• Avoidance Strategies and the German System of Co-determination

      Royle, Tony (1998)
      This paper is based on a comparative study of the UK and German operations of the McDonald’s Corporation. The main focus of the paper is the interaction between multinational enterprises (MNEs) and the German system of co-determination. Commentators have suggested that industrial relations practices in host countries are particularly difficult for MNE’s to avoid because they are so deeply embedded in societal frameworks. However, there are also opposing global pressures for MNEs to impose their industrial relations practices across national borders in order to transmit ‘best practice’ to their subsidiaries. Ferner and Edwards (1995) suggest that Germany is something of a ‘test case’ for MNEs because of the strength of its legislative underpinning and institutional arrangements. Most analysis on the German system of co-determination has suggested that it is only small and medium-sized firms which avoid or undermine the German system (Lane, 1989). However, evidence brought together in this study suggests that along with other large companies and MNEs of different origins and across different industries, McDonald’s have been able to take advantage of weaknesses in regulation in the German system of co-determination. The paper puts forward a typology of possible ‘avoidance strategies’ within the German system.
    • `Real¿ managers don¿t do NVQs: a review of the new management `standards¿

      Grugulis, C. Irena (1998)
      In 1997 the Management Charter Initiative (MCI) officially launched the new Management NVQs (National Vocational Qualifications), benchmarks which attempted to describe the work performed by British managers. This article is a review of those qualifications. It remembers some of the main problems associated with the original Management NVQs and, drawing on some of the best theoretical and empirical accounts of managerial work, argues that the new qualifications have failed to live up to the MCI¿s original promise, to assist the development and training of managers.
    • Where’s the Beef? McDonald’s and its European Works Council

      Royle, Tony (1999)
      This article analyses the establishment and subsequent meetings of the McDonald's European Works Council and raises a number of questions. Who is an `employee representative' for the purposes of the EU Directive? How are such representatives elected in practice and what roles do existing national sub-structures play? Can employee representatives adequately coordinate their roles in the absence of significant unionisation? The experience of the McDonald's EWC suggests that where workforces have low levels of unionisation and employers are opposed in principle to the prescribed arrangements, a non-union firm can frustrate even the limited aims of the Directive. Furthermore, legally underpinned national-level sub-structures, which are often assumed to make such European-level bodies accountable, may fail to do so in practice.
    • Recruiting the Acquiescent Worker: a comparative analysis of McDonald’s in Germany and the UK

      Royle, Tony (1999)
      This article focuses on the workforce characteristics of the German and UK operations of McDonald’s Corporation. The UK workforce is characterised by predominantly young workers with very limited work experience, the German workforce is much older and mostly foreign workers. The analysis suggests that despite these differences and differences in labour market regulation, there is a key similarity between the workforces. The corporation is able to draw on similarly “weak” and marginalised segments of the labour market and these segments are likely to be particularly acquiescent to managerial prerogative. National institutional arrangements can still constrain the employment relations policies of multinational enterprises (MNEs). However, this analysis supports the notion that there is a growing diversity within national systems increasingly explained by MNE policies and practices. This does not necessarily mean that national systems are becoming redundant, but that there is a dynamic relationship between such systems and the needs of MNEs.
    • The Reluctant Bargainers: McDonald’s, Unions and Pay Determination in Germany and the UK

      Royle, Tony (1999)
      There is growing evidence that multinational enterprises (MNEs) increasingly develop organisation-based employment strategies, which promote the transmission of employee relations practices across national borders. This article provides an analysis of one MNE’s employee relations practice and what appears to be its preference for operating, where possible, independently of national industrial relations systems. The findings, which draw on a UK/German comparison, raise a number of questions about the adequacy of even highly juridifed national systems to protect workers rights in practice.
    • Working for McDonald's in Europe: The Unequal Struggle?

