Recent Submissions

  • Examining the drivers and boundary conditions of social innovation: Evidence from MNE subsidiaries in a developing economy

    Nkrumah, M.; Owusu-Yirenkyi, Diana; Nyuur, Richard B.; Donbesuur, F.; Essuman, D. (2024)
    Although social innovation can help multinational enterprise (MNE) subsidiaries create social value for developing countries, they often encounter significant challenges in successfully implementing social innovation projects. This research applies the knowledge-based perspective to propose and test a theoretical framework to explain why MNE subsidiaries differ in their ability to pursue social innovation successfully in a developing country. The framework contends that MNEs’ relationship learning contributes to social innovation variability under varying levels of subsidiary autonomy and mode of entry. Analysis of primary data collected from 207 subsidiaries of MNEs operating in Ghana shows that relationship learning has a positive relationship with social innovation. Further analysis reveals that subsidiary autonomy enhances the positive association between relationship learning and social innovation, and that this moderating effect is stronger for subsidiaries with equity entry mode as opposed to non-equity entry mode. These insights advance the limited understanding of the antecedents of MNEs’ social innovation in developing countries and offer guidance on how MNE subsidiaries can successfully pursue social innovation interventions in a developing country.
  • Effects of age on behavioural and eye gaze on Theory of Mind using Movie for Social Cognition

    Yong, Min Hooi; Waqas, Muhammad; Ruffman, T. (2024)
    Evidence has shown that older adults have lower accuracy in Theory-of-Mind (ToM) tasks compared to young adults, but we are still unclear whether the difficulty in decoding mental states in older adults stems from not looking at the critical areas, and more so from the ageing Asian population. Most ToM studies use static images or short vignettes to measure ToM but these stimuli are dissimilar to everyday social interactions. We investigated this question using a dynamic task that measured both accuracy and error types, and examined the links between accuracy and error types to eye gaze fixation at critical areas (e.g. eyes, mouth, body). A total of 82 participants (38 older, 44 young adults) completed the Movie for the Assessment of Social Cognition task on the eye tracker. Results showed that older adults had a lower overall accuracy with more errors in the ipo-ToM (under-mentalising) and no-ToM (lack of mentalisation) conditions compared to young adults. We analysed the eye gaze data using principal components analysis and found that increasing age and looking less at the face were related to lower MASC accuracy in our participants. Our findings suggest that ageing deficits in ToM are linked to a visual attention deficit specific to the perception of socially relevant nonverbal cues.
  • The rule of law, good governance, mob justice, and sustainable development in Africa: A capability approach with case of Ghana

    Osabutey, J; Ikejiaku, Brian V. (Routledge, 2024-06)
    This paper seeks to demonstrate how capability approach can be used as a framework for an active rule of law and good governance to reduce or eliminate mob justice practices to create a peaceful society for sustainable development in Africa. Thus, by adopting the capability approach, and the use of the rule of law and good governance to create peace for achieving sustainable development goals (SDG 16). This will also help provide access to justice including to the poor and most vulnerable. The chapter focuses on Africa, by using Ghana as a case study.
  • Sustainable development, capabilities, hegemonic forces and social risks: extending the capability approach to promote resilience against social inequalities

    Jogie, M.; Ikejiaku, Brian V. (Routledge, 2024-06)
    The capability approach (CA), while originally regarded as a ‘thin’ framework relating to an individual’s ‘States’, has been progressively deployed in wider spaces of social welfare and policy development. In general, the CA centralises an individual’s (or group’s) functionings, and the freedom to achieve those functionings. One under-researched area is the expression of capabilities when constraints are imposed hegemonically, that is, when an individual (or group) appears to consent to having their choices limited because of some underlying sociocultural ideology. Hegemonic forces are particularly relevant to the application of the CA against the UN’s sustainable development goals (SDGs); specifically, reduced inequalities (Goal 10) under its 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, since it is generally under large-scale policy regime shifts that sociocultural inequalities are broken and renewed. New, less transparent hegemonies often emerge within policy changes that seek to address inequalities, and they typically embody a mitigating reaction to social risks emanating from policy change. The chapter is fundamentally a theoretical and conceptual paper, approached from an interdisciplinary context, and draws on concepts such as sustainable development, capability approach, and freedom in analysing hegemonic forces with respect to reducing inequalities.
  • The impact of Chinese airport infrastructure on airline pollutant emissions: A hybrid stochastic-neural network approach based on utility functions

