• A New Approach to the Allocation of Aid Among Developing Countries: Is the USA Different from the Rest?

      Harrigan, J.; Wang, Chengang (2011)
      This paper attempts to explain the factors that determine the geographical allocation of foreign aid. Its novelty is that it develops a rigorous theoretical model and conducts the corresponding empirical investigations based on a large panel dataset. We run regressions for different major donors (United States, Canada, France, Italy, Japan, United Kingdom, and multilateral organizations). with the explicit objective of establishing whether the United States, in light of its geopolitical hegemony, behaves differently from others. We find that all the donors respond to recipient need in their allocation of aid, but that the United States puts less emphasis on this than the other donors with the exception of Japan. We also find that the United States puts more emphasis on donor¿recipient linkages than do the other donors suggesting that the United States attaches greater importance to issues of donor interest, for example, geopolitical, commercial, and other links with specific recipients.
    • Behind film performance in China’s changing institutional context: the impact of signals

      Elliott, C.; Konara, P.; Ling, H.; Wang, Chengang; Wei, Yingqi (2017-03)
      Grounded in signaling theory, this paper investigates the signals reflecting product quality, innovativeness, reputation and cultural background which influence film performance, i.e. film survival (duration on cinema screen) and box office success, in China’s changing institutional context. This market has grown substantially and still possesses potential for further development. However, China’s unique institutional context presents challenges. By examining an expanded range of potential signals, two of which have not previously been examined in the literature, namely imported films and enhanced format film formats such as 3D and IMAX, we develop a conceptual framework and argue that signaling theory needs to be combined with institutional context. Similar to findings for film industries in other countries, we find quality and reputational signals including budget, star power, sequels, and online consumer reviews to be important in China. However, unique results are also revealed. Chinese consumers react to an innovativeness signal in that they are specifically attracted to enhanced format films. Film award nominations and prizes are insignificant reputational signals. Once other signals are taken into account, imported films on average do not perform as well as domestic films. We link these findings to China’s unique institutional setting and offer important implications for management, recognizing the challenges to film companies of competing in an increasingly globalized market. The paper is also of relevance to policymakers given their continued efforts in shaping the development of China’s film industry.
    • The characteristics of intellectual property rights regimes: How formal and informal institutions affect outward FDI location

      Papageorgiadis, N.; McDonald, F.; Wang, Chengang; Konara, P. (2020-02)
      This study examines the institutional arrangements that define the characteristics of national legal systems that are used to protect intellectual property (IP) assets embedded in outward FDI. The focus of the study is on how the institutional underpinnings of IPR regimes affect the costs and risk of using legal arenas to enable effective use of IP assets. Following a property rights approach it is postulated that formal and informal institutional arrangements influence how IP regimes affect the transaction costs and risk associated with converting ownership rights over IP into economic rights. Informal institutions are considered to affect the behaviour of agents involved in enforcing legal rights. This behaviour influences how IP law is implemented in legal arenas and thereby impacts on the efficacy of IPR regimes to help secure economic rights from the use of IP assets. Using data on outward FDI from the USA to 42 host countries the results find that the strength of informal institutions connected to the enforcement of IP in a country directly affects outcomes and positively moderates the effect of formal legal aspects of IP law on FDI flows. The results highlight the importance of informal institutional aspects connected to the behaviour of enforcement agents when using national legal systems to protect IP rights in cross-frontier transactions.
    • The contingent effect of state participation on the dissolution of international joint ventures: A resource dependence approach

