• A framework for analysing blockchain technology adoption: Integrating institutional, market and technical factors

      Janssen, M.; Weerakkody, Vishanth J.P.; Ismagilova, Elvira; Sivarajah, Uthayasankar; Irani, Zahir (2020-02)
      The adoption of blockchain technologies require the consideration of a broad range of factors, over and above the predominantly technology focus of most current work. Whilst scholarly literature on blockchain technology is only beginning to emerge, majority are focused on the technicalities of the technology and tend to ignore the organizational complexities of adopting the technology. Drawing from a focused review of literature, this paper proposed a conceptual framework for adoption of blockchain technology capturing the complex relationships between institutional, market and technical factors. The framework highlights that varying outcomes are possible, and the change process is focal as this shapes the form blockchain applications take. Factors presented in the framework (institutional, market and technical) interact and mutually influence each other. The proposed framework can be used by organisations as a reference point for adopting blockchain applications and by scholars to expand, refine and evaluate research into blockchain technology.
    • Adoption of online public grievance redressal system in India: Toward developing a unified view

      Rana, Nripendra P.; Dwivedi, Y.K.; Williams, M.D.; Weerakkody, Vishanth J.P. (2016-06)
      The aim of this research is to develop a unified model of electronic government (e-government) system adoption and validate it using the data gathered from 419 citizens from few selected cities in India. In course of doing so, the research also evaluates the performance of nine well-known alternative theoretical models of information technology (IT) adoption including the unified theory of acceptance and use of technology (UTAUT). The results indicate that the proposed unified model for e-government adoption by this research has outperformed all other theoretical models by explaining highest 66% variance on behavioral intentions, adequately acceptable levels of fit indices, and significant relationships between each hypothesis. The research also provides its limitations and presents implications for theory and practice toward the end.
    • Analysing the Critical Factors Influencing Trust in E-government Adoption from Citizens' Perspective: A Systematic Review and A Conceptual Framework

      Alzahrani, L.; Al-Karaghouli, W.; Weerakkody, Vishanth J.P. (2017-02)
      Although the success adoption of e-government contingent upon citizens' trust and their willingness to use it, little consideration has been paid to explore the adoption of e-government from citizens' trust perspective. This paper provides a critical and systematic review of the current literature on citizens’ trust in e-government, with a particular focus on the most critical factors influencing citizens’ trust in respect of the adoption of e-government. The extant literature was identified through six electronic databases, from 2000 to 2014. Academic articles were reviewed if they contained a relevant discussion of the antecedents or factors influencing citizens’ trust in e-government adoption. The findings of this review reveal that several studies have been conducted in the area of trust in e-government (particularly trust in government and trust in the internet) with limited consideration to citizen’s aspects of trust (such as personality, culture, gender, experience, education level, beliefs and value systems). Based on the findings of the review, a conceptual framework is proposed by developing the updated DeLone and McLean IS Success Model to establish a framework which presents the antecedents of trust in e-government adoption.
    • Analysis of factors that influence customers’ willingness to leave big data digital footprints on social media: A systematic review of literature

      Muhammad, S.S.; Dey, B.L.; Weerakkody, Vishanth J.P. (2018-06)
      Big data has been discussed extensively in existing scholarly works but scant consideration is given to customers’ willingness to generate and leave big data digital footprints on social media, especially in the light of the profusely debated issue of privacy and security. The current paper endeavours to address this gap in the literature by developing a conceptual framework. In doing so, this paper conducts a systematic review of extant literature from 2002 to 2017 to identify and analyse the underlying factors that influence customers’ willingness to leave digital footprints on social media. The findings of this review reveal that personal behaviour (intrinsic psychological dispositions), technological factors (relative advantage and convenience), social influence (social interaction, social ties and social support) and privacy and security (risk, control and trust) are the key factors that influence customers’ willingness to generate and leave big data digital footprints on social media. The conceptual framework presented in this paper advances the scholarship of technology adoption and use and provides useful direction for future empirical research for both academics and practitioners.
    • Are U.K. Citizens Satisfied With E-Government Services? Identifying and Testing Antecedents of Satisfaction

