• The evaluation of external factors on the decision to enter a new, non-domestic market: An exploratory study.

      Whitelock, Jeryl M.; Jobber, David (2004)
      A study of key decision makers in a sample of large international companies explored the non-domestic market entry decision. A literature review revealed five broad external domains which held the potential to affect that decision. A series of statements was factor analysed to reveal ten more specific variables. An analysis of which variables discriminated between the decision to enter and not enter a new non-domestic market demonstrated that geocultural/political similarity, developed economy, attractive market, good market information and governmental attitude significantly affected the decision. The findings supported a marketing-strategy based theory of market entry.
    • How `Ready' are customers for Mass-customisation? An exploratory study

      Whitelock, Jeryl M.; Bardakci, A. (2004)
      This paper examines the concept of mass customisation from the point of view of the customer. Although the theory of mass customisation has received considerable attention in recent years, the emphasis has been on identifying and classifying the ways in which mass customisation can be implemented efficiently and effectively. There appears to have been no empirical evidence to support the notion that customers are indeed ready for this approach. The aim of this study is to examine how far customers are ¿ready¿ for mass-customised products, using the UK new car market as its basis for analysis. A framework is developed and results presented which suggest that a sizeable section of the market is ready to accept the ¿inconveniences¿ of mass-customised products. However, the main inconvenience of mass customisation is identified as increased price, even for ¿ready¿ customers. It would seem, therefore, that both global standardisation and mass customisation strategies are appropriate in this market.
    • Learning about customers: Managing B2B alliances between small technology startups and industry leaders

      Perez, L.; Whitelock, Jeryl M.; Florin, J. (2013)
      Purpose - The aim of this paper is to gain a better understanding of how small technology start-ups learn about a key customer in the context of B2B relationships, and to propose a model of interfirm learning with customers. Design/methodology/approach - Using a qualitative case-based approach, the authors immerse themselves in the development of three learning alliances between technology startups and industry leaders, two successes and one failure, to gain an in-depth understanding of the dynamics involved. Data were collected on both sides of the alliance dyad. Findings - The paper delineates four learning cycles: alliance inception, joint-learning, specialization and discovery. These learning cycles constitute sequences of increasing understanding, cooperation, and higher order learning between the partners; evolving from an exchange of existing knowledge to the joint development of new knowledge. Originality/value - This study contributes to an integration of the alliance and marketing literatures by offering empirical evidence of a different type of alliance, namely the reciprocal learning alliance. It also contributes to broadening our understanding of market orientation in inter-organizational settings. In the context of business-to-business relationships, the study has identified four critical dimensions of learning alliance success, and proposed how they could be measured: Learn about customers; Interact with customers; Customer-specific investments; and Co-develop breakthrough innovations. Finally, the study demonstrates the significant role played by 'committed champions'.
    • Relationship marketing in the subsidised arts: The key to a strategic marketing f

      Whitelock, Jeryl M.; Conway, A. (2007)
      Purpose ¿ The purpose of this paper is to consider whether successful subsidised arts organisations are more likely to apply a relationship rather than transactional marketing approach to overcome the tendency of not-for-profit organisations generally, and subsidised arts organisations particularly, to use marketing for short-term, tactical purposes. Design/methodology/approach ¿ Research was undertaken to identify whether ¿successful¿ subsidised performing arts organisations were indeed more strategic in their focus, whether they had applied a relationship marketing approach and whether such an approach had been influential in the development of their ¿success¿. Preliminary research led to the production of a conceptual framework that identifies major partnerships and specific stakeholder types that need to be considered by a subsidised performing arts organisation if an effective relationship marketing approach is to be developed. This was used as the basis for subsequent research involving a multiple case study approach studying two ¿successful¿ theatres and one ¿unsuccessful¿ theatre in depth. The strengths of relationship between the various key stakeholder roles and artistic directors within the three theatres were analysed. Findings ¿ Although this research is limited to a case study analysis of three theatres, it does seem to provide evidence to suggest that building strong relationships with stakeholders other than end users can be advantageous to subsidised performing arts organisations. Practical implications ¿ It is likely that this approach could be successful for the subsidised arts generally and indeed for all those organisations in the not-for-profit sector where those who pay do not necessarily receive the service. Originality/value ¿ This article provides a discussion on successful subsidised arts organisations.
    • Russia's struggle with the language of marketing in the communist and post-communist eras

      Holden, N.; Kuznetsov, A.; Whitelock, Jeryl M. (2008)
      The status and understanding of marketing in the USSR and post-Soviet Russia are tracked over a 40-year period, making extensive use of Russian-language sources. In the late Soviet period marketing is seen as a Western business system that was not applicable to an economy based on extreme centralisation and state-inspired conditions of shortage. With the collapse of communism, marketing is variously seen as still not quite suitable for Russian conditions, as a sales support activity or as a branch of public relations. At the same time great confusion arises over the nature of marketing owing to the problems of converting Western marketing terms into Russian, for which there are often no equivalents. Translations of Western marketing textbooks reveal translators' unabated struggles with marketing terminology and the unsatisfactory results. Literal translations, where possible, or direct transliteration into Russian merely add to the confusion. It is argued that this state of affairs is symptomatic of a wider unease about the market economy and scepticism about its relevance for Russia.
    • Understanding international branding: Defining the domain and reviewing the literature

      Whitelock, Jeryl M.; Fastoso, Fernando (2007)
      This paper's objectives are first to analyse the patterns of research on international brands and branding so far, secondly to provide a definition for international branding based on these previous studies in the field, and finally to suggest fruitful paths for future research in this area. Content analysis of academic papers published in major marketing, advertising and international business journals. The field of international branding is broad and has developed in the course of the last 30 years in different directions and with different understandings of what the term refers to. This paper gives an overview of these directions, of the different understandings of the term found in the literature, proposes a definition of international branding, and finally suggests paths for future research. As with all literature reviews, this paper is limited to analysing works in a selection of the top academic journals in the field. However, a careful choice of the most important journals has been made, providing a good reflection of the knowledge in the area.