      Mohr, A.; Wang, Chengang; Fastoso, Fernando (2016-05)
      We adopt a resource dependence approach to explain the effect of state participation on the dissolution of international joint ventures (IJVs). While resource dependence theory has been used to explain the formation of IJVs, we propose an extension of the theory to explain their dissolution. We do so by highlighting the match between foreign firms’ resource needs (resource hierarchy) and the resource provision roles of state-controlled versus private local partners (resource profiles). We further argue that the effect of state participation on the dissolution of IJVs is moderated by foreign firms’ host country experience and IJV age. We test our hypotheses by using data on 623 IJVs in China. Our results show that state participation reduces the risk of IJV dissolution and that the strength of this effect differs depending on the type of state-controlled actor that is involved in an IJV. We also find that host country experience and IJV age moderate the effect of state participation on IJV dissolution. These findings enhance our understanding of IJV dissolution and contribute to the development of resource dependence theory.
    • Cultural Proximity and Local Firms’ catch up with Multinational Enterprises

      Wang, J.; Liu, X.; Wei, Yingqi; Wang, Chengang (2014-08)
      Integrating and extending new growth theory and resource-based views, this paper provides a theoretical foundation for the catch-up hypothesis. It examines the role of technology gap, technological capability, and cultural proximity in local firms’ catch-up with MNEs. Hypotheses are developed and tested with a dynamic model on a large firm-level panel dataset from Chinese manufacturing. The results confirm that catch-up is positively related to technology gap and technological capability. Furthermore, in the presence of cultural proximity, the speed of local Chinese firms’ catch-up with MNEs from Hong Kong, Macau, and Taiwan is not significantly lower than that with other MNEs.
    • The delicate balance: Managing technology adoption and creation in multinational affiliates in an emerging economy

      Liu, X.; Vahtera, P.; Wang, Chengang; Wang, J.; Wei, Yingqi (2016-11)
      From a perspective of the resource-based view, this paper analyses the inter-connection between technology adoption and creation in affiliates of multinational enterprises (MNEs) in an emerging economy. Operating below the international technological frontier, multinational affiliates are more motivated to adopt technologies already existent from their MNEs than create new technologies, as the former already gives them competitive advantages over local firms. When technology creation is required, multinational affiliates will adopt further technology-based resources from their MNEs as they are unavailable in an emerging economy. As a result, technology adoption is a necessary but not sufficient condition for multinational affiliates to conduct technology creation. Given that networks are particularly important for working around institutional voids in the context of an emerging economy, this paper also investigates the different roles of R&D support from internal and external networks of multinational affiliates in technology adoption and creation. Hypotheses are tested and partially supported based on unique data from 465 multinational affiliates in China.
    • Differential moderating effects of strategic and operational reconfiguration on the relationship between open innovation practices and innovation performance

      Ovuakporie, O.D.; Pillai, Kishore G.; Wang, Chengang; Wei, Y. (2021-01)
      This paper examines the relationship between open innovation (OI) practices (inbound and coupled) and innovation performance in service firms. Specifically, it invokes a dynamic capabilities perspective to propose the differential moderating effects of two forms of reconfiguration capabilities, strategic reconfiguration capability (SRC) and operational reconfiguration capability (ORC), on the focal relationship. Based on a sample of service sector firms drawn from the UK Community Innovation Survey, our analysis shows the positive combinative effects of SRC and coupled OI on radical innovation outcomes and those of ORC and coupled OI on incremental innovation outcomes. The findings of differential moderating effects underscore the need to assess the boundary conditions within which OI positively impacts on innovation outcomes and offer insights to managers on the importance of strategic and operational reconfiguration capabilities for achieving better innovation outcomes from OI practices.
    • Disentangling the Effects of Business Groups in the Innovation-Export Relationship

      Wu, L.; Wei, Y.; Wang, Chengang (2021-01)
      This paper examines the role of business groups (BGs) in the relationship between innovation and exports. In the light of the divergent theoretical predictions on the role of BGs, we develop hypotheses that are explicitly based on the institutional context of emerging economies. By analyzing the institutional pressures under which BGs shape their strategies and operations, we formulate hypotheses on the effect of BG affiliation on exports, and the impact of innovation on exports. Empirical results, based on a large sample of Chinese manufacturing firms during the period of 1998-2007, show that both innovation and BG affiliation have a positive effect on exports, although BG affiliation weakens the positive value of innovation to exports. These findings are robust in different specifications. This paper highlights the complex role played by BGs, which needs to be understood in the context of institutions.
    • Do local manufacturing firms benefit from transactional linkages with multinational enterprises in China?