      Weerakkody, Vishanth J.P.; Irani, Zahir; Lee, Habin; Hindi, N.; Osman, I.H. (2016-08)
      Citizens’ satisfaction is acknowledged as one of the most significant influences for e-government adoption and diffusion. This study examines the impact of information quality, system quality, trust, and cost on user satisfaction of e-government services. Using a survey, this study collected 1518 valid responses from e-government service adopters across the United Kingdom. Our empirical outcomes show the five factors identified in this study have a significant impact on U.K. citizens’ satisfaction with e-government services.
    • Balancing Digital-By-Default with Inclusion: A Study of the Factors Influencing E-Inclusion in the UK

      Al-Muwil, A.; Weerakkody, Vishanth J.P.; El-Haddadeh, R.; Dwivedi, Y.K. (2019-06)
      Digital inclusion research has been critically important in drawing an understanding of how policies, society, organisations, and information technologies can all come together within a national environment that aspires to be a digital nation. This research aims to examine the factors influencing e-Inclusion in the UK within a digital-by-default policy for government services. This study is pursued through combining the Decomposed Theory of Planned Behaviour (DTPB) with Use and Gratification Theory (U&G) and conducting a self-administered survey targeting 510 Internet users to study the level of citizens engagement with e-government services in the UK. By incorporating gratification, trust, risk and external factors (i.e. self-efficacy, accessibility, availability, affordability) within DTPB, the proposed model of e-Inclusion used in the paper demonstrates a considerable explanatory and predictive power and offers a frame of reference to study the acceptance and usage of e-government within a national context where nearly all government transactions are digital-by-default. The findings revealed six dimensions as key inhibitors for e-Inclusion, namely: demographic, economic, social, cultural, political, and infrastructural.
    • Blockchain for next generation services in banking and finance: cost, benefit, risk and opportunity analysis

      Osmani, M.; El-Haddadeh, R.; Hindi, N.; Janssen, M.; Weerakkody, Vishanth J.P. (2021-04)
      Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to help in providing a better understanding of the application of blockchain technology in the context of the banking and finance sectors. The aim is to outline blockchain’s benefits, opportunities, costs, risks as well as challenges of the technology in the context of banking and finance services Design/methodology/approach – Careful examination of the extant literature, including utilising relevant academic-based research databases has been carried out. It covered reviewing various research contributions published in peer-reviewed journals, academic reports, as well as technical reports to help in identifying related benefits, opportunities, costs, and risks. Findings – The findings reveal that there are limited contributions in utilising blockchain in the banking and finance sectors when compared with other sectors. As such, the study highlighted the relevant perspective of benefits, opportunities, costs, and risks within such sectors. Practical implications – This study helps in offering a focal point to banking and financial sector managers and decision-makers for realising the benefits of blockchain technology as well as developing strategies and programmes to overcome the identified challenges. Originality/value – This study highlights the need for a holistic understanding of the various aspects of cost, benefits, risk and opportunities to create blockchain applications that work for banking and finance sectors
    • A case analysis of E-government service delivery through a service chain dimension

      Weerakkody, Vishanth J.P.; El-Haddadeh, R.; Sivarajah, Uthayasankar; Omar, Amizan; Molnar, A. (2019-08)
      Unlike e-business few studies have examined how information is generated and exchanged between stakeholders in an e-government service chain to generate value for citizens. This case study applies the concept of service chains to empirically explore: a) how internal and external business activities in local government authorities (LGAs) contribute to electronic service delivery, and b) the impact that internal and external stakeholders have on these activities. The case study found that the diversity of stakeholders involved and lack of appropriate mechanisms for information exchange and collaboration are posing the biggest challenges for efficient local egovernment service delivery.
    • Citizen Adoption of E-Government Services: Exploring Citizen Perceptions of Online Services in the United States and United Kingdom

      Carter, L.; Weerakkody, Vishanth J.P.; Phillips, B.; Dwivedi, Y.K. (2016)
      This study presents a cross-national examination of e-government adoption in the United Kingdom and the United States. The results of partial least squares analysis indicate that disposition to trust is positively related to internet trust and government trust. Perceived ease of use and perceived usefulness have a significant impact on intention to use. Internet trust has a positive effect on intention to use. We conclude by highlighting cultural differences in e-government adoption.
    • Citizens' continuous use of eGovernment services: The role of self-efficacy, outcome expectations and satisfaction

