• Machine learning approach to auto-tagging online content for content marketing efficiency: A comparative analysis between methods and content type

      Salminen, J.; Yoganathan, Vignesh; Corporan, J.; Jansen, B.J.; Jung, S.-G. (2019-08)
      As complex data becomes the norm, greater understanding of machine learning (ML) applications is needed for content marketers. Unstructured data, scattered across platforms in multiple forms, impedes performance and user experience. Automated classification offers a solution to this. We compare three state-of-the-art ML techniques for multilabel classification - Random Forest, K-Nearest Neighbor, and Neural Network - to automatically tag and classify online news articles. Neural Network performs the best, yielding an F1 Score of 70% and provides satisfactory cross-platform applicability on the same organisation's YouTube content. The developed model can automatically label 99.6% of the unlabelled website and 96.1% of the unlabelled YouTube content. Thus, we contribute to marketing literature via comparative evaluation of ML models for multilabel content classification, and cross-channel validation for a different type of content. Results suggest that organisations may optimise ML to auto-tag content across various platforms, opening avenues for aggregated analyses of content performance.
    • Macroeconomic impacts of fiscal policy shocks in the UK: A DSGE analysis

      Bhattarai, K.; Trzeciakiewicz, Dawid (2017-02)
      This paper develops and estimates a new-Keynesian dynamic stochastic general equilibrium (DSGE) model for the analysis of fiscal policy in the UK. We find that government consumption and investment yield the highest GDP multipliers in the short-run, whereas capital income tax and public investment have dominating effect on GDP in the long-run. When nominal interest rate is at the zero lower bound, consumption taxes and public consumption and investment are found to be the most effective fiscal instruments throughout the analysed horizon, and capital and labour income taxes are established to be the least effective. The paper also shows that the effectiveness of fiscal policy decreases in a small open-economy scenario and that nominal rigidities improve effectiveness of public spending and consumption taxes, whereas decrease that of income taxes.
    • 'The Magnificent 7[am]?' Work-life articulation beyond the 9[am] to 5[pm] 'norm'

      Smith, Andrew J. (2016-11-15)
      This article focuses on the work-life ‘balance’ challenges of those who work in organisations that operate beyond standard hours. The concept of work-life articulation is utilised to examine the experiences and practicalities of attempting to reconcile the, often competing, demands of employment and family life. Qualitative research was conducted in two private sector businesses and one third sector organisation in the UK during the onset of the 2008 financial crisis. The findings reveal increasing competitive pressures, efficiency drives and work intensification. ‘Business needs’ are prioritised over care responsibilities, and in the private sector organisations there is declining flexible working with a reassertion of the management prerogative. This article contributes to current debates over work-life ‘balance’ and highlights variable, changeable and unpredictable working time arrangements that permeate non-standard hours, which creates additional complexities and challenges for family time schedules and routines.
    • Making business-to-business international internet marketing effective: A study of critical factors using a case study approach

      Zairi, Mohamed; Elbeltagi, I.; Eid, R. (2006)
      The recent phenomenal growth in business activities dependent on the Internet has demonstrated that various potential advantages could be derived from using information and communication technology platforms. The Internet has enabled firms to reach out to global markets and has provided them with the opportunity to customize their strategies and offerings in an unprecedented way. These recent developments provide an exciting opportunity for research to study the dynamics involved in international Internet marketing (IIM) and, in particular, to examine closely the factors that could influence success in using this new technology for IIM activities. Using a business-to-business context and a multiple-case-study approach, this article focuses on two main areas of study: (1) the critical examination of the literature and identification of the most important factors that have a significant influence on business-to-business IIM and (2) the first-hand verification of how the identified factors are implemented in various organizational contexts.
    • Making Sense of Big Data – Can it Transform Operations Management?