    Cui, Q.; Antunes, J.; Wanke, P.; Tan, Yong; Roubaud, D.; Jabbour, C.J.C. (2024-02)
    With China being the world’s largest emitter of greenhouse gases and its aviation sector burgeoning, the environmental performance of Chinese airlines has global significance. Amidst rising demands for eco-friendly practices from both customers and regulators, the interplay between airport infrastructure and environmental performance becomes pivotal. This research offers an innovative methodology to gauge the environmental performance of Chinese airlines, emphasizing the distance traveled between airports using weighted additive utility functions. Leveraging neural networks, the study investigates the impact of various airport infrastructural characteristics on environmental performance. Noteworthy findings indicate that ground control measures, automatic information services at origin airports, surface concrete on runways at both ends, and a centerline lighting system in destination airports positively influence environmental performance. In contrast, longer and wider runways at origin airports, increased distances to control towers, and asphalt runways at destination airports adversely affect it. These insights not only underscore the importance of strategic infrastructure enhancements for reducing carbon footprints but also hold profound policy implications. As global climate change remains at the forefront, fostering sustainable airport infrastructure in China can significantly contribute to worldwide mitigation efforts.
  • On stakeholder theory and corporate investment under financial frictions

    Mykhayliv, Dariya; Zauner, K.G. (2024)
    The view that corporations have a wider focus than just maximizing shareholder value has received considerable attention from practitioners, managers, and academics alike. We investigate the Q theory of corporate investment with financial frictions when management maximizes stakeholder value instead of shareholder value. Different objective functions are investigated. We characterize the optimal investment and financial policy of the firm. The results show that stakeholder firms invest more than shareholder firms, i.e., over-investing, and an increase of stakeholder shares increases investment, except when equity issuing firms face severe informational asymmetries or severe cost of external equity. We also discuss different approaches to model investment of stakeholder firms and their implications for empirical analysis.
  • The African Continental Free Trade Area (AfCFTA): Taking stock and looking ahead for international business research

    Debrah, Y.A.; Olabode, Oluwaseun E.; Olan, F.; Nyuur, Richard B. (2024)
    The establishment of the African Continental Free Trade Area (AfCFTA) has opened new avenues of research interest in International Business and International Management. However, scholarly work in this fledgling area of research has been disparate and often lacking in the assessment of core international business implications of the emergence of the AfCFTA on member states as well as non-member states. This is because, as yet, no systematic attempt has been made to explore the AfCFTA in the context of IB research, or project future IB research directions. Hence, in this paper, using the PRISMA method we have systematically identified the current published research and scholarly work on the AfCFTA and provided a robust picture of the current state of knowledge and available literature on the AfCFTA while at the same time outlining potential areas for future international business research
  • Liquidity dynamics between virtual and equity markets

    Huang, Sherena S. (2024-03)
    This paper estimates liquidity dynamics between virtual and real assets from multiple dimensions, namely market capacity, transaction cost and market efficiency. The data covers transaction information of crypto markets and four equity exchanges (US, UK, EU and Japan) between January 2019 and December 2022. The first result shows a two-way liquidity risk feedback loop between virtual and real markets, and the second result confirms dynamic liquidity interactions between them. The US market is identified as a transmitter rather than a receiver of liquidity risk but may not escape cumulative liquidity shocks.
  • Design and implementation of an IIoT driven information system: A case study

    Gupta, S.; Modgil, S.; Bhushan, B.; Sivarajah, Uthayasankar; Banerjee, S. (2023-11)
    Information systems are critical for companies since they offer quick and easy access to complex and significant data in a structured manner to make informed and effective business decisions. Hence, the objective of this study is to conceptualize and implement an innovative information system in the case study organization. The study identified the requirements for Organizing Vision Theory (OVT) and developed architecture based on Organizational Information Processing Theory (OIPT). This architecture is designed and developed using the Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT) to support a self-organizing vision and enhanced information processing. The study’s contribution lies in developing and executing an integrative architecture of IIoT-driven information systems from the lenses of OVT and OIPT. Further, this study contributes by mapping OVT elements (such as transparency, continuity, and coherence) and OIPT elements (information processing needs and capabilities) to drive value and knowledge through a robust architecture of IIoT-driven information systems. The study also highlights the contribution of IIoT-based information systems to a new knowledge system, facilitating better decision-making by professionals.
  • Trust and employment protection legislation