      Alruwaie, M.; El-Haddadeh, R.; Weerakkody, Vishanth J.P.; Ismagilova, Elvira (2020-07)
      The continuous use of eGovernment services is a de facto for its prosperity and success. A generalised sense of citizens' self-efficacy, expectations, and satisfaction offer opportunities for governments to further retain needed engagements. This study examines the factors influencing citizens' continuance use of eGovernment services. Through the integration of Social Cognitive Theory, Expectation Confirmation Theory, DeLone and McLean IS success model, and E-S-QUAL, a survey of 471 citizens in the UK, engaging in online public services, found that prior experience, social influence, information quality, and service quality, personal outcome expectation, and satisfaction, are significant predictors of citizens' intention to use eGovernment, when they are regulated, through citizens' self-efficacy. The present study extends the roles of pre-adoption and post-adoption by offering a self-regulating process. Therefore, it demonstrates how critical it is for the government's leaders to understand the patterns of the long-term process for electronic systems continually.
    • Cloud computing utilization and mitigation of informational and marketing barriers of the SMEs from the emerging markets: Evidence from Iran and Turkey

      Hosseini, S.; Fallon, G.; Weerakkody, Vishanth J.P.; Sivarajah, Uthayasankar (2019-06)
      This study seeks to investigate the effectiveness of Cloud Computing Utilization (CCU) in the mitigation of informational and marketing barriers for SMEs from the Emerging Market-Countries (EM-SMEs). A quantitative-research methodology was applied to collect data by using self-administered questionnaires from top managers of 227 SMEs based in Iran and Turkey. The study contributes theoretically to both small business and international business literature by developing a new classification of the internationalization barriers that EM-SMEs face, and proposing a series of cloud computing (CC) solutions for mitigating these barriers, resulting in the creation and testing of a new model. The empirical findings confirm that CCU can help EM-SMEs to mitigate a series of informational and marketing barriers. The key practical contributions of the study offer insights to both EM-SMEs and Cloud-Service-Providers (CSPs) on the extent to which CCU is effective in mitigating the internationalization barriers faced by EM-SMEs.
    • COBRA framework to evaluate e-government services: A citizen-centric perspective

      Osman, I.H.; Anouze, A.L.; Irani, Zahir; Al-Ayoubi, B.; Lee, Habin; Balci, A.; Medeni, T.D.; Weerakkody, Vishanth J.P. (2014-04)
      E-government services involve many stakeholders who have different objectives that can have an impact on success. Among these stakeholders, citizens are the primary stakeholders of government activities. Accordingly, their satisfaction plays an important role in e-government success. Although several models have been proposed to assess the success of e-government services through measuring users' satisfaction levels, they fail to provide a comprehensive evaluation model. This study provides an insight and critical analysis of the extant literature to identify the most critical factors and their manifested variables for user satisfaction in the provision of e-government services. The various manifested variables are then grouped into a new quantitative analysis framework consisting of four main constructs: cost; benefit; risk and opportunity (COBRA) by analogy to the well-known SWOT qualitative analysis framework. The COBRA measurement scale is developed, tested, refined and validated on a sample group of e-government service users in Turkey. A structured equation model is used to establish relationships among the identified constructs, associated variables and users' satisfaction. The results confirm that COBRA framework is a useful approach for evaluating the success of e-government services from citizens' perspective and it can be generalised to other perspectives and measurement contexts.
    • A cognitive analytics management framework for the transformation of electronic government services from users perspective to create sustainable shared values

      Osman, I.H.; Anouze, A.L.; Irani, Zahir; Lee, H.; Medeni, T.D.; Weerakkody, Vishanth J.P. (2019-10-16)
      Electronic government services (e-services) involve the delivery of information and services to stakeholders via the Internet, Internet of Things and other traditional modes. Despite their beneficial values, the overall level of usage (take-up) remains relatively low compared to traditional modes. They are also challenging to evaluate due to behavioral, economical, political, and technical aspects. The literature lacks a methodology framework to guide the government transformation application to improve both internal processes of e-services and institutional transformation to advance relationships with stakeholders. This paper proposes a cognitive analytics management (CAM) framework to implement such transformations. The ambition is to increase users’ take-up rate and satisfaction, and create sustainable shared values through provision of improved e-services. The CAM framework uses cognition to understand and frame the transformation challenge into analytics terms. Analytics insights for improvements are generated using Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA). A classification and regression tree is then applied to DEA results to identify characteristics of satisfaction to advance relationships. The importance of senior management is highlighted for setting strategic goals and providing various executive supports. The CAM application for the transforming Turkish e-services is validated on a large sample data using online survey. The results are discussed; the outcomes and impacts are reported in terms of estimated savings of more than fifteen billion dollars over a ten-year period and increased usage of improved new e-services. We conclude with future research.
    • Commentary: Is cost transparency necessarily good for consumers?