      Liu, X.; Wang, Chengang; Wei, Yingqi (2009)
      This paper examines the linkage effects of foreign direct investment (FDI) on firm-level productivity in Chinese manufacturing. It is found that FDI generates positive vertical linkage effects in Chinese manufacturing at both the national and regional levels, and limited positive horizontal spillovers at the regional level. While OECD firms gain from both vertical and (probably) horizontal linkages, Hong Kong, Macao and Taiwanese firms benefit only from backward linkage effects. In the domestic sector, in which we are most interested, both state-owned enterprises (SOEs) and non-SOEs are hurt by competition from foreign firms in the same industries. While SOEs gain from vertical linkages with foreign firms, non-SOEs are unable to do so. The patterns of productivity spillovers from FDI in Chinese manufacturing seem to be determined by one key factor ¿ the technological capabilities of the firms involved. Important data limitations and policy implications of this research are discussed.
    • Does foreign direct investment facilitate technological progress? Evidence from Chinese industries

      Liu, X.; Wang, Chengang (2003)
      This paper studies the impact of foreign direct investment (FDI) on total factor productivity (TFP) for a cross sectional sample of Chinese industrial sectors. The possible determinants of TFP are sought with special focus on FDI. An endogeneity test is performed in order to avoid inconsistent results. Evidence indicates that foreign presence, the level of R&D and the firm size are the most important factors enhancing TFP in Chinese industries. The findings from this study support the argument that attracting FDI is an effective way of introducing advanced technology to host countries.
    • Dynamic Marketing Capabilities, Foreign Ownership Modes, Sub-national Locations and the Performance of Foreign Affiliates in Developing Economies

      Konwar, Ziko; Papageorgiadis, Nikolaos; Ahammad, M.F.; Tian, Y.; McDonald, Frank; Wang, Chengang (2017)
      Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine the role of dynamic marketing capabilities (DMC), foreign ownership modes and sub-national locations on the performance of foreign owned affiliates (FOAs) in developing economies. Design/methodology/approach – Based on a sample of 254 FOAs in Indian manufacturing sector (covering the period of 2000-2008 leading to 623 firm-year observations), the empirical paper adopts the panel data regression approach. Findings – The study confirms the significant importance of DMC to assist FOAs to gain better sales performance in an emerging market such as India. The findings indicate that Wholly Owned Foreign Affiliates (WOFAs) have better sales performance than International Joint Venture (IJV), and Majority-owned IJV (MAIJV) perform better than Minority-owned IJV (MIIJV) in the Indian manufacturing sector. The results confirm that effective deployment of DMC leads to better sales performance in WOFAs and to some extent in MAIJVs. Perhaps the most interesting finding is that developing DMC in non-Metropolitan areas is associated with higher sales growth than in Metropolitan locations. Originality/value – The study contributes to the literature by examining the impact of DMC on performance of FOA by considering the organised manufacturing sector in a large and fast growing developing economy. In addition, the results for the moderating effects provide novel evidence of the conditions under which DMC of FOA interacts with different ownership modes and influence firm performance.
    • The economic and political determinants of IMF and World Bank lending in the Middle East and North Africa.