    Jayakody, Shashitha; Morelli, D.; Nica, M.; Oberoi, J. (2024-01)
    We examine the role of generalized social trust in substituting for employment protection legislation. Using foreign direct investment from the US to a sample of OECD countries, we find that trust diminishes the importance of formal employment regulations in investment attractiveness.
  • Mandatory CSR disclosure, institutional ownership and firm value: Evidence from China

    Shah, S.Z.A.; Akbar, Saeed; Zhu, X. (Wiley, 2023)
    This study aims to contribute to the relevant accounting, corporate gover-nance, and corporate social responsibility (CSR) literature by examining thevalue relevance of mandatory CSR disclosures in China. Using a difference-in-differences (DID) research design and a sample based on propensity scorematching (PSM) over the period from 2003 to 2020, our findings suggest thatmandatory CSR disclosures are negatively associated with firm' values. We alsofind that firms with a high level of institutional ownership and leverage experi-ence a relatively lower drop in firms' values as a result of the mandatory CSRdisclosures. These findings remain robust to alternative sampling design, use of market to book value as an alternative measure of firms' market-based performance, and a parallel test to validate our DID analysis. Our findings have useful implications for managers, regulators, policy makers and other stakeholders.
  • Financing constraints, intellectual property rights protection and incremental innovation: Evidence from transition economy firms

    Abdin, J.; Sharma, A.; Trivedi, Rohit; Wang, Chengang (2024-01)
    Despite a growing literature, the relationship between financing constraints (FC), intellectual property rights (IPR) protection and firm innovation remains unclear within the transitional country context. Drawing on endogenous growth theory and extending the Gorodnichenko and Schnitzer (2013) framework, we hypothesize that in addition to firm-specific factors, country-level variables manifested within FC hamper incremental innovation, albeit in varying degrees due to industry heterogeneity. Secondly, as opposed to previous studies that solely focus on FC affecting firm innovation, we propose that due to resource constraints, firms in transition economies tend to follow an imitational innovation strategy, and therefore, from this perspective, IPR protection can be crucial for firm-level innovation within those economies. Using data from the World Bank Enterprise Survey (WBES) consisting of information for about 21,960 firms from 27 Eastern European and Central Asian transition countries and employing a two-step probit model with endogenous regressors, we find that adverse effects of FC and IPR on firms' innovation activities are driven from within as well as between industries. Focusing on the differential impacts of FC and IPR protection across industries, we direct potential causal pathways from easing FC and optimal IPR protection to encourage firms' innovation. Based on the findings, while very strict IPR protection is detrimental to firms' product and process innovation in industries with limited resource and skill capabilities, it is nevertheless helpful for research and development (R&D) activities in industries characterised by strong R&D and IP capacities. Our results offer useful insights for policymakers to support incremental innovation as well as boost invention. IPR protection policies require to be customised to the industries and firms, since invariably tight or lax IPR enforcement can be discouraging to both incremental and radical innovation, causing all industries suffering from the same treatment.
  • Cyber governance in Africa: at the crossroads of politics, sovereignty and cooperation

    Ifeanyi-Ajufo, Nnenna (2023-01)
    Africa has recently focused on an ambition to achieve digital transformation through the pursuit of various flagship initiatives which are aimed at achieving its ‘Agenda 2063’ objectives. Digital transformation will be better achieved through appropriate cyber governance policies and mechanisms, and the success of Africa’s Digital Transformation Strategy 2020-2030 hinges on diverse factors. According to the Strategy, African governments have a fundamental responsibility to create an enabling environment, with policies and regulations that promote digital transformation across foundation pillars, which include cybersecurity. The Strategy also stipulates the need to reinforce the region’s human and institutional capacity to secure the cyberspace by building trust and confidence in the use of cyber technologies. The aim of the paper is to examine Africa’s cyber governance agenda in relation to peace and security. While there are political dimensions to determining the thresholds of such discourses in Africa, the uncertainties of governance mechanisms, political underpinnings and limitations in digital capacity may mean that international standards of cyber governance have merely been theoretical in the African context. The paper examines Africa’s extant policies and political strategies for cyber governance, and the region’s interaction with international cyber governance processes. The paper further discusses the prospects and challenges to cyber governance in the region, and the approaches to leveraging international cooperation in promoting cyber stability in the region.
  • Evaluating the intention to use Industry 5.0 (I5.0) drones for cleaner production in sustainable food supply chains: an emerging economy context

