• The Applications of Kaizen Methods in Project Settings: Applied Study in Jordan

      Al-Hyari, K.A.; Abu Zaid, M.K.; Arabeyyat, O.S.; Al-Qwasmeh, L.; Haffar, Mohamed (The TQM Journal, 2019)
      Purpose. The purpose of this paper is to explore the results of implementing the Kaizen approach in a caravan repairing project near the Jordanian–Syrian border in the Zaatari camp. Design/methodology/approach. The study is based on the exploratory qualitative research approach. The data were collected through interviews and on-site observation with employees who were involved with the caravan maintenance project and have adequate knowledge and information about this project. In this process, a fishbone diagram, a quality control tool, is used to recognize and explain a causal-effect relationship under the selected Kaizen theme. Findings. The findings suggest that the Kaizen approach was economical in terms of both money and time. Also, waste elimination can be achieved through a variety of tools and easily combined with the Kaizen approach. Implementing the Kaizen approach is an effective and reliable system that allows for the tackling of all types of inefficiencies in the caravan repairing project. Research limitations/implications. The findings of this study will help policy makers and managers put together suitable and effective policies that will assist those firms in overcoming the demands of customers and competitors to deliver high quality, inexpensive products in less time through the application of the Kaizen approach. This, in turn, will lead to improved quality, efficiency and productivity in the most cost-effective way. However, these results should not be generalized since they are only confined to the context of caravan repairing project. Originality/value. Very little research has been done that takes into account the contexts of developing countries. Additionally, most literature presents the use of Kaizen applications only in the manufacturing or production sectors. This study is the first to implement Kaizen as a continuous improvement technique in a caravan repairing project – a job shop industry different from the repetitive batch work environment that is usually associated with implementation of Kaizen. The current research should be of great interest to researchers, managers and professionals who wish to apply Kaizen approach as it is sustainable over time in similar projects.
    • Dividend policy in the banking sector in G-7 and GCC countries: A comparative study

      Hanifa, H.; Hamdan, M.; Haffar, Mohamed (2018-11)
      Dividend policy has been a puzzling question for many years. This study attempts to identify the key factors affecting it in the financial sector that have been neglected in the literature. Using panel data on 621 Group of Seven (G-7) banks and 68 Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) banks, five main factors namely, banks’ size, profitability, growth, leverage, and last year’s dividend were empirically tested regarding their impact on dividend payout ratios. In addition to comparing the two economies descriptively, the researchers employed panel data analysis using multiple regression with random effects. The findings revealed that the dividend payout ratio for the GCC countries is higher than G-7 countries in every year of the examined period (2010-2015). Furthermore, for both G-7 and GCC banks, profitability and last year dividend had a significant positive influence while banks’ leverage had a significant negative influence on the dividend payout. It was found also that banks’ size is an important dividend determinant in the G-7 countries only.
    • An empirical investigation of the influence of organizational culture on individual readiness for change in Syrian manufacturing organizations

      Haffar, Mohamed; Al-Karaghouli, W.; Ghoneim, Ahmad (2014)
      While few recent studies have paid attention to the relationship between organizational culture (OC) and individual readiness for change (IRFC), there is still a lack of systematic and empirical studies regarding the influence of all OC types on the IRFC components within the change management literature. This study aims to fill this gap in the literature by empirically examining the influence of all four organizational culture types of the competing values framework (CVF) on the components of IRFC regarding TQM implementation, within the context of manufacturing organizations operating in Syria. A total of four hypotheses were proposed for testing. A questionnaire was developed and distributed to 350 Syrian manufacturing organizations (SMOs) in order to measure the level of IRFC and to identify the cultural profiles and characteristics of these organizations. The analysis of the data collected shows that certain types of organizational culture are conducive to fostering IRFC. In particular, the findings of an empirical investigation revealed that group culture and adhocracy culture are the most supportive culture types for IRFC. This paper contributes to the existing literature of change management by providing empirical evidence leading to advancement of knowledge and the understanding of the relationship between OC types and IRFC components. Furthermore, the paper adds value via its contextual originality; being the first study that empirically examined the Syrian cultural context, and hence contributing to the scarce body of literature of both OC and IRFC, and in particular the developing countries.
    • An empirical investigation of the influence of organizational culture on individual readiness for change in Syrian manufacturing organizations

      Al-Hyari, K.; Abuhammour, S.; Abu Zaid, M.; Haffar, Mohamed (2016)
      The purpose of this paper is to study the effect of the implementation of Lean bundles on hospital performance in private hospitals in Jordan and evaluate how much the size of organization can affect the relationship between Lean bundles implementation and hospital performance. Design/methodology/approach The research is considered as quantitative method (descriptive and hypothesis testing). Three statistical techniques were adopted to analyse the data. Structural equation modeling techniques and multi-group analysis were used to examine the research’s hypothesis, and to perform the required statistical analysis of the data from the survey. Reliability analysis and confirmatory factor analysis were used to test the construct validity, reliability and measurement loadings that were performed. Findings Lean bundles have been identified as an effective approach that can dramatically improve the organizational performance of private hospitals in Jordan. Main Lean bundles – just in time, human resource management, and total quality management are applicable to large, small and medium hospitals without significant differences in advantages that depend on size. Originality/value According to the researchers’ best knowledge, this is the first research that studies the impact of Lean bundles implementation in healthcare sector in Jordan. This research also makes a significant contribution for decision makers in healthcare to increase their awareness of Lean bundles.
    • Exploring Consumer and Patient Knowledge, Behavior, and Attitude Toward Medicinal and Lifestyle Products Purchased From the Internet: A Web-Based Survey