      Harrigan, J.; Wang, Chengang; El-Said, H. (2006)
      This paper assesses the economic and political determinants of IMF and World Bank program loans to the Middle East and North Africa. First we assess what is already known about the geo-political influences on aid flows to the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region and the potential for this to operate via the IMF and World Bank. From this we conclude that there is scope for IMF and World Bank lending in the region to respond to the political interests of their major shareholders, particularly the United States. We support these arguments with both a qualitative and a quantitative analysis of the determinants of World Bank and IMF program lending to the region, focusing on both economic need in the MENA countries and the politics of donor interest before concluding.
    • Factors contributing to the strength of national patent protection and enforcement after TRIPS

      Papageorgiadis, Nikolaos; Wang, Chengang; Magkonis, Georgios (2019)
      In this paper we study the determinants of the strength of patent enforcement in 43 member countries of the World Trade Organization (WTO) between 1998 and 2011, a period after the signing of the Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) agreement. We do so by building on and expanding the seminal work of Ginarte and Park (1997) on the pre-TRIPS determinants of patent rights in the years 1960-1990. We find that in the years after TRIPS was signed, the strength of patent enforcement of a country is positively determined by two variables that signify the usage of the patent and intellectual property system, and the number of patent and trademark applications. We also find that the level of research and development expenditure, the quality of human capital, and the level of development of a country have positive effects on the strength of the enforcement of patent law in practice. Intellectual property rights enforcement is one of the key investment-related policies included in the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) Investment Policy Framework for Sustainable Development. Identifying the determinants of strong patent systems will help policymakers at the national and supranational levels to design and implement effective policies that strengthen national patent systems, thereby enhancing economic benefits such as greater levels of commercialization of intangible assets and greater levels of international trade and investment.
    • Impact of openness on economic growth in different country groups.

      Wang, Chengang; Liu, X.; Wei, Yingqi (2004)
      This paper evaluates the impact of openness on growth in different country groups using a panel of 79 countries over the period 1970-98. It distinguishes itself from many existing studies in three aspects: Firstly, both trade and FDI are included as measures of openness. Secondly, countries are classified into high-, middle- and low-income groups to compare the roles of trade and FDI in these groups. Thirdly, the possible problems of endogeneity and multicollinearity of trade and FDI are carefully dealt with in a panel data setting. The main findings are as follows. Total trade has a general positive impact on growth in all country groups, although the impact from imports is not significant in high-income countries. FDI has a positive impact on growth in high- and middle-income countries, but not in low-income countries. With the existing absorptive capabilities, low-income countries can benefit from both exports and imports, but not from FDI. These findings suggest that trade and FDI affect growth through different channels and under different conditions. The paper also discusses important policy implications.
    • The impact of partner diversity within multiparty international joint ventures

      Mohr, A.; Wang, Chengang; Goerzen, A. (2016-08)
      Despite the significant role that multiparty international joint ventures (MPIJVs) play within multinational enterprises, we know little about the significant challenges associated with the management of these ventures. Therefore, we combine the Resource-based View of the Firm and Transaction Cost Economics to investigate the effects of the key aspects of partner diversity (i.e., variety, balance, and disparity) on MPIJV dissolution. We test our hypotheses using a dataset of 248 MPIJVs in China. We find empirical support for a U-curve shaped effect of variety and a negative linear effect of balance on MPIJV dissolution.
    • IPR Law Protection and Enforcement and the Effect on Horizontal Productivity Spillovers from Inward FDI to Domestic Firms: A Meta-Analysis

      Christopoulou, D.; Papageorgiadis, N.; Wang, Chengang; Magkonis, G. (2021-04-23)
      We study the role of the strength of Intellectual Property Rights (IPR) law protection and enforcement in influencing horizontal productivity spillovers from inward FDI to domestic firms in host countries. While most WTO countries adopted strong IPR legislation due to exogenous pressure resulting from the signing of the Trade-Related Aspects of IPR (TRIPS) agreement, public IPR enforcement strength continues to vary significantly between countries. We meta-analyse 49 studies and find that public IPR enforcement strength has a direct positive effect on horizontal productivity spillovers from inward FDI to domestic firms and a negative moderating effect on the relationship between IPR law protection strength and horizontal productivity spillovers from inward FDI to domestic firms.
    • Mutual productivity spillovers between foreign and local firms in China