    Mahroof, Kamran; Omar, Amizan; Vann Yaroson, E.; Tenebe, S.A.; Rana, Nripendra P.; Sivarajah, Uthayasankar; Weerakkody, Vishanth J.P. (Emerald Publishing, 2023)
    Purpose – The purpose of this study is to evaluate food supply chain stakeholders’ intention to use Industry 5.0 (I5.0) drones for cleaner production in food supply chains. Design/methodology/approach – We used a quantitative research design and collected data using an online survey administered to a sample of 264 food supply chain stakeholders in Nigeria. The partial least square structural equation model (PLS-SEM) was conducted to assess the research’s hypothesised relationships. Findings – We provide empirical evidence to support the contributions of I5.0 drones for cleaner production. Our findings showed that food supply chain stakeholders are more concerned with the use of I5.0 drones in specific operations such as reducing plant diseases which invariably enhances cleaner production. However, there is less inclination to drones adoption if the aim was pollution reduction, predicting seasonal output and addressing workers health and safety challenges. Our findings outline the need for awareness to promote the use of drones for addressing workers hazard challenges and knowledge transfer on the potentials of I5.0 in emerging economies. Originality – This is the first study to address I5.0 drones' adoption using a sustainability model. We contribute to existing literature by extending the sustainability model to identify the contributions of drones use in promoting cleaner production through addressing specific system operations. This study addresses the gap by augmenting a sustainability model, suggesting that technology adoption for sustainability is motivated by curbing challenges categorised as drivers and mediators.
  • Achieving Food Supply Chain Resilience during Natural Disasters through Industry 5.0 enablers - Empirical insights based on an FsQCA approach

    Mandal, S.; Kar, K.A.; Gupta, S.; Sivarajah, Uthayasankar (2023-10-21)
    The purpose of this research is to establish the necessary and sufficient conditions for food safety and security during pandemic outbreaks, focusing on the case of COVID-19 to ensure resilience of the food supply chain. The study emphasises on the complexity theory of fuzzy set Qualitative Comparative Analysis (fsQCA), to establish a result-driven definition of Industry 5.0 (I5.0) during and post pandemics. The results of this study revealed that a combination of conditions derived from pandemic policy related reforms and I5.0 enablers will assist manufacturers and suppliers in establishing food safety and security during and post the COVID-19 era in a developing economy. Food safety and security being the goal, based on a survey of 140 food companies, this study provides insights to manufacturers and policymakers to enable selective implementation of I5.0 enabling technologies and pandemic policies.
  • The impact of compliance, board committees and insider CEOs on firm survival during crisis

    Ahmad, S.; Ullah, S.; Akbar, Saeed; Kodwani, D.; Brahma, S. (ELSEVIER, 2024-01)
    This study investigates the relationship between internal corporate governance mechanisms and firm survival during a financial crisis. Using a sample of FTSE 350 listed companies for the time period 2003–2010, our results show significant differences in the corporate governance mechanisms of firms that survived and those that failed during the 2007–2009 financial crisis. The findings indicate that compliance with the UK Corporate Governance Code is negatively associated with the survival of firms when they experience exogenous shocks. However, the existence of insider CEOs and a higher number of board committees in organisations increase the chances of survival during an economic downturn. These findings have policy implications and show that non-compliance with a prescribed code of corporate governance does not necessarily lead to poor governance. Moreover, the establishment of extra board committees and CEO succession planning are shown as important dynamics in firms’ strategic decisions, as they have implications for the survival of firms during difficult economic conditions.
  • Internationalization and firm performance: Moderating role of multi-stakeholder initiatives

