• Das adaptierte deutsche Arbeitsbeziehungsmodell im Vergleich.

      McDonald, Frank; Heise, A.; Tüselmann, H-J.; Allen, M. (2009)
      Das deutsche Modell der Beziehungen zwischen Arbeitgebern und Arbeitnehmern innerhalb eines Unternehmens ¿ vor allem die betriebliche Mitbestimmung ¿ stand lange Zeit in der Kritik, während das anglo-amerikanische Modell als überlegen angesehen wurde. Welches Arbeitsbeziehungsmodell wählen deutsche und amerikanische Unternehmen in einem in Hinblick auf die Ausgestaltung der Arbeitsbeziehungen freizügigen Umfeld, wie es in Großbritannien herrscht? Wie wirkt sich die Wahl des Modells auf Arbeitsproduktivität und Profi tabilität der Tochterunternehmen aus?
    • Decision analysis in Turkey

      Gonul, M.S.; Soyer, E.; Onkal, Dilek (2014-05)
    • A decision support model for identification and prioritization of key performance indicators in the logistics industry

      Kucukaltan, B.; Irani, Zahir; Aktas, E. (2016-12)
      Performance measurement of logistics companies is based upon various performance indicators. Yet, in the logistics industry, there are several vaguenesses, such as deciding on key indicators and determining interrelationships between performance indicators. In order to resolve these vaguenesses, this paper first presents the stakeholder-informed Balanced Scorecard (BSC) model, by incorporating financial (e.g. cost) and non-financial (e.g. social media) performance indicators, with a comprehensive approach as a response to the major shortcomings of the generic BSC regarding the negligence of different stakeholders. Subsequently, since the indicators are not independent of each other, a robust multi-criteria decision making technique, the Analytic Network Process (ANP) method is implemented to analyze the interrelationships. The integration of these two techniques provides a novel way to evaluate logistics performance indicators from logisticians' perspective. This is a matter that has not been addressed in the logistics industry to date, and as such remains a gap that needs to be investigated. Therefore, the proposed model identifies key performance indicators as well as various stakeholders in the logistics industry, and analyzes the interrelationships among the indicators by using the ANP. Consequently, the results show that educated employee (15.61%) is the most important indicator for the competitiveness of logistics companies.
    • A decision support system for vessel speed decision in maritime logistics using weather archive big data

      Lee, Habin; Aydin, N.; Choi, Y.; Lekhavat, S.; Irani, Zahir (2018-10)
      Speed optimization of liner vessels has significant economic and environmental impact for reducing fuel cost and Green House Gas (GHG) emission as the shipping over maritime logistics takes more than 70% of world transportation. While slow steaming is widely used as best practices for liner shipping companies, they are also under the pressure to maintain service level agreement (SLA) with their cargo clients. Thus, deciding optimal speed that minimizes fuel consumption while maintaining SLA is managerial decision problem. Studies in the literature use theoretical fuel consumption functions in their speed optimization models but these functions have limitations due to weather conditions in voyages. This paper uses weather archive data to estimate the real fuel consumption function for speed optimization problems. In particular, Copernicus data set is used as the source of big data and data mining technique is applied to identify the impact of weather conditions based on a given voyage route. Particle swarm optimization, a metaheuristic optimization method, is applied to find Pareto optimal solutions that minimize fuel consumption and maximize SLA. The usefulness of the proposed approach is verified through the real data obtained from a liner company and real world implications are discussed.
    • Decision-making model for supply chain risk management in the petroleum industry

      Aroge, Olatunde O.; Rahmanian, Nejat; Munive-Hernandez, J. Eduardo; Abdi, Reza (2020)
      The purpose of this paper is to develop a decision-making model for supporting the management of risks in supply chain. This proposed model is applied to the case of the oil industry in Nigeria. A Partial Least Square Structural Equation Model (PLS-SEM) is developed to measure the significance of the influence of risk management strategy on mitigating disruption risks and their correlations with the performance of activities in the supply chain and relevance of key performance measures in the organisation. The model considered seven aspects: behavioural-based management strategy, buffer based oriented management strategy, exploration and production risks, environmental and regulatory compliance risks, geopolitical risks, supply chain performance, and organisational performance measures. A survey questionnaire was applied to collect data to populate the model, with 187 participants from the oil industry. Based on the PLS-SEM methodology, an optimised risk management decision-making method was developed and accomplished. The results show that behavioural-based mechanism predicts the capacity of the organisation to manage risks successfully in its supply chain. The approach proposed provides a new and practical methodology to manage disruption risks in supply chains. Further, the behavioural-based mechanism can help to formulate risk management strategies in the oil industry.
    • Deconstructing Subtle Racist Imagery in Television Ads