      Wei, Yingqi; Liu, X.; Wang, Chengang (2008)
      The existing literature treats advanced technology sourcing as the only cause of reverse productivity spillovers from local to foreign firms and implies that mutual spillovers between foreign and local firms can only happen in the developed world. This paper argues that the diffusion of indigenous technology and local knowledge helps the productivity enhancement of multinationals, so that there can be mutual spillovers even in a developing country. The results from a large-sample firm-level econometric analysis and a comparative case study of seven companies in Chinese manufacturing support this new argument, as mutual spillovers are identified between local Chinese firms and overseas Chinese or OECD-invested firms.
    • R&D capabilities, intellectual property strength and choice of equity ownership in cross-border acquisitions: Evidence from BRICS acquirers in Europe

      Ahammad, M.F.; Konwar, Ziko; Papageorgiadis, Nikolaos; Wang, Chengang (2018-03)
      The aim of the study is to investigate two relatively underexplored factors, namely, the R&D (research and development) capabilities of target firms and the strength of intellectual property (IP) institutions in target economies, that influences the choice of equity ownership in cross border acquisitions (CBAs) undertaken by multinational enterprises (MNEs) from BRICS (Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa) economies. We develop our key hypothesis on foreign market entry through CBAs by incorporating insights from transaction costs economics, the resource-based view and institutional theory to investigate the determinants of full versus partial equity ownership. Using logistic regression estimation methods to a sample of 111 CBA deals of BRICS MNEs in 22 European countries, we find that BRICS MNEs are likely to pursue full rather than partial acquisition mode when target firms have high R&D capabilities. However, the greater the degree of strength of IP institutions in target economies and higher the target firms’ R&D capabilities, the more likely it is for BRICS MNEs to undertake partial, rather than, full acquisition mode. We provide interesting theoretical insights and managerial implications that might underlie some of the key findings on CBAs by emerging market MNEs.
    • Simultaneous Impact of the Presence of Foreign MNEs on Indigenous Firms’ Exports and Domestic Sales

      Wang, J.; Wei, Yingqi; Liu, X.; Wang, Chengang; Lin, H. (2014-04)
      Incorporating the global production network approach and competitor analysis, this paper establishes an analytical framework with two hypotheses for the role of foreign multinational enterprises (FMNEs) in indigenous firms’ exports and domestic sales. First, the presence of FMNEs as a whole is likely to have a negative impact on indigenous firms’ domestic sales but a simultaneous positive impact on their exports in an emerging economy like China. Second, the presence of MNEs from Hong Kong, Macau and Taiwan (HMT MNEs) is more likely to generate this pattern of impact than MNEs from other countries (Other FMNEs). The FDI-led export strategy contributed to the dominance of the scenario described by the first hypothesis in China, while a higher degree of market commonality and resource similarity of HMT MNEs with that of indigenous Chinese firms than Other FMNEs leads to the second hypothesis. These novel hypotheses are tested and supported by a very large and recent firm-level panel dataset from Chinese manufacturing.
    • Testing the regional performance of multinational enterprises in the retail sector: the moderating effects of timing, speed and experience

      Mohr, Alexander T.; Fastoso, Fernando; Wang, Chengang; Shirodkar, Vikrant (2014)
      Drawing on regional strategy theory we complement the core effect of firm-specific advantages on the performance of multinational enterprises with an analysis of the performance consequences of home region concentration on firm performance. We also develop hypotheses regarding the effect of foreign entry timing, internationalization speed and international experience on the performance effect of home region concentration. We test our hypotheses against unique longitudinal data from a panel of 128 multinational enterprises in the retail sector whose geographical spread of international activities we traced between 1995 and 2010. Our findings support the predictions of regional strategy theory and highlight the importance of foreign entry timing and internationalization speed in strengthening the positive effect of home region concentration on the performance of multinational enterprises.