    Park, Sang-Bum (Emerald, 2023)
    Purpose – Previous scholars have assumed that multinational enterprises (MNEs) can reduce the liability of foreignness and increase profitability by investing in corporate social responsibility (CSR). However, empirical validation of this assumption has rarely been attempted. This study provides empirical evidence that the adoption of multi-stakeholder initiatives, which are globally recognized as signals of CSR, helps MNEs increase profits from internationalization. Design/methodology/approach – Fixed effect models, which address model misspecification problems, and instrumental variable estimation, which controls for the endogeneity in firms’ choice of internationalization, offer empirical evidence supporting the moderating effects of global multi-stakeholder initiatives on the relationship between internationalization and firm performance. Findings – This study examines the moderating role of multi-stakeholder initiatives in the relationship between internationalization and firm performance, drawing on signaling and stakeholder theories. The results suggest that the signaling effect of multi-stakeholder initiatives can help MNEs overcome the liability of foreignness and, therefore, profit from overseas markets. Originality/value – Although the internationalization–firm performance relationship has been a subject of debate in the field of international business, the role of firms’ stakeholder engagement in this relationship has been largely overlooked in previous studies. In this study, we explore the impact of multi-stakeholder initiatives on the internationalization–firm performance relationship. Our primary contention is that multi-stakeholder initiatives have moderating effects on this relationship by reducing the liability of foreignness experienced by MNEs in host countries. Furthermore, our findings suggest that active engagement in multi-stakeholder initiatives significantly contributes to the financial success of MNEs as they internationalize.
  • The top 100 global water questions: Results of a scoping exercise

    Mdee, A.; Ofori, A.; Lopez-Gonzalez, G.; Stringer, L.; Martin-Ortega, J.; Ahrari, S.; Dougill, A.; Evans, B.; Holden, J.; Kay, P.; et al. (2022-05-20)
    Global water security presents a complex problem for human societies and will become more acute as the impacts of climate change escalate. Water security connects the practical water and sanitation challenges of households to the dynamics of global hydroclimates and ecosystems in the Anthropocene. To ensure the successful deployment of attention and resources, it is necessary to identify the most pressing questions for water research. Here, we present the results of a scoping exercise conducted across the global water sector. More than 400 respondents submitted an excess of 4,000 potential questions. Drawing on expert analysis, we highlight 100 indicative research questions across six thematic domains: water and sanitation for human settlements; water and sanitation safety risk management; water security and scarcity; hydroclimate-ecosystem-Anthropocene dynamics; multi-level governance; and knowledge production. These questions offer an interdisciplinary and multi-scalar framework for guiding the nature and space of water research for the coming decades.
  • Analysis of experience using human rights to accelerate WASH access in four countries

    Gosling, L.; Rai, T.; Obani, Pedi; Traore, M.A.; Ouangre, L.; Aliu, F.; Shah, S.K. (2022-06)
    Human rights to water and sanitation have been widely recognised in legal instruments at the international, regional, and national levels of governance. More awareness of states’ obligations has provided additional impetus to promote human rights in policy advocacy. The international non-governmental organisation WaterAid, as a non-state actor specialising in the water, sanitation, and hygiene services (WASH) sector, adopts a human rights-based approach (HRBA) to WASH programming. This paper draws on the experiences from WaterAid WASH projects in four countries – Nepal, Ghana, Mali, and Burkina Faso, to evaluate the practical impacts of the HRBA to ensure that governments fulfil their responsibility to realise universal access to water and sanitation services in different contexts. The outcomes highlight that three important contributions of the HRBA: (1) generates greater awareness among rightsholders and duty bearers about responsibilities and entitlements over safe drinking water and sanitation; (2) promotes constructive engagement between the government and rightsholders; and (3) equips people with the motivation, skills, and agency which are critical dimensions to work on sustainable WASH. The WASH sector should, therefore, embrace the power of human rights and invest in the specific activities and frameworks to integrate human rights into systems strengthening the WASH sector, while continuing to analyse and learn how to adapt and improve the approach in different contexts.
  • The human rights to water and sanitation

    Misiedjan, D.; Obani, Pedi (Edward Elgar, 2021-10)
    The human right to water offers a strong legal tool for empowering millions of people living without safe drinking water around the world by creating legal obligations and standards for universal access to safe drinking water. The human right to sanitation creates legal obligations and standards for progressive improvement of access for the bil lions of people living without a basic level of sanitation services and the millions depending on open defecation. Both rights have evolved through closely linked processes at the international level, with implications for water and sanitation governance processes at the national level. This chapter analyses the co-evolution of the human rights to water and sanitation and the legal foundations of the rights at the international level, while highlighting the relationship between the rights and discussing the unique developments which each right has experienced. The chapter also considers the implementation chal- lenges and justiciability issues that will shape the future development of both rights at the international and national levels.

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