      Matthias, Olga; Fouweather, Ian; Gregory, Ian; Vernon, A. (2016-02-22)
      This paper focuses on the application and exploitation of Big Data to create competitive advantage. It presents a framework of application areas and how they help the understanding of targeting and scoping specific areas for sustainable improvement. Empirical evidence demonstrates the application of Big Data in practice and tests the framework. An exploratory approach is adopted to the secondary research which examines vendors’ offerings. The empirical research used the case study method. The findings indicate that there is opportunity to create sustainable competitive advantage through the application of big data. However there are social, technological and human consequences that are only now beginning to emerge which need to be addressed if true long-term advantage is to be achieved. The research develops a framework and tests it only in 2 dimensions. This should be expanded. The vendor analysis limitations lie within the nature of the information available and the difficulties in mitigating against bias. The suggested framework can help academics and managers to identify areas of opportunity to do so, setting new levels of performance and new agendas for business. This work contributes to service operations management, building on Kranzberg (1986) and the impact of technology and on Fosso Wamba et al. (2015) by developing a systems application framework to further understanding of big data from a practical perspective to extend their research taxonomy insights. Our case studies demonstrate how the use of BD enhances operational performance.
    • Making sense of rework and its unintended consequence in projects: the emergence of uncomfortable knowledge

      Love, P.E.D.; Smith, J.; Ackermann, F.; Irani, Zahir (2019-04)
      To make sense of the rework phenomena that plagues construction projects a longitudinal exploration and mixed-method approach was undertaken to understand its causal setting and why it remained an on-going issue for organizations contracted to deliver an asset. The research reveals that rework was an zemblanity (i.e., being an unpleasant un-surprise) that resulted in: (1) project managers ignoring established organisation-wide procedures and, at their discretion, amend them to suit their own goals while denouncing the importance of recording and learning from non-conformances; (2) a deficiency of organisational controls and routines to contain and reduce rework; and (3) an absence of an organisation-project dyad that supported and promoted an environment of psychological safety. A new theoretical conceptualization of error causation that is intricately linked to rework and safety incidents is presented. The research provides managers with ‘uncomfortable knowledge’, which is needed to provide insights into the determinants of rework that form part of their everyday practice.
    • Making Sense of Rework Causation in Offshore Hydrocarbon projects

      Love, P.E.D.; Ackerman, F.; Smith, J.; Irani, Zahir; Edwards, D.J. (2016)
      Retrospective sensemaking is used to determine how and why rework in offshore hydrocarbon projects occurred. Staff from organizations operating at the blunt end (e.g., clients/design engineers providing finance and information) and those at the sharp end (e.g., contractors at the “coalface”) of a project's supply chain were interviewed to make sense of the rework that occurred. The analysis identified the need for managers to de-emphasize an environment that prioritizes production over other considerations and instead systematically examine mechanisms and factors that shape people's performance. Limitations of the research and the implications for managerial practice are also identified.
    • Making use a new open-multipurpose framework for more realistic estimation process in project management

      Hussain, Zahid I.; Lazarski, A.B. (2016)
      The current turbulent times call for adaptability, especially in non-repetitive endeavours being a vital characteristic of project management. The research organized along five objectives commenced in the autumn of 2008 with a pilot study. Then it proceeded through an inductive research process, involving a series of interviews with well-recognized international experts in the field. In addition conceptualized long-running observation of forty-five days was used, before proposal of a new framework for improving the accuracy of estimates in project management. Furthermore, the framework’s “know-how to apply” description have been systematically reviewed through the course of four hundred twenty-five days of meetings. This achieved socially agreed understanding assured that it may be possible to improve accuracy of estimates, while having flexible, adaptable framework exploiting dependency between project context and conditioned by it, use of tools and techniques.
    • A managed decline: Higher education provision

      Breen, Liz; McIntosh, Bryan (2016)
    • Management Consultancy Insights and Real Consultancy Projects

      Manville, G.; Matthias, Olga; Campbell, J. (2018)
      The field of Management Consulting research has grown rapidly in recent years. Fuelled by the drivers of complexity and uncertainty, a growing number of organizations - both profit and third sector alike - are looking at Management Consulting to assist in their aims for development and change. Consultants and change agents have become a common feature in organizational change initiatives, with individual consultants and consulting firms now involved in both providing advice and in implementing ideas and solutions. Management Consulting needs to demonstrate value through the application of academic thinking to real life challenges faced by organisations. The book seeks to address these issues by offering applied theoretical insights from academics that both teach Managing Consultancy and are also practicing management consultants. Written by recognized experts in their field, the contributors combine original insights with authoritative analysis. Uniquely, this book identifies emerging themes with critical discourse and provides rich empirical case study evidence to show the reader how Management Consulting projects are implemented. The second part of the book features real-world consultancy projects, written up as cases conducted for organizations. The organizations themselves range from SMEs to multi-national organizations and the public sector. The case studies are international by context and composition, covering several continents.
    • The Management Consultant: The Hermes of our time

