performance of modeling frameworks?, and report on our findings.
    • Performance Management

      Matthias, Olga (2011)
      After reading this chapter you will be able to: Examine the role of Performance Management in ensuring effective business performance; Consider how a culture of suitable measurement can be established and how sustainable performance can be embedded; Demonstrate a systematic understanding of the processes involved in the development and implementation of Performance Management systems; Devise and use performance measures to inform the performance management system; Assess the benefits and drawbacks inherent in the implementation of Performance Management Systems; Analyse and evaluate different Performance Management methodologies; and Synthesise and analyse data and information and evaluate its relevance and validity in the context of any given organisation.
    • Performance measures and metrics in outsourcing decisions: A review for research and applications

      Gunasekaran, A.; Irani, Zahir; Choy, K.-L.; Filippi, L.; Papadopoulos, T. (2015-03)
      Outsourcing, an operations strategy that influences the performance of a supply chain, has become an important component of global operations management. An effective global sourcing strategy helps companies to manage the flow of parts and finished products in meeting the needs of overseas and domestic markets. Outsourcing reduces the cost of assets, facilitates core competencies to reduce production costs, leads to strategic flexibility and reduces administrative and overhead costs. Some of the reasons why companies are against outsourcing include integration challenges, sacrificing their competitive base, opportunistic behaviour, rising transaction and coordination costs, limited innovation, and higher procurement costs. Despite these shortcomings, outsourcing will continue to play an important role in enhancing organizational competitiveness. Therefore, an attempt has been made to review the literature on outsourcing with particular reference to Performance Measures and Metrics (PMMs) used in arriving at outsourcing decisions. The main objective of this paper is to present a taxonomy (classification) of PMMs in outsourcing decisions at the pre-outsourcing, during-outsourcing, and post-outsourcing stages. Also, based on the literature review and analysis, an attempt is made to determine a list of specific tools and techniques for PMMs in outsourcing. Finally, the limitations of the paper and future research directions are presented.
    • The persistence of outward foreign direct investment from German Manufacturing Industries.

      McDonald, Frank; Tüselmann, H-J.; Bohl, M.; Voronkova, S.; Windrum, P. (2011)
    • Personnel Selection in the Digital Age: A Review of Validity and Applicant Reactions, and Future Research Challenges

      Woods, S.A.; Ahmed, S.; Nikolaou, I.; Costa, Ana-Cristina; Anderson, Neil (Taylor francis Group, 2019)
      We present a targeted review of recent developments and advances in digital selection procedures (DSPs) with particular attention to advances in internet-based techniques. By reviewing the emergence of DSPs in selection research and practice, we highlight five main categories of methods (online applications, online psychometric testing, digital interviews, gamified assessment and social media). We discuss the evidence base for each of these DSP groups, focusing on construct and criterion validity, and applicant reactions to their use in organizations. Based on the findings of our review, we present a critique of the evidence base for DSPs in industrial, work and organizational psychology and set out an agenda for advancing research. We identify pressing gaps in our understanding of DSPs, and ten key questions to be answered. Given that DSPs are likely to depart further from traditional nondigital selection procedures in the future, a theme in this agenda is the need to establish a distinct and specific literature on DSPs, and to do so at a pace that reflects the speed of the underlying technological advancement. In concluding, we, therefore, issue a call to action for selection researchers in work and organizational psychology to commence a new and rigorous multidisciplinary programme of scientific study of DSPs.
    • Perspectives on Legal Education: Contemporary Responses to the Lord Upjohn Lectures

      Ashford, C.; Duncan, N.; Guth, Jessica (2015)
      This chapter forms part of the edited collection of critical overviews of the major legal education debates in the context of the Lord Upjohn Lectures.
    • Perspectives on the future of manufacturing within the Industry 4.0 era

      Hughes, L.; Dwivedi, Y.K.; Rana, Nripendra P.; Williams, M.D.; Raghaven, V. (2022-02)
      The technological choices facing the manufacturing industry are vast and complex as the industry contemplates the increasing levels of digitization and automation in readiness for the modern competitive age. These changes broadly categorized as Industry 4.0, offer significant transformation challenges and opportunities, impacting a multitude of operational aspects of manufacturing organizations. As manufacturers seek to deliver increased levels of productivity and adaptation by innovating many aspects of their business and operational processes, significant challenges and barriers remain. The roadmap toward Industry 4.0 is complex and multifaceted, as manufacturers seek to transition toward new and emerging technologies, whilst retaining operational effectiveness and a sustainability focus. This study approaches many of these significant themes by presenting a critical evaluation of the core topics impacting the next generation of manufacturers, challenges and key barriers to implementation. These factors are further evaluated via the presentation of a new Industry 4.0 framework and alignment of I4.0 themes with the UN Sustainability Goals.
    • Persuasiveness of eWOM communications: Literature review and suggestions for future research

      Ismagilova, Elvira; Slade, E.; Williams, M. (2016)
      Electronic word-of-mouth (eWOM) plays an important part in consumer purchase decision. The way consumers perceive the persuasiveness of eWOM message can affect their attitude, and purchase intention, and hence sales. Thus, the topic of persuasiveness of eWOM communications has received much attention from scholars. The objective of this paper is to provide a brief review of the existing literature related to the effectiveness of eWOM communications and offer an overview of the determinants of eWOM persuasiveness. This paper contributes to the existing eWOM literature by reviewing the existing studies on eWOM communications, identifying gaps in the current research and providing directions for future research.
    • Picketing

      Gall, Gregor (2016)