      Royle, Tony (2000)
      The McDonald's Corporation is not only the largest system-wide sales service in the world, it is a phenomenon in its own right, and is now recognized as the most famous brand in the world. By providing a detailed analysis of the extent to which the McDonald's Corporation adapts or imposes its labour relations policies in Europe, this volume represents a real life case study revealing the interaction between a global multi-national enterprise and the regulatory systems of a number of different European countries. Key features include: an overview of the McDonald's Corporation's development and structure; an analysis of its corporate culture and the issues of franchising; an examination of key union strategies, including systems of co-determination, consultation and collective-bargaining; and a chapter dealing specifically with European legislation, in particular the McDonald's European Works Council. The author systematically analyses the conflict between the McDonald's Corporation and the industrial relations systems of the European countries within which it operates, and exposes this conflict as an 'unequal struggle' between economic liberalism and collectivism.
    • The Management NVQ: a critique of the myth of relevance

      Grugulis, C. Irena (2000)
      The Management NVQs were (according to their proponents) designed to provide a new mechanism for certifying workplace competence. Centred on descriptions of practice in the workplace they offered a qualifications route that could be accessed by all. This article draws on an in-depth study of the implementation of NVQs in three private sector organisations. It argues that, in practice, this competence-based format is highly problematic. Candidates are required to work towards criteria that may not match their roles and responsibilities, developmental work is systemically discouraged and work is routinised. The article concludes by arguing that these flaws are structural ones which may be expected to continue as long as NVQs continue to attempt to distil the essence of occupations into `standards¿.
    • Cultural control and the `culture manager¿: employment practices in a consultancy

      Grugulis, C. Irena; Dundon, T.; Wilkinson, Adrian (2000)
      This article explores the use of `company culture¿ as a means of management control. It reports on research conducted in a consultancy that aimed to secure loyalty from its employees through a conscious policy of organised `play¿ at company socials. Employees were given a certain amount of freedom over their working lives in exchange for accepting company regulation of their social time. Here it is argued that this normative control differs from historical attempts to ensure that employees were of good moral character. In earlier interventions social and community obligations were emphasised, now every `virtue¿ encouraged is designed to be exercised in the workplace, often at the expense of the individual or the community. Further, that while control through organisational culture does have some of the advantages claimed for it in the prescriptive literature, it also extends the employment contract to areas previously outside the managerial prerogative.
    • Budget participation, goal interdependence and controversy: a study of a Chinese public utility

      Pike, Richard H.; Tjosvold, D.; Poon, M. (2001)
      The extensive literature on participative budgeting has paid little attention to the interaction among managers as they discuss and resolve budget-related issues. This study employs goal interdependence theory to explore the impact of team dynamics on budgeting. How managers believe their goals are related affects the dynamics and outcomes of participation. In a large utility in Hong Kong, 64 managers were interviewed on specific budget participation incidents. Results of structural equation analyses found support for the study¿s three main hypotheses. Budget team members who had cooperative goals were found to engage in more open-minded discussion in conflict situations. This resulted in improved group productivity and strengthened relationships which, in turn, led to higher-quality budgets. Results were interpreted as suggesting that the benefits of budget participation depends upon establishing strongly cooperative goals among team members and developing the skills to discuss opposing views open-mindedly. The antecedents of goal interdependence are also explored.
    • The effects of the Asian crisis on German FDI in Southeast Asia.

      Mohr, Alexander T.; Kumar, B.N. (Gabler Publishing, 2001)
      No Abstract
    • The role of qualitative methods in production management research.

      Beach, Roger; Muhlemann, Alan P.; Price, D.H.R.; Paterson, A.; Sharp, J.A. (2001)
      This paper examines previous approaches to the identification and measurement of strategic flexibility and concludes that the use of quantitative methods alone cannot capture the essence of such a complex and intangible subject. It is reasoned that a holistic approach to research design should be adopted when carrying out particular categories of production management research. A research design used to investigate the concept of strategic flexibility in manufacturing industry is briefly outlined as an illustration. The role of the case study within this and the contribution it was able to make to the investigation is described.
    • Frontiers of Human-Centered Computing, Online Communities and Virtual Environments.

      Earnshaw, Rae A.; Guedj, R.A.; van Dam, A.; Vince, J.A. (Springer Verlag, 2001)
      Presents the results of a joint National Science Foundation and European Commission Workshop, set up to identify directions for the future of human-centered computing, online communities and virtual environments. Discusses ways to meet the ultimate goal of facilitating human-computer interaction centered around human needs and capabilities.
    • ERP Software implementation: An integrative framework

      Al-Mudimigh, A.S.; Zairi, Mohamed; Al-Mashari, M. (2001)
      ERP implementation is a socio-technical challenge that requires a fundamentally different outlook from technologically-driven innovation, and will depend on a balanced perspective where the organisation as a total system is considered. ERP implementation is considered to rely on behavioural processes and actions. It is a process that involves macro-implementation at the strategic level, and micro-implementation at the operational level. This therefore means that implementation in the context of ERP systems is not possible through an ON/OFF approach whereby deployment of the new systems will necessarily yield the desired and expected results. Understanding the implementation process through a balanced perspective will therefore prevent any unpleasant surprises, and will ensure and guide the change process to be embedded in a painless fashion. The balanced perspective means that socio-technical considerations must be borne in mind; the strategic, tactical and operational steps clearly defined; and the expected benefits evaluated and tracked through creating seamless and solid integration. This paper proposes an integrative framework for ERP implementation based on an extensive review of the factors and the essential elements that contribute to success in the context of ERP implementation.
    • Basic risk aversion.