      Fouweather, Ian (2017)
      Our need for certainty in an uncertain world is not new, but the narratives we choose have to resonate with the times we imagine. In the 21st century, management discourses focus on rapid technological and societal changes to highlight a radically open future that is fundamentally different from the past. Where once oracles used the exploits of Zeus, Apollo and Dionysus to dispense wisdom and provide direction in our collective struggle for survival, we now look elsewhere. With the rise of scientific management in the early 20th century, it has been to Management Consultants that the corporate world and public institutions have looked towards to provide the certainty they require. Not surprisingly with its rise, commentators and critics have sought to understand the nature of the industry and why it has become such a significant part of the business environment. Paradoxically, despite over twenty five years of writing, and many authoritative voices the nature of the industry remains rather vague (Harvey et al. 2016). To shed light on why this might be, this paper draws on Greek mythology, focussing on the god Hermes; the fleet footed traveller who like an ancient consultant was despatched from the heavens to bring messages and wisdom to mortals on Earth.
    • The Management NVQ: a critique of the myth of relevance

      Grugulis, C. Irena (2000)
      The Management NVQs were (according to their proponents) designed to provide a new mechanism for certifying workplace competence. Centred on descriptions of practice in the workplace they offered a qualifications route that could be accessed by all. This article draws on an in-depth study of the implementation of NVQs in three private sector organisations. It argues that, in practice, this competence-based format is highly problematic. Candidates are required to work towards criteria that may not match their roles and responsibilities, developmental work is systemically discouraged and work is routinised. The article concludes by arguing that these flaws are structural ones which may be expected to continue as long as NVQs continue to attempt to distil the essence of occupations into `standards¿.
    • Management Use of Strategic Tools for Innovating During Turbulent Times

      Tassabehji, Rana; Isherwood, A. (2014)
      While managers use a variety of tools, they overwhelmingly continue to use those that are well established and focus on the management of internal and external resources, whereas tools aimed to foster more innovative, dynamic, and ‘blue ocean’ strategies are not widely applied in practice.
    • Management Worldwide: Distinctive Styles Among Globalization.

      Hickson, David J.; Pugh, D.S. (Penguin, 2002)
      Businesses today need employees who can operate on a global stage, whether as international managers, technical specialists, expatriates or 'parachutists' who make occasional troubleshooting trips abroad. Yet cultural misunderstandings in the workplace can complicate even the simplest tasks. Something that sounds like a 'Yes' to a foreigner may actually be a polite way of saying 'No'. Fully updated and expanded for this second edition, Management Worldwide is essential for managers, students of management and organizations who want to know how managers operate and business is conducted in different societies. It is essential reading in a global economy where cultural differences can still mean make or break.
    • Managing commitments and flexibility by real options

      Roemer, Ellen; Rese, M. (2004)
      In the past, transaction cost economics (TCE) literature has largely stressed the benefits of contractual commitments in relationships. TCE traditionally recommends safeguarding specific assets against holdup, thus reducing behavioral uncertainty. In contrast, the reverse side of the coin has been disregarded for a long time. Firms may lose some of their flexibility and thus the opportunity to benefit from future emerging business activities due to prior contractual commitments. Flexibility becomes especially important in dynamic environments where there is rapid technological change. To manage the emergent trade-off between contractual commitments and flexibility in dynamic markets, the authors propose a real options approach. The value of a firm's flexibility to switch to a new trading partner is represented by a real switching option. It can be shown how contractual commitments directly affect the value of the switching option. To clarify, the authors numerically analyze the respective trade-off and derive implications for an optimal choice of contractual commitments.
    • Managing culture at British Airways: hype, hope and reality

      Grugulis, C. Irena; Wilkinson, Adrian (2002)
      Nearly twenty years after the publication of the (in)famous In Search of Excellence, the notion of `cultural change¿ within organisations continues to excite attention. This is readily understandable, since cultural interventions offer practitioners the hope of a universal panacea to organisational ills and academics an explanatory framework that enjoys the virtues of being both partially true and gloriously simple. Such a combination is apparent in the way that many attempts to shape organisational culture are presented to the public: as simple stories with happy endings.1 This article attempts to rescue a fairy-tale. The story of British Airways is one of the most widely used inspirational accounts of changing culture. Throughout the 1980s and 1990s it was used to demonstrate the necessary compatibility of pleasure and profits2 in celebratory accounts where culture change is presented as the only explanation for the transformation that occurred. This corrective makes no attempt to deny the very substantial changes that took place in BA. Rather, it sets these in context noting the organisation¿s environment at the time of the transformation, the structural changes that took place and observes the impact that such changes had over the long term.3¿5
    • Managing e-Government: value positions and relationships

