• Analysing Water Governance: A Tool for Sustainability

      Franks, Tom R.; Cleaver, Frances D. (Institution of Civil Engineers / Thomas Telford, 2009)
      Managing global water resources and providing water services to the world¿s people raises a continuing series of challenges, driven by increasing expectations, and a growing competition for water, which will be exacerbated by climate change. This paper explores how concepts of water governance and sustainability may help us to meet those challenges. Water governance is often equated with the role of government or management in the provision of water services. By contrast, we see governance as the system of actors, resources, mechanisms and processes, which mediate society¿s access to water. A broad conceptual framework is presented for the analysis of water governance, based on linkages between the resources available to society, the mechanisms that shape access to water and the outcomes of those mechanisms, both for people and the ecosystem. These linkages are mediated both by stakeholders and by management processes. It is argued that this conceptual framework offers a robust analytical tool for planning for sustainability as it is able to account for the complexities of water governance (of contexts, stakeholders, arrangements and uses). The paper concludes with observations about the ways in which the framework can be used to understand how different water governance arrangements produce variable outcomes in terms of sustainability.
    • Armed violence, governance, security sector reform, and safety security and access to justice

      Bourne, Mike; Greene, Owen J. (2004)
      This briefing aims to highlight and clarify the importance of the availability and misuse of small arms and light weapons (SALW), and associated armed violence, for development programming in the areas of governance, security sector reform (SSR), and safety, security and access to justice (SSAJ). By doing so the effectiveness of governance, SSR and SSAJ programmes can be enhanced. Moreover, governance, SSR and SSAJ programmes can be developed to contribute more to the reduction of armed violence perpetrated with SALW and facilitated by their availability
    • Extractive economies, institutions and development: implications for BRICS and Emerging Economies

      Anand, Prathivadi B. (2020-12-17)
      Extractive economies can use the natural resource dividend for infrastructure and sustainable development though this involves overcoming many challenges. The original contribution of this chapter is to see BRICS as natural resource rich economies that have not yet signed up to the Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative (EITI). The paper reports original analysis of relationship between resource dependence and human development index for the period 1990 to 2015 which suggests that non-resource rich countries tend to have higher values of HDI than resource rich countries. Using in depth case studies of two countries that have joined EITI (namely Norway and Mongolia) and two emerging economies that have not joined the EITI (Botswana and Chile) and one of the BRICS (namely Brazil), this chapter highlights some of the successes and challenges in using the natural resource wealth to transform economic and social development outcomes. Governance indicators of these cases suggest that transparency initiatives can be helpful but they should be part of a larger programme of transparency and institutional development. The analysis highlights that the links between extractive economies, policies, institutions and human development outcomes are complex and require long term policies and commitments. Three specific policy issues for BRICS are identified.
    • Governance and economics of smart cities: opportunities and challenges

      Anand, Prathivadi B.; Navio-Marco, J. (2018-11)
      This editorial introduction to this special issue provides an overview and a conceptual framework of governance and economics of smart cities. We begin with a discussion of the background to smart cities and then it focuses on the key challenges for consideration in smart city economics. Here it is argued that there are four dimensions to smart city economics: the first is regarding the scale of global market for smart cities; the second issue concerns data to be used for smart city projects; the third concerns market competition and structure and the fourth concerns the impact on local economy. Likewise, smart city governance framework has to be considered a layered and multi-level concept focusing on issues of transparency and accountability to the citizens.
    • Human Security and Development in Africa.

