• The contingent effect of state participation on the dissolution of international joint ventures: A resource dependence approach

      Mohr, A.; Wang, Chengang; Fastoso, Fernando (2016-05)
      We adopt a resource dependence approach to explain the effect of state participation on the dissolution of international joint ventures (IJVs). While resource dependence theory has been used to explain the formation of IJVs, we propose an extension of the theory to explain their dissolution. We do so by highlighting the match between foreign firms’ resource needs (resource hierarchy) and the resource provision roles of state-controlled versus private local partners (resource profiles). We further argue that the effect of state participation on the dissolution of IJVs is moderated by foreign firms’ host country experience and IJV age. We test our hypotheses by using data on 623 IJVs in China. Our results show that state participation reduces the risk of IJV dissolution and that the strength of this effect differs depending on the type of state-controlled actor that is involved in an IJV. We also find that host country experience and IJV age moderate the effect of state participation on IJV dissolution. These findings enhance our understanding of IJV dissolution and contribute to the development of resource dependence theory.
    • How Independence and Interdependence Moderate the Self-Congruity Effect on Brand Attitude: A Study of East and West

      Gonzalez Jimenez, Hector; Fastoso, Fernando; Fukukawa, Kyoko (2019)
      Despite a substantial body of self-congruity (SC) research (cf. Aguirre-Rodriguez, Bosnjak, & Sirgy, 2012) two important questions remain open: First, does the SC effect apply beyond Western countries. Second, does individual level culture moderate the SC effect? This study contributes to SC theory by developing hypotheses on the validity of the four SC effects across East and West and by studying the moderating impact of the individual level cultural variable self-construals on those four effects. This study tests its hypotheses through a survey of over 1,600 consumers in an Eastern (India) and a Western (USA) country. Results show that the overall actual SC effect holds across East and West, while the ideal SC effect holds across contexts yet only for consumers with an independent self-construal. Meanwhile, the social SC effect holds in the Eastern but not in the Western context, while the ideal social SC effect does not hold in either context. Results further show a moderating effect of individual level culture on the SC effect, as the actual SC effect is stronger for interdependent consumers whereas the ideal SC effect is stronger for independent consumers across contexts. Finally, the findings of this study are used to advance managerial implications and to propose a refinement of SC theory.
    • Testing the regional performance of multinational enterprises in the retail sector: the moderating effects of timing, speed and experience

      Mohr, Alexander T.; Fastoso, Fernando; Wang, Chengang; Shirodkar, Vikrant (2014)
      Drawing on regional strategy theory we complement the core effect of firm-specific advantages on the performance of multinational enterprises with an analysis of the performance consequences of home region concentration on firm performance. We also develop hypotheses regarding the effect of foreign entry timing, internationalization speed and international experience on the performance effect of home region concentration. We test our hypotheses against unique longitudinal data from a panel of 128 multinational enterprises in the retail sector whose geographical spread of international activities we traced between 1995 and 2010. Our findings support the predictions of regional strategy theory and highlight the importance of foreign entry timing and internationalization speed in strengthening the positive effect of home region concentration on the performance of multinational enterprises.
    • Understanding international branding: Defining the domain and reviewing the literature

      Whitelock, Jeryl M.; Fastoso, Fernando (2007)
      This paper's objectives are first to analyse the patterns of research on international brands and branding so far, secondly to provide a definition for international branding based on these previous studies in the field, and finally to suggest fruitful paths for future research in this area. Content analysis of academic papers published in major marketing, advertising and international business journals. The field of international branding is broad and has developed in the course of the last 30 years in different directions and with different understandings of what the term refers to. This paper gives an overview of these directions, of the different understandings of the term found in the literature, proposes a definition of international branding, and finally suggests paths for future research. As with all literature reviews, this paper is limited to analysing works in a selection of the top academic journals in the field. However, a careful choice of the most important journals has been made, providing a good reflection of the knowledge in the area.