• Civil Society and Development: A Critical Exploration.

      Howell, J.; Pearce, Jenny V. (2001)
      Incorporated into the discourse of academics, policymakers, and grassroots activists, of multilateral development agencies and local NGOs alike, "civil society" has become a topic of widespread discussion. But is there in fact any common understanding of the term? How useful is it when applied to the South, and what difference does it make to bring the concept into the debate on development? Howell and Pearce explore the complex relationships among civil society, the state, and market in the context of democratic development. Drawing on case studies from Africa, Asia, and Latin America, they also unravel what is meant by development agencies¿bilaterals, multilaterals, NGOs, and international financial institutions, with their diverse approaches and agendas¿when they refer to the urgent need to strengthen civil society.
    • Electoral campaigning in Latin America's new democracies: The Southern Cone

      Espindola, Roberto (Routledge, 2007)
      This book examines how political communication and the mass media have played a central role in the consolidation of emerging democracies around the world. Covering a broad range of political and cultural contexts, including Eastern and Southern Europe, Latin America, Asia and Africa, this new volume investigates the problems and conflicts arising in the process of establishing an independent media and competitive politics in post-autocratic societies. Considering the changing dynamic in the relationship between political actors, the media and their audience, the authors of this volume address the following issues: Changing journalistic role perceptions and journalistic quality The reasons and consequences of persisting instrumentalization of the media by political actors The role of the media in election campaigns The way in which the citizens interpret political messages and the extent to which the media influence political attitudes and electoral behaviour The role of the Internet in building a democratic public sphere.
    • Gender politics in Brazil and Chile: The role of political parties in local and national policy-making.

      Macaulay, Fiona (2009-09-29)
      How have party systems and individual parties in Latin America responded to, and filtered, women's movement demands for political voice representation and state gender policies. Does this vary between national and local levels of government? This study compares two Latin American cases. The first analyses the National Women's Ministry (SERNAM) in Chile, a country with a history of ideological conflict, strong parties and centralized government. The second examines the local administrations of the left-wing Brazilian Workers' Party in Brazil, in a political environment shaped by clientelism, weak parties and decentralization. This is the first study to focus exclusively on parties as gendered and gendering organizations, analysing them not just in terms of ideology, but also of their individual party histories and cultures, expressed as a gendered political habitus and sociability. This book also highlights the spatiality of party and gender politics by examining local as well as national government. ' ...a most welcome contribution to the analysis of Latin American politics, and to the field of gender studies. Exhaustively researched, it reveals the intricate relationships between gender politics, public institutions and policy outcomes. No one reading this book will be left in doubt as to the importance of political parties for advancing equality agendas, nor about the obstacles that party systems place in the way of female representation.' - Maxine Molyneux, Professor of Sociology, Institute for the Study of the Americas, University of London, UK List of Tables Glossary List of Brazilian States Acknowledgements Introduction Gendered and Gendering Parties PART 1: BRAZIL Porous Parties, Permeable State The Workers' Party, Gender and Feminism O Modo Petista: Local Level Gender Policy PART 2: CHILE In Their Place: The Political Uses of Women Between Ideologies: The National Women's Ministry Decentralization Deficits: Delivering Policy at the Local Level Comparisons and Conclusions Notes and References Index FIONA MACAULAY is Lecturer in Development Studies in the Department of Peace Studies, University of Bradford, UK. Her research interests, on which she has published widely, cover gender and politics, decentralization and social policies, human rights and the criminal justice system in Brazil and Latin America.
    • People's Republic of China's Competitive Threat to Latin America: Analysis for 1990-2002.

      Weiss, John A.; Oikawa, H.; Lall, S. (2004)
      How have Latin American exporters been affected by the rapid increase in the PRC's exports to the USA and other large markets? Are PRC and Latin American exports complementary or competitive with each other? This paper examines detailed trade data to provide answers to these important questions. It examines the meaning of a "competitive threat" and provides a way of assessing the degree of threat from trade statistics. In general it finds that export structures in PRC and Latin American economies are sufficiently different for trade to be basically complementary with at present only a small portion of Latin American exports under a "direct threat" from PRC exporters. Mexico is the economy that is potentially at greatest risk; but as yet this has not shown up in the data.
    • Political Parties and Democratization in the Southern Cone of Latin America.