      Freeman, Mark C. (2001)
      It is demonstrated that small marketable gambles that are unattractive to a Standard Risk Averse investor cannot be made attractive even if certain independent background risks that decrease expected marginal utility are added.
    • The development of a new transformational leadership questionnaire.

      Alimo-Metcalfe, Beverly M.; Alban-Metcalfe, R.J. (2001)
      This study sought to investigate the characteristics of 'nearby' leaders by eliciting the constructs of male and female top, senior, and middle-level managers and professionals working in organizations in two large UK public sectors (local government and the National Health Service). An instrument, the Transformational Leadership Questionnaire (TLQ-LGV), was developed and piloted on a national sample of 1464 managers working for local government organizations. Analysis of the data, presented here, revealed the existence of nine highly robust scales with high reliabilities (.85) and with convergent validity (range r = .46 to .85). These findings are discussed, together with suggestions for subsequent research.
    • Learning orientations and growth in smaller firms

      Spicer, David P.; Sadler-Smith, E.; Chaston, I. (2001)
      Organisational learning is often presented as one way in which firms may respond to increasingly competitive market conditions by managing their knowledge assets in more effective ways. Although theoretically and conceptually plausible, there is limited empirical evidence, particularly from smaller firms, in support of this view. This study aims to provide some evidence that links organisational learning and performance. Extant theory suggests that organisational learning may range from a passive orientation (working within a current paradigm) to an active orientation (questioning a current paradigm) at both the individual and the collective levels. This study examines the learning orientations of 300 smaller manufacturing and service firms in terms of an active¿passive learning construct. The results suggest that higher-growth manufacturing firms have a more active learning orientation. These firms make greater use of knowledge assets than do their lower growth counterparts, and this may have important implications for the management of learning in smaller manufacturing firms.
    • Strategic success in winter sports destinations: a sustainable value creation perspective.

      Flagestad, A.; Hope, Christine A. (2001)
      According to annual reports of European and North American ski resort corporations, winter sports destinations are facing stagnating markets and at the same time challenges in the management of environmentally sensitive mountainous areas and villages. The survival and development of winter sports destinations are to a large extent centred around strategies for creating competitive advantage and at the same time meeting the criteria of sustainable tourism laid down by the WTO. In this paper, performance on these two dimensions is combined into the concept of strategic performance. Sustained value creation is suggested as a goal of strategic performance in winter sports destinations.Two new models related to the strategic analysis of winter sports destinations are developed. The first is a suggested configuration of value creation in winter sports destinations¿the ¿value fan¿¿and the second is a conceptual organisational model providing a framework for analysis at strategic level of such destinations. The models have emerged from examining the central body of literature in the field of strategic management. Development of the models is part of ongoing research into what kind of organisational structure of winter sports destinations will lead to superior performance in terms of strategic success. Here the concepts of the ¿community model¿ and the ¿corporate model¿ of destination management are introduced.
    • Towards integrated manufacturing planning with common tools and data sets.

      Dewhurst, F.; Barber, Kevin D.; Rogers, J.J.B. (2001)
      The performance of manufacturing systems needs to be continuously reviewed in response to increasingly evolving market conditions. In recent years, a large volume of research has concentrated on improving manufacturing performance. Some research has been directed at senior management emphasising the strategic need for change and how to initiate change; other research has been directed at shop floor level and the provision of tools for continuous improvement; whilst more recent research has focused on business process re-engineering and supporting methodologies. However, there is a very limited set of tools available for middle managers to encapsulate the aspirations of senior management (e.g. the strategic objectives of a company) and translate these into shop floor actions. This paper proposes a methodology to support management of the introduction of new processes, products and systems and to improve the performance of manufacturing systems. The paper presents a case and methodology for an integrated system for strategic, tactical, operational and project planning. The proposed methodology is based on structured systems analysis and simulation of a manufacturing plant. Feasibility of the approach is demonstrated through application to two small to medium-sized enterprises.