      Kuah, A.T.H.; Weerakkody, Vishanth J.P. (2015)
      The purpose of this paper is to present a critical viewpoint on the negative aspects of market, price and cost transparencies to consumers in terms of its costs. It adopts an inter-disciplinary approach from the marketing, economics and accounting literature. The paper explores market transparency in the ever-changing world and uses brand names like Starbucks and iPhone to illuminate instances where imperfect markets are supported by consumers. Recognizing the role that the Internet plays in promoting price transparency, it espouses how extant information can add costs and risks to the consumer’s value judgement. Finally, the paper advocates that arbitrary judgements existing in cost accounting make it difficult to compare unit cost. This could result in consumers paying extra money to benefit from cost transparency. This paper argues that three main issues may arise in providing unit cost to the consumers. First, transparency entails built-in costs, whether they are in taxes or product prices. Second, in accounting, unit cost information is currently not equitable between businesses. Finally, the paper argues that extra time and effort in making sense of unit cost information lead to questions about the viability of transparent costing. The arguments for transparency have been widely discussed, supported and promoted by many. While negative aspects are known to businesses, few consider the consumer’s perspective. By amalgamating evidence and arguments from different disciplines, this paper lends value, providing a critical perspective where transparent unit cost revelation can be more costly and less viable than what is assumed.
    • Critical analysis of Big Data challenges and analytical methods

      Sivarajah, Uthayasankar; Kamal, M.M.; Irani, Zahir; Weerakkody, Vishanth J.P. (2017-01)
      Big Data (BD), with their potential to ascertain valued insights for enhanced decision-making process, have recently attracted substantial interest from both academics and practitioners. Big Data Analytics (BDA) is increasingly becoming a trending practice that many organizations are adopting with the purpose of constructing valuable information from BD. The analytics process, including the deployment and use of BDA tools, is seen by organizations as a tool to improve operational efficiency though it has strategic potential, drive new revenue streams and gain competitive advantages over business rivals. However, there are different types of analytic applications to consider. Therefore, prior to hasty use and buying costly BD tools, there is a need for organizations to first understand the BDA landscape.Given the significant nature of the BDand BDA, this paper presents a state-ofthe- art review that presents a holistic view of the BD challenges and BDA methods theorized/proposed/ employed by organizations to help others understand this landscape with the objective of making robust investment decisions. In doing so, systematically analysing and synthesizing the extant research published on BD and BDA area. More specifically, the authors seek to answer the following two principal questions: Q1 –What are the different types of BD challenges theorized/proposed/confronted by organizations? and Q2 – What are the different types of BDA methods theorized/proposed/employed to overcome BD challenges?. This systematic literature review (SLR) is carried out through observing and understanding the past trends and extant patterns/themes in the BDA research area, evaluating contributions, summarizing knowledge, thereby identifying limitations, implications and potential further research avenues to support the academic community in exploring research themes/patterns. Thus, to trace the implementation of BD strategies, a profiling method is employed to analyze articles (published in English-speaking peer-reviewed journals between 1996 and 2015) extracted from the Scopus database. The analysis presented in this paper has identified relevant BD research studies that have contributed both conceptually and empirically to the expansion and accrual of intellectual wealth to the BDA in technology and organizational resource management discipline.
    • Developing Criteria for Evaluating a Multi-channel Digitally Enabled Participatory Budgeting Platform

      Omar, Amizan; Weerakkody, Vishanth J.P.; Sivarajah, Uthayasankar (2017)
      "Enabling Multichannel Participation through ICT Adaptations for Participatory Budgeting ICT-enabled platform” (EMPATIA) is a multi-channel participatory budgeting (PB) platform that represents a significant social innovation process of democratic deliberation and decision-making, involving citizens within complex public-institution structures. EMPATIA was targeted to deliver socio-economic and political benefits, such as enhancing citizen-government engagement, increasing public value through PB process, promoting ‘inclusiveness’ among the marginalized groups of citizens, and impeding political discontent that underpins distrust and skepticism towards the government. The attainment of these benefits will be driven by the EMPATIA's performance. Hence, a performance measurement tools is needed to enable assessment of EMPATIA, empirically. With an aim to propose an integrated performance evaluation metrics, this study presents a set of assessment criteria for multi-channel digitally enabled PB service platforms – especially EMPATIA. Findings from a qualitative, multi-strategies research approach suggest that the metrics should include five key technical and non-technical performance indicators, to be used as basis for the development of future evaluation instruments. Of major signposts, the metrics would inform key performance aspects to be considered during the PB platform development, and evaluated to indicate the PB platform performance.
    • Digitally enabled service transformation in UK public sector: A case analysis of universal credit