      Espindola, Roberto (2002)
      This article focuses on parties as the main anchors of democratic consolidation and seeks to present the main factors that have affected their development in two systems that could be argued to be amongst the most stable in Latin America, those of Argentina and Chile. It argues that some of the main variables affecting that development have been, besides systemic variables: the professionalized electoral campaign; external variables including technological transfers resulting from the foreign assistance received by centre and centre-left parties; the proscription of parties by authoritarian regimes; and shocks such as electoral defeat, loss of office and economic crises. Whilst electoral campaigns show a high level of professionalization in Argentine and Chilean parties, it is moderated by the preservation - or re-acquisition - of personnel-based campaigning and mass party characteristics.
    • Prisoner capture: welfare, lawfare and warfare in Latin America’s overcrowded prisons

      Macaulay, Fiona (2019-05)
      This chapter focuses on the forms of legality and illegality produced by, and within, prison systems in Latin America where prison populations have risen five-fold, leading to a serious structural crisis in the criminal justice system. The chapter develops the concept of “prisoner capture”, a double-sided phenomenon of illegality in the state’s practices of detention, on the one hand, and informal, or parallel, governance exercised by those that it detained, on the other. State authorities held tens of thousands of people in extended and legally unjustifiable pretrial detention, and frequently denied convicted prisoners their legal rights, including timely release. This officially sanctioned form of kidnapping created such overcrowding and under-investment in prisons that national, constitutional, and international minimum norms on detention standards were routinely, systematically and grossly violated. These multiple illegalities on the part of the state in turn encouraged the emergence of prisoner self-defence and self-governance organizations. This resulted in “prisoner capture” of a different kind, when inmates took over the day-to-day ordering of prison life. In turn, this produced a parallel normative and pseudo-legal world in which inmates adjudicated on and disciplined other inmates in the absence of state officials within the prison walls. The chapter further examines what the study of Latin American prisons and penal practices can add to the field of socio-legal studies in the region and the implications of this phenomenon of prison capture for the dominant socio-legal literature on prisons and imprisonment.
    • Private Conflicts, Public Powers: Domestic Violence in the Courts in Latin America.

      Macaulay, Fiona (Palgrave Macmillan, 2005)
      During the last two decades the judiciary has come to play an increasingly important political role in Latin America. Constitutional courts and supreme courts are more active in counterbalancing executive and legislative power than ever before. At the same time, the lack of effective citizenship rights has prompted ordinary people to press their claims and secure their rights through the courts. This collection of essays analyzes the diverse manifestations of the judicialization of politics in contemporary Latin America, assessing their positive and negative consequences for state-society relations, the rule of law, and democratic governance in the region. With individual chapters exploring Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Mexico, Peru and Venezuela, it advances a comparative framework for thinking about the nature of the judicialization of politics within contemporary Latin American democracies.
    • Spellbound: Resisting the power of popular myth in Erice's El espirítu de la colmena [The spirit of the beehive.

      White, Anne M.; Garcia-Soza, G (Peter Lang, 2002)
      The papers collected in this volume are a selection from the proceedings of the Cultura Popular conference held at Manchester Metropolitan University in September 1999. The essays deal with aspects of contemporary Spanish or Latin American popular culture, and with the problematics of applying theories of Cultural Studies to these contexts. A diverse range of popular cultural forms is covered by contributors including mural art, artesanía, horror film, advertising, music, telenovela, television, literature and tourism, and case studies are drawn from Spain, Argentina, Peru and Mexico.
    • The United Nations and Regional Security: Europe and Beyond.

      Pugh, Michael C.; Sidhu, W.P.S. (LYnne Rienner Publishers, 2003)
      Events in Europe over the past decade or so have created a dynamic requiring significant conceptual and practical adjustments on the part of the the United Nations and a range of regional actors, including the EU, NATO, and the OSCE. This volume explores the resulting collaborative relationships in the context of peace operations in the Balkans, considering past efforts and developing specific suggestions for effective future interactions between the UN and its regional partners. The authors also consider the implications of efforts in Europe for the regionalization of peace and security operations in Asia, Africa, and Latin America.