      Gomes Porto, Joao; Poku, Nana K.; Renwick, N. (2007)
      There has been a recent rise in optimism about Africa's prospects: increased economic growth; renewed regional and national political commitments to good governance; and fewer conflicts. Yet, given current trends and with less than eight years until 2015, Africa is likely to fail to meet every single one of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). Home to almost one-third of the world's poor, Africa's challenges remain as daunting as ever. Despite highly publicized increased growth in some economies, the combined economies of Africa have, on average, actually shrunk and are far from meeting the required 7 per cent growth needed to tackle extreme poverty. A similar picture emerges from the analysis of Africa's performance on the other MDGs. In a world where security and development are inextricably connected in complex and multifaceted ways, Africans are, as a result, among the most insecure. By reviewing a select number of political, security and socio-economic indicators for the continent, this analysis evaluates the reasons underlying Africa's continuing predicament. It identifies four critical issues: ensuring peace and security; fostering good governance; fighting HIV/ AIDS; and managing the debt crisis. In assessing these developmental security challenges, the article recalls that the MDGs are more than time bound, quantified targets for poverty alleviation¿they also represent a commitment by all members of the international community, underwritten by principles of co-responsibility and partnership, to an enlarged notion of development based on the recognition that human development is key to sustaining social and economic progress. In recent years, and often following failures, especially in Africa, to protect civilian populations from the violence and predation of civil wars, a series of high-level commissions and expert groups have conducted strategic reviews of the UN system and its function in global politics. The debate has also developed at the theoretical level involving both a recon-ceptualization of security, from state centred norms to what is referred to as the globalization of security around the human security norm. There has also been a reconceptualization of peacekeeping, where the peacekeeping force has enough robustness to use force not only to protect populations under the emergent responsibility to protect norm, but also enough conflict resolution capacity to facilitate operations across the conflict¿development¿peacebuilding continuum. This article opens up a discussion of how these ideas might be relevant to security regime building and conflict resolution in African contexts, and suggests how initiatives in Africa might begin to make a contribution to the theory and practice of cosmopolitan peacekeeping.
    • The Impact of Regulation on Economic Growth in Developing Countries: A Cross-Country Analysis.

      Jalilian, Hossein; Kirkpatrick, Colin; Parker, D. (2007)
      The role of an effective regulatory regime in promoting economic growth and development has generated considerable interest among researchers and practitioners in recent years. In particular, building effective regulatory structures in developing countries is not simply an issue of the technical design of the most appropriate regulatory instruments, it is also concerned with the quality of supporting regulatory institutions and capacity. This paper explores the role of state regulation using an econometric model of the impact of regulation on growth. The results based on two different techniques of estimation suggest a strong causal link between regulatory quality and economic performance.
    • Picking Out the Pieces of the Liberal Peaces: Representations of Conflict Economies and the Implications for Policy.

      Cooper, Neil (2005)
      This article examines the different ways in which the dynamics of civil war economies have been represented and the influences this has had on post-conflict peacebuilding (PCPB). The article suggests that regulation to address the dynamics of war economies and shadow trade has been asymmetric in its focus and its effects. It also argues that, particularly post-9/11, there has been a convergence in the discourse on weak states and shadow economies. While ostensibly promising a progressive fusion between solidarism and security, this monolithic discourse may well produce policy that prioritizes policing and hermetic protection for the developed world at the expense of effective strategies to address the dynamics of war economies and shadow trade.
    • Sustainable Livelihoods Approaches - Can they transform development?

      Mdee (nee Toner), Anna L. (Bradford Centre for International Development, 2002-12)
      This paper critically examines the sustainable livelihoods approach (SLA) in the context of broader development debates, using a literature review as a tool to explore the origins, concepts and uses of the `approach¿. Whilst the concept of sustainable livelihoods is valuable in advancing our understanding the complexity and embedded nature of people¿s lives, sustainable livelihoods frameworks and principles are too simplistic to offer many answers. This paper argues that the idea of net sustainable livelihoods has much to offer the current discourse on rights and governance but that this is in danger of being diluted by its conceptualisation as a new `approach¿ to managing development interventions.
    • Talibanization of the Islamic State and the quest for retrospective legitimacy

      Shahi, Afshin; Mohamad, A. (2019)
      This paper develops the notion of ‘Talibanization’ – a concept which stems from the resilience and the determination of the Taliban to remain a dominant player in Afghanistan even after the downfall of their state in 2001. The factors that helped the Taliban to maintain their influence after the disintegration of their state constitute a pattern which could be applied to other conflict-driven areas such as Syria. By critically examining the socio-political conditions in the Syrian district of Jarablus, this paper demonstrates the ways in which the inept post-IS administration is inadvertently helping IS to gain what we call ‘retrospective legitimacy’ a drive which could sustain its influence for many years following its downfall.
    • Water Governance and Poverty: A Framework for Analysis

      Franks, Tom R.; Cleaver, Frances D. (2007)
      This paper engages with policy on meeting development goals for water through interventions, which promote good governance. Addressing an under-researched area, we propose a new analytical framework for understanding water governance, not as a set of abstract principles, but as interlinked processes with variable practical outcomes for poor people. The framework is informed by theories of governance, institutions and structuration, empirical research and field insights. We apply the framework to a case in south-western Tanzania, and we identify a range of issues for further research, particularly relating to water access for the poor.