      Omar, Amizan; Weerakkody, Vishanth J.P.; Sivarajah, Uthayasankar (2017-08)
      The race against ‘Digital Darwinism’ in public sector had caused failures of several high profile large-scale Digitally Enabled Service Transformation (DEST) projects. While technical and managerial issues are often emphasised as the factors underpinning such failures, the vital role of key actors and the interplay between these actors and structures is underplayed when examining the causes of DEST failure. To enable a richer understanding of DEST, this paper proposes an analytical lens combining Institutional Theory (IT) and Structuration Theory (ST) to explore the case of ‘Universal Credit’, a very large and ambitious DEST project in the UK. Analysis reveals that the institutional actors and structures played significant roles in the transformation process. Albeit governing the actors’ actions, institutional structures are shaped through actions that are influenced by knowledge, power and norms. Hence, recognising and addressing these subliminal factors are critical to promote actions that can facilitate DEST success. The contributions of this case study are two-folds. Theoretically, it provides a distinctive conceptual approach to study DEST; and practically, the lessons help in signposting better managerial practices.
    • Digitally-enabled service transformation in the public sector: The lure of institutional pressure and strategic response towards change

      Weerakkody, Vishanth J.P.; Omar, Amizan; El-Haddadeh, R.; Al-Busaidy, M. (2016-10)
      Digitally-Enabled Service Transformation (DEST) projects in public sector institutions are viewed as a choice of strategic response towards changes in policy. Such transformation can destruct institutional stability and legitimacy and result in failure if the complex institutional setting of the public sector is not comprehended in the change-institutionalisation effort. Through a multiple case enquiry, this study examines how institutional pressures contribute towards the emergence of DEST in public agencies and how newly introduced transformation is implemented and diffused within the institutional setting. The findings highlight that as a form of technology driven change, DEST is characterised and shaped dominantly by continuous interplay with institutional elements and the impact of these interactions define the institutionalisation, deinstitutionalisation and re-institutionalisation of DEST. Ability to recognise such stages and provide the required support will determine a public institution's ability to effectively manage DEST and attain its strategic goals.
    • Do agile managed information systems projects fail due to a lack of emotional intelligence?

      Luong, T.T.; Sivarajah, Uthayasankar; Weerakkody, Vishanth J.P. (2021)
      Agile development methodologies (ADM) have become a widely implemented project management approach in Information Systems (IS). Yet, along with its growing popularity, the amount of concerns raised in regard to human related challenges caused by applyingADMare rapidly increasing. Nevertheless, the extant scholarly literature has neglected to identify the primary origins and reasons of these challenges. The purpose of this study is therefore to examine if these human related challenges are related to a lack of Emotional Intelligence (EI) by means of a quantitative approach. Froma sample of 194 agile practitioners, EI was found to be significantly correlated to human related challenges in agile teams in terms of anxiety, motivation, mutual trust and communication competence. Hence, these findings offer important new knowledge for IS-scholars, project managers and human resource practitioners, about the vital role of EI for staffing and training of agile managed IS-projects.
    • Driving Innovation through Big Open Linked Data (BOLD): Exploring Antecedents using Interpretive Structural Modelling

      Dwivedi, Y.K.; Janssen, M.; Slade, E.L.; Rana, Nripendra P.; Weerakkody, Vishanth J.P.; Millard, J.; Hidders, J.; Snijders, D. (2016)
      Innovation is vital to find new solutions to problems, increase quality, and improve profitability. Big open linked data (BOLD) is a fledgling and rapidly evolving field that creates new opportunities for innovation. However, none of the existing literature has yet considered the interrelationships between antecedents of innovation through BOLD. This research contributes to knowledge building through utilising interpretive structural modelling to organise nineteen factors linked to innovation using BOLD identified by experts in the field. The findings show that almost all the variables fall within the linkage cluster, thus having high driving and dependence powers, demonstrating the volatility of the process. It was also found that technical infrastructure, data quality, and external pressure form the fundamental foundations for innovation through BOLD. Deriving a framework to encourage and manage innovation through BOLD offers important theoretical and practical contributions.