      Rose, J.; Persson, J.S.; Heeager, L.T.; Irani, Zahir (2015-09)
      Public sector managers take much of the responsibility for selecting, commissioning, implementing and realising benefits from information technology (IT) projects. However, e-Government initiatives often suffer from complexity, vision failure, lack of goal clarity and insufficient commitment. These problems may stem from value traditions that are deeply ingrained in managers’ cultural environments but not always in harmony with each other. A first step towards working with value complexity is to understand it; we synthesise a model of value positions for e-Government derived from major traditions in the public administration literature. Four value positions relevant to e-Government together with their IT assumptions are identified; they reflect the ideals of professionalism, efficiency, service and engagement. A qualitative investigation of Danish local authority managers displays both value congruence and value divergence. The interpretive study results in a theoretical model that combines value positions and relationships, and the model’s implications for researchers and practitioners in focusing successful e-Government initiatives are outlined.
    • Managing food security through food waste and loss: Small data to big data

      Irani, Zahir; Sharif, Amir M.; Lee, Habin; Aktas, E.; Topaloğlu, Z.; van't Wout, T. (2018-10)
      This paper provides a management perspective of organisational factors that contributes to the reduction of food waste through the application of design science principles to explore causal relationships between food distribution (organisational) and consumption (societal) factors. Qualitative data were collected with an organisational perspective from commercial food consumers along with large-scale food importers, distributors, and retailers. Cause-effect models are built and “what-if” simulations are conducted through the development and application of a Fuzzy Cognitive Map (FCM) approaches to elucidate dynamic interrelationships. The simulation models developed provide a practical insight into existing and emergent food losses scenarios, suggesting the need for big data sets to allow for generalizable findings to be extrapolated from a more detailed quantitative exercise. This research offers itself as evidence to support policy makers in the development of policies that facilitate interventions to reduce food losses. It also contributes to the literature through sustaining, impacting and potentially improving levels of food security, underpinned by empirically constructed policy models that identify potential behavioural changes. It is the extension of these simulation models set against a backdrop of a proposed big data framework for food security, where this study sets avenues for future research for others to design and construct big data research in food supply chains. This research has therefore sought to provide policymakers with a means to evaluate new and existing policies, whilst also offering a practical basis through which food chains can be made more resilient through the consideration of management practices and policy decisions.
    • Managing functional diversity to improve the performance of international joint ventures.

      Mohr, Alexander T.; Puck, J.F. (2005)
      International Joint Ventures (IJVs) have become one of the most important ways for companies to expand their activities and exploit business opportunities abroad. In China, for example, which has become the world's largest recipient of Foreign Direct Investment, IJVs with local companies are the most important way of doing business. However, many companies have learnt that the performance of their joint ventures in China does not meet their expectations. This study focuses on functional diversity - differences in business practices between foreign and local companies - and its influence on IJV performance. We investigate the influence of this functional diversity on the performance of IJVs and discuss how companies can moderate this influence through adaptation, trust, commitment and communication. Hypotheses are formulated and empirically tested using data gathered through a questionnaire survey of managers of German-Chinese IJVs. The results show that although functional diversity has a negative impact on IJV performance, managers can influence the magnitude of this impact. We use insights from interviews with managers of German-Chinese IJVs in China to supplement our discussion and provide some indication of best practice.
    • Managing institutionalization: Means-ends decoupling in human resource practices

      Park, Sang-Bum (2018-07-02)
      Although various firms adopt and implement multiple human resource practices as best practices (means), a substantial number of firms fail to realize their objectives (ends). The practices of firms are frequently decoupled from their intended outcomes. By leveraging the concept of means-ends decoupling, which refers to the gap between practices and outcomes, our research examines this important but underexplored phenomenon, which the traditional concept of policy-practice decoupling fails to fully account for. Hence, organizational agency is both conceptualized and measured as consistency and competence. The manner in which this variable affects the implementation and performance of human resource practices is tested with the effect of means-ends decoupling on firm performance. Our results add new evidence that organizational agency has an important role in the process of implementing practices and that it provides additional insights into the relationships between adoption and implementation, which are two distinct institutional dimensions of practices, as well as their different firm consequences.