      Shabbir, H.A.; Hyman, M.R.; Reast, Jon; Palihawadana, D. (2014)
      Although ads with subtle racist imagery can reinforce negative stereotypes, advertisers can eliminate this problem. After a brief overview of predominantly U.S.-based research on the racial mix of models/actors in ads, a theoretical framework for unmasking subtle racial bias is provided and dimensional qualitative research (DQR) is introduced as a method for identifying and rectifying such ad imagery. Results of a DQR-based study of 622 U.K. television ads with at least one Black actor indicate (1) subtle racially biased imagery now supersedes overt forms, and (2) the most popular ad appeals often mask negative stereotypes. Implications for public policy and advertisers, as well as recommendations for future research, are discussed.
    • Deconstructing supermarket interventions as a mechanism for improving diet: lessons from the Seacroft Intervention Study

      Rudkin, Simon (2015)
      Supermarkets, with vast product ranges and relatively low prices, are an established solution to problems of availability of healthy foodstuffs in areas of limited retail access. However, where they may indeed raise consumption of desirable goods they also open up new opportunities to buy less healthful items for less, a situation which potentially undermines their ability to improve diet. Using under-reported diary data from the Seacroft Intervention Study in the United Kingdom takes this paper beyond the extant fruit and vegetable focus, giving it scope to explore the full effect of supermarkets. Quantile regressions show existing behaviours are reinforced, and intervention stores may do little to improve diet. Switching to Tesco Seacroft is shown to increase the portions of unhealthy food consumed by almost 1 portion per day for the least healthy. Managing demand through promoting balanced diets and restricting offers on unhealthy items will be more effective than intervention, and is an essential accompaniment to new large format retailers if they are not to entrench dietary inequality further. Policymakers and practitioners alike should avoided being distracted by aggregate conclusions if food deserts are to be truly tackled.
    • A deep multi-modal neural network for informative Twitter content classification during emergencies

      Kumar, A.; Singh, J.P.; Dwivedi, Y.K.; Rana, Nripendra P. (2020)
      People start posting tweets containing texts, images, and videos as soon as a disaster hits an area. The analysis of these disaster-related tweet texts, images, and videos can help humanitarian response organizations in better decision-making and prioritizing their tasks. Finding the informative contents which can help in decision making out of the massive volume of Twitter content is a difficult task and require a system to filter out the informative contents. In this paper, we present a multi-modal approach to identify disaster-related informative content from the Twitter streams using text and images together. Our approach is based on long-short-term-memory (LSTM) and VGG-16 networks that show significant improvement in the performance, as evident from the validation result on seven different disaster-related datasets. The range of F1-score varied from 0.74 to 0.93 when tweet texts and images used together, whereas, in the case of only tweet text, it varies from 0.61 to 0.92. From this result, it is evident that the proposed multi-modal system is performing significantly well in identifying disaster-related informative social media contents.
    • The delicate balance: Managing technology adoption and creation in multinational affiliates in an emerging economy

      Liu, X.; Vahtera, P.; Wang, Chengang; Wang, J.; Wei, Yingqi (2016-11)
      From a perspective of the resource-based view, this paper analyses the inter-connection between technology adoption and creation in affiliates of multinational enterprises (MNEs) in an emerging economy. Operating below the international technological frontier, multinational affiliates are more motivated to adopt technologies already existent from their MNEs than create new technologies, as the former already gives them competitive advantages over local firms. When technology creation is required, multinational affiliates will adopt further technology-based resources from their MNEs as they are unavailable in an emerging economy. As a result, technology adoption is a necessary but not sufficient condition for multinational affiliates to conduct technology creation. Given that networks are particularly important for working around institutional voids in the context of an emerging economy, this paper also investigates the different roles of R&D support from internal and external networks of multinational affiliates in technology adoption and creation. Hypotheses are tested and partially supported based on unique data from 465 multinational affiliates in China.
    • Demystifying Corporate Inertia Towards Transition to Circular Economy: A Management Frame of Reference

