• Seeing beyond the battled body - An insight into self-hood and identity from women's accounts who self-harm with a diagnosis of borderline personality disorder.

      Walker, Tammi (09/06/2009)
      Background: Self-harm (self poisoning and self-injury) is broadly characterised as any act intended to harm one's own body, without a conscious intent to die. Research indicates that when practitioners encounter self-harm they often remain anxious, fearful, frustrated, and challenged about such individuals, principally because they are constrained to understand and respond to self-harm almost exclusively within a problematised discourse (Walker, 2006). That is, a problem that must be diagnosed and contained. Women who self-harm with a diagnosis of BPD are often portrayed as being risky, chaotic and their identity can be unstable. The aim of this study was to examine and explore the subjective experiences of women who self-harm with a diagnosis of BPD. Participants: Four women who had a history of self-harming behaviour with the diagnosis of BPD volunteered for the study. Method: Face-to-face, in-depth narrative interviews were undertaken and were analysed within a framework which drew upon aspects of the ¿performance¿ (Langellier, 1989; 2001) and ¿narrative thematic¿ approaches (Reissman, 1993). Findings: Two of the participant's accounts illustrate how their self-harming appeared to have affected their selfhood and sense of agency. They discuss how the external signs of self-harm may take over their identity and how others communicate and interact with them. Despite the problematic nature of self-harm implications for practice are highlighted which practitioners may draw upon in their work around self-harm.
    • Violence and urbanisation: The Kerala-Bihar paradox and beyond.

      Anand, Prathivadi B. (University of Bradford. Department of Development and Economic Studies,, 10/07/2009)
      Abstract: The aim of this paper is to examine the alleged association between urbanisation and violence and to take some preliminary steps towards an exploration of the role of trust in improving urban governance and thus reduce violence. In this paper, violence is interpreted broadly to include both active or direct violence but also passive and social violence in terms of lack of voice, and as a symptom of governance failure. The paper includes a cross section analysis based on data for some 123 countries and an in-depth case study of India. I will also examine what may be termed as the Kerala-Bihar paradox. Kerala is well-known for its achievements in human development and according to India human development report of 2001, Kerala is ranked 1 on human development indicators while Bihar is among the states lagging behind in terms of human development. However, state level analysis of crime suggests that Kerala is more criminalised than Bihar. In examining this paradox, some inferences are drawn on the role of trust in improving accountable governance and how this may result in reducing violent crime. Some issues for further research are identified.
    • The Logical Framework - A tool for the management of project planning and evaluation.

      MacArthur, John D. (13/05/2011)
      This paper is a literature review of Logical Framework ideas for the management of the cycle for the planning and implementation of development projects - the "Project Cycle" (MacArthur 1994) The ideas and nature of the LogFrame (as it is generally called) are deceptively simple, with all the thinking and targets for a project represented in a simple 16 cell worksheet, which it is intended should be written on one or at the most two sheets of A4 paper. The underlying intention of this approach is for the objectives of a project or any other intervention to be explicitly defined from an early stage, so as to strengthen the logic of the planning at different levels of a project's performance, and the evaluation of progress when the plans are implemented. A summary matrix for the presentation of all this was first proposed in the US Government in 1970, and the idea not only soon took firm root there in AID, but has been adopted in original or modified form by a very large proportion of Development Assistance Agencies. The appeal of the simple logic behind the LogFrame idea has been very strong, and the ideas are an established part of all the set of tools of all development planners working at the micro level.
    • Stakeholder Roles and Stakeholder Analysis in Project Planning: A review of approaches in three agencies - World Bank, ODA and NRI .

      MacArthur, John D. (13/05/2011)
      Stakeholder topics are one of the main ideas in development thinking that have been introduced in the last few years, certainly a concept of the 1990s. The use of stakeholder language and the application of analysis, planning and management methods directed towards different interest groups are increasingly becoming commonplace, especially amongst some anglophone donors, Three main general applications of stakeholder ideas have been developed in the literature: - the involvement of Stakeholders in Participatory methods of Development intended to achieve sustainable poverty relief; - the use of Stakeholder Analysis to assure the implementation soundness of development projects; and - its use as a means of understanding the many economic interests and processes that relate to "systems" for Natural Resource Management, this understanding to be applied in a number of developmentally beneficial uses.Naturally the three strands of applying stakeholder ideas draw from each other. This paper looks at the emergence of thinking and applications from them all, leading towards a more full consideration of the application of Stakeholder Analysis in the planning of projects of various kinds.
    • How does it make a difference? Towards 'accreditation' of the development impact of volunteer tourism.

      Mdee (nee Toner), Anna L.; Fee, Liam (14/12/2010)
      Whilst some argue that volunteer tourism is nothing more than neo-colonialism, we propose that it can (under certain conditions) make a positive contribution to local communities in developing countries and can also contribute to a ¿globalising, humanising civil society¿. We also argue that an increase in volunteer tourism is likely to be