      Assi, S.; Thomas, J.; Haffar, Mohamed; Osselton, D. (2016-07-18)
      In recent years, lifestyle products have emerged to help improve people’s physical and mental performance. The Internet plays a major role in the spread of these products. However, the literature has reported issues regarding the authenticity of medicines purchased from the Internet and the impact of counterfeit medicines on public health. Little or no data are available on the authenticity of lifestyle products and actual toxicity associated with their use and misuse. Our aim was to investigate consumer and patient attitudes toward the purchase of lifestyle products from the Internet, their knowledge of product authenticity and toxicity, and their experiences with counterfeit lifestyle products. A Web-based study was performed between May 2014 and May 2015. Uniform collection of data was performed through an anonymous online questionnaire. Participants were invited worldwide via email, social media, or personal communication to complete the online questionnaire. A total of 320 participants completed the questionnaire. The results of the questionnaire showed that 208 (65.0%) participants purchased lifestyle products from the Internet mainly due to convenience and reduced cost. More than half (55.6%, 178/320) of participants purchased cosmetic products, whereas only a minority purchased medicinal products. Yet, 62.8% (201/320) of participants were aware of the presence of counterfeit lifestyle products from the Internet, and 11.9% (38/320) experienced counterfeit products. In only 0.9% (3/320) of those cases were counterfeit lifestyle products reported to authorities. Moreover, 7.2% (23/320) of the participants experienced adverse effects due to counterfeit lifestyle products. In summary, patients experienced counterfeit lifestyle products that resulted in adverse effects on their health. Although certain adverse effects were reported in this study, counterfeit products were underreported to authorities. Further public awareness campaigns and patient education are needed.
    • The influence of individual readiness for change dimensions on quality management implementation in Algerian manufacturing organisations

      Haffar, Mohamed; Al-Karaghouli, W.; Irani, Zahir; Djebarni, R.; Gbadamosi, G. (2019-01)
      A comprehensive literature review reveals a lack of empirical studies investigating the influence of individual readiness of change (IRFC) as a multidimensional construct on effective quality improvement programmes (often referred as TQM) implementation. Much of the normative literature is conceptual in nature. Moreover, there is very limited research investigating the mediating role of employee affective commitment to change (IACC) between IRFCs and TQM. Therefore, this study proposes to fill this gap by providing empirical evidence leading to advancement in the understanding of direct and indirect influences of IRFC components on TQM implementation. To achieve this, a questionnaire-based survey was developed and self-administered to 226 middle managers in Algerian manufacturing organisations (AMOs) with a good rate of return of 52%. The analysis of the collected data revealed that two of the IRFC components, namely personally beneficial and change self-efficacy are the most supportive IRFC dimensions for TQM implementation. Furthermore, the results of this study show support for the mediating role of IACC in the relationship between IRFCs and TQM implementation. Therefore, this paper makes a novel contribution by providing a refined and deeper comprehension of the relationships between IRFCs and TQM implementation.
    • The Influence of Institutional and Conductive Aspects on Entrepreneurial Innovation: Evidence from GEM Data

      Arabiyat, T; Mdanat, M; Haffar, Mohamed; Ghoneim, A; Arabiyat, O (2019)
      Purpose – The main purpose of this study is to improve the understanding of how different aspects of the national institutional environment may influence the level of innovative entrepreneurial activity across countries. Several institutional and conductive factors affecting a country’s capacity to support innovative entrepreneurship is explored. Design/methodology/approach – Institutional theory is used to examine the national regulatory, normative, cognitive, and conducive aspects that measure a country's ability to support innovative entrepreneurship. A cross-national institutional profile is constructed to validate an entrepreneurial innovation model. The impact of country-level national institutions on innovative entrepreneurial activity as measured by Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM) data is assessed through structural equation modeling (SEM). Findings – Knowledge about the influence of specific institutional aspects on innovative entrepreneurship, and hence of institutional structures within and across countries, is enhanced. For new innovative enterprises, conductive and regulatory aspects seem to matter most. All conductive factors have a significant and positive impact on entrepreneurial activity rates. Research limitations/implications – Results could support policy makers and practitioners in evaluating government policies’ effect on innovative entrepreneurship. Interventions should target both individual attributes and context. Future research could include longitudinal designs to measure the direction of causality. Practical implications – Aspects such as regulatory institutions, and conductive factors such as ICT use and technology adoption, are important for innovation entrepreneurship development.
    • Organisational culture and TQM implementation: investigating the mediating influences of multidimensional employee readiness for change

      Haffar, Mohamed; Al-Karaghouli, W.; Djebarni, R.; Gbadamosi, G. (2019)
      Despite the robust evidence for the direct relationship between organisational culture (OC) and total quality management (TQM), the mechanisms underlying this relationship are not fully explored and have received little empirical attention. This paper extends prior TQM research in a novel way by building and then empirically testing a theoretical model that includes the mediating role of employee readiness for change dimensions (ERFCs) in the OC –TQM relationship. The paper adds value through its contextual originality in being one of the first studies that are conducted in Algeria; which has special ties with the EU geographically, politically and economically. The empirical data for this study was drawn by distributing a questionnaire to 226 middle managers of Algerian firms. Our findings support the mediating roles of two dimensions of ERFC, namely: self-efficacy (ERFC1) and personal valence (ERFC4) in the OC –TQM relationship. This indicates that the improvement in TQM implementation is not a direct consequence of supportive organisational culture but rather of self-efficacy and personal valence transferring the impact of group and adhocracy culture to TQM. To this effect, these results go beyond previous research and contribute significantly in explaining the underlying psychological mechanisms in the OC –TQM relationships model.