      Yamoah, F.A.; Sivarajah, Uthayasankar; Mahroof, Kamran; González Peña, I. (2022-02)
      We examine corporate inertia towards circularity transition using organisational case studies, observations, and qualitative interviews with business executives. The study explores how the values and beliefs of business leaders and managers promote or inhibit internal and external stakeholder engagement to enable transition to circular business models. We focus on four large UK food companies, conducting interviews with 11 senior managers. Rather than a lack of awareness of the circular economy (CE), the results demonstrate that business leaders are not persuaded by the short-to medium-term business case for a CE. There is misalignment between values and beliefs of business executives and the circularity values and goals of their organisations. The misaligned values and beliefs inhibit relevant stakeholder engagement for transitions to a CE with responsibility shifted to civil society and public institutions. Management commitment to circularity transitions are at best a sophisticated form of circularity greenwashing. The study further suggests a general lack of collective disposition to foster collaborations with sectoral and supply chain partners to engender circularity transitions due to the absence of any standard systems for CE performance indicators. Circularity education and training play a positive mediatory role in changing negative assumptions, including the promotion of managers' engagement with other relevant stakeholders to build synergies and strategies for CE systems. The findings contribute to understanding the dynamics of corporate inertia regarding transitions to CE and highlight the relevance of aligning the personal values and beliefs of top management with organisational, sectoral, and supply chain partners’ values and goals.
    • Dependency-based collaborative design: a comparison of modeling methods

      Drabble, Brian (2015-08-10)
      The ability to provide support to a group of designers, analysts and other users who are collaborating on an evolving design requires the dual capabilities of managing options for an individual designer while at the same time managing the dependencies between different sets of designer's options. For example, if designer A is creating a design for a helicopters hydraulics system and this is dependent on electrical power (EP) from a sub-system from designer B then how can the workflows, decisions and options of the two designers be managed so that each can understand the implications of their own design decisions and more importantly the implications and design decisions they force on others? The proposed CAPS system employs two dependency reasoning engines: one handles quantitative values and other qualitative ones. The quantitative engine can identify that a motor with an output of 3000 rpm allows a generator to output 100 V or that a hydraulic pump is dependent on the 240v output of the motor. Alternatively, the qualitative engine could rule out several motors options if the overall design state that the weight of a helicopter's transmission needs to be comparable to that of the engine or the positioning of a sensor makes it susceptible to an EM process that could affect its function. A mapping capability is provided allowing analysis to be passed between the two engines. Three different types of dependency-based quantitative engine designs have been developed and evaluated. The first quantitative engine design focuses on modeling components at their output level and propagating level values from component to component, component to sub-system, etc. The second quantitative engine design focuses on modeling components at the node level so as to identify key components, sub-systems, etc. in terms of their overall dependency to the design. The third engine employs a hybrid of the previous two approaches and was identified through feedback from designers. These engines are designed to be complimentary with the node-based and hybrid approaches being used to identify the key capabilities and dependencies of the design. The output-based approach is then used to explore in greater detail the outputs and dependencies of the components and sub-systems identified as key via the node/hybrid-based approach. The proposed CAPS architecture has been initially evaluated against a large collaborative design task involving the design of a helicopter's electrical, hydraulic, structural and mechanical systems.
    • Designing a knowledge management tool to support knowledge sharing networks

      Barber, Kevin D.; Perez-Aros, A.; Munive-Hernandez, J. Eduardo; Eldrige, S. (2007)
      The purpose of this paper is to present a knowledge management (KM) tool which has been designed to support the creation of virtual knowledge sharing networks (KSNs). It is a software-based application that enables the sharing of knowledge related to the implementation of manufacturing excellence (ME) best practices and improvement tools. A survey of SMEs was carried out to investigate the implementation of ME best practices. The results indicated that that the main barrier to the implementation of best practices, quality models and improvement tools is a lack of knowledge about these initiatives due to the resource constraints experienced by SMEs. This led to the development of a KM tool to support the creation of virtual networks to enable SMEs to manage improvement projects and share effectively the generated knowledge. The KM tool is currently at the stage of validation and its future implementation is also under consideration. The KM tool supports the creation of KSNs through an explicit KM approach to share ideas, experiences and knowledge about implementation of best practices and improvement tools; helping SMEs to become more competitive. This research has demonstrated that is possible to provide a KM tool that is suitable for use by a KSN of SMEs. This approach allows transferring some of the tacit and explicit knowledge generated during the implementation of improvement initiatives into electronic documents for future consultation by KSN members.
    • The determinants of bank branch location in India: An empirical investigation

      Zhang, Q.; Arora, Rashmi; Colombage, S. (2021-07-06)
      Bank branching plays a significant role in a wide range of economic activities. Existing studies on determinants of bank branching activities largely focus on developed countries, studies devoted to developing countries are scant. We present the first study that examines the determinants of bank branching activities in one of the largest developing country India. We employ a unique longitudinal data to study the determinants of bank branch location in India. This data is collected at the state level covering 25 Indian states for the period 2006 to 2017. We employ Poisson regression that are better suited for modelling counted dependent variable. First, region and bank specific factors such as size of population and bank deposits influence location of bank branches. Second, the relationship between these factors and branch locations is heterogeneous across different types of banks and across states with different business environments. First, from the view of banks, considering the factors of branch location are crucial in order to set out branching strategy. Irrespective of policy measures aimed at promoting financial inclusion in India, we show that banks consider economic activities in the region in locating their branches. Second, from the view of policy makers and regulators, such branching strategy could potentially contribute to financial exclusion. As a result, population in the less developed regions may be excluded from accessing financial services. Hence, policy makers and regulators should take into this account when formulating policies aimed at promoting financial inclusion. First, while existing studies largely focus on developed countries, studies devoted to developing countries are scant. To the best of our knowledge, we have not come across any study that investigates the determinants of bank branch location in India, so we reasonably believe that ours is a first-of-its-kind. Second, our study provides a new perspective concerning how regional and bank specific factors influence banks of different ownership in locating branches. Third, while traditional regression used to be a method of choice among early studies, we employ Poisson regression that are better suited for modelling counted dependent variable.
    • The determinants of credit spreads changes in global shipping bonds.

      Kavussanos, M.G.; Tsouknidis, Dimitris A. (2014)
      This paper investigates whether bond, issuer, industry and macro-specific variables account for the observed variation of credit spreads’ changes of global shipping bond issues before and after the onset of the subprime financial crisis. Results show that conclusions as to the significant variables of spreads depend significantly on whether two-way clusteradjusted standard errors are utilized, thus rendering results in the extant literature ambigious. The main determinants of global cargo-carrying companies’ shipping bond spreads are found in this paper to be: the liquidity of the bond issue, the stock market’s volatility, the bond market’s cyclicality, freight earnings and the credit rating of the bond issue.
    • Determinants of relationship quality and customer loyalty in retail banking: Evidence from Nigeria

      Izogo, E.E.; Abdi, M. Reza; Ogba, I-E.; Oraedu, C. (2017)
      The purpose of this paper is to explore the determinants of relationship quality (hereafter referred to as RQ) and its impact on customer loyalty within an emerging retail banking market through a dual-lens theory. The research informants were recruited from a city in South-eastern Nigeria. A quantitative data obtained through bank-intercept method and online survey from 332 customers of retail banking services formed the final database. The proposed model and by implication the research hypotheses were tested using partial least squares structural equation modelling procedure. he results show that customer orientation, expertise and information sharing are stimulus factors that directly influence the constructs of RQ (i.e. trust and satisfaction and indirectly influence customer loyalty through the constructs of RQ. The paper also demonstrates that the stimulus factors are direct predictors of consumers’ response. The proposed model explained 49 per cent of the total variance in customer loyalty. Customer orientation, expertise and information sharing are stimulus factors that improve RQ and customer loyalty. However, the explanatory power of the proposed model is modest. Future research should therefore integrate other determinants of RQ. The paper contributes to the growing body of stimulus-organism-response (S-O-R) literature within the retail environment by exploring unique stimulus and organism variables from an emerging retail banking market perspective. Additionally, by showing that the stimulus factors are direct predictors of consumers’ response, the paper challenged the existing tenets of the S-O-R framework and deepened the current understanding of the model. The paper also contributes to the social exchange theory by demonstrating how the components of RQ mediate the antecedents and consequences of the construct.
    • Determining Sustainability Key Performance Indicators for Food Loss Reduction

      Al-Dalaeen, Q.R.; Sivarajah, Uthayasankar; Irani, Zahir (2021)
      Purpose: this paper presents notable themes regarding the relationship between sustainability development and the food loss issue. In doing so, it provides coherent knowledge concerning this global problem and highlights the key research areas in this context. Design/methodology/approach: this paper is a viewpoint piece; normative literature and supposition are used to orientate the views of the authors. Findings: this paper has identified the main causes of food loss at each stage of the food supply chain. It has then classified the causes into three groups based on organisational environment: internal causes, micro-environmental causes and macro-environmental causes. In addition, the authors suggest a need to adopt a holistic view of the performance measurement system in the food industry through incorporating sustainability pillars with traditional performance perspectives in the context of food loss. Practical implications: food loss generating from various causes along the supply chain means that more food should flow across the supply chains to reach consumers’ homes. This paper provides reassuring insights that will help the decision-makers in food companies to revise the performance measurement system in the context of food loss reduction. Social implications: reducing food loss will contribute to increasing food availability and decreasing food prices, which leads to strengthening economic and physical access for those people who are not able to get food. Consequently, it considers a mandatory step to enhance food security. Originality/value: to raise the significance of food loss reduction along the supply chain and to stress an urgent need to adopt a holistic view of the sustainability performance measurement system with a particular focus on the food loss issue.
    • Developing a framework for ethically questionable behaviour in consumption.

      Fukukawa, Kyoko (2002)
      In light of the growing interest in "ethically questionable" consumer behavior, this study explores possible explanations of the occurrence of such behaviour, and subsequently develops a theoretical framework. The study is based upon data collected from 72 U.K. consumers, acquired from a projective approach with scenarios. Taking the theory of planned behavior (TPB) as an initial analytical framework, attitude, social influence, opportunity (as perceived behavioral control in TPB) and perceived unfairness are identified as the antecedents of ethically questionable behavior (EQB). Social influence is extended to include a broader range of external influences from subjective norm in TPB. Opportunity is considered to represent an aspect of perceived behavioral control as available resource to engage in EQB. Perceived unfairness is presented as an additional component and refers to the extent to which an actor is motivated to redress an imbalance that is perceived as unfair. Binary logistic models suggest that attitude and social influence consistently impact on EQB, as TPB would predict. Analysis of variance suggests that perceived unfairness and opportunity, though context specific, also show signs of significant influence on the acceptance and practice of this behavior. Additional to the construct of TPB, this study develops the dimension of perceived unfairness in the context of EQB decision-making. In the context of TPB, it provides further insight into our understanding of EQB, helping to provide a theoretical framework.
    • Developing a modified total interpretive structural model (M-TISM) for organizational strategic cybersecurity management

      Rajan, R.; Rana, Nripendra P.; Parameswar, N.; Dhir, S.; Sushil; Dwivedi, Y.K. (2021-05)
      Cybersecurity is a serious issue that many organizations face these days. Therefore, cybersecurity management is very important for any organization. Organizations should learn to deal with these cyber threats through effective management across all business functions. The main purpose of this study is to identify the factors that affect cybersecurity within an organization and analyze relationships among these factors. The modified total interpretive structural modeling (M-TISM) technique is used to build a hierarchical model and define the common interactions between the factors. This study presents the impact of collaboration, training, resources and capabilities, information flow, technology awareness, and technological infrastructure on effective cybersecurity management. In addition, the study also explains the interrelationships among the identified factors in the M-TISM model.
    • Developing Criteria for Evaluating a Multi-channel Digitally Enabled Participatory Budgeting Platform

      Omar, Amizan; Weerakkody, Vishanth J.P.; Sivarajah, Uthayasankar (2017)
      "Enabling Multichannel Participation through ICT Adaptations for Participatory Budgeting ICT-enabled platform” (EMPATIA) is a multi-channel participatory budgeting (PB) platform that represents a significant social innovation process of democratic deliberation and decision-making, involving citizens within complex public-institution structures. EMPATIA was targeted to deliver socio-economic and political benefits, such as enhancing citizen-government engagement, increasing public value through PB process, promoting ‘inclusiveness’ among the marginalized groups of citizens, and impeding political discontent that underpins distrust and skepticism towards the government. The attainment of these benefits will be driven by the EMPATIA's performance. Hence, a performance measurement tools is needed to enable assessment of EMPATIA, empirically. With an aim to propose an integrated performance evaluation metrics, this study presents a set of assessment criteria for multi-channel digitally enabled PB service platforms – especially EMPATIA. Findings from a qualitative, multi-strategies research approach suggest that the metrics should include five key technical and non-technical performance indicators, to be used as basis for the development of future evaluation instruments. Of major signposts, the metrics would inform key performance aspects to be considered during the PB platform development, and evaluated to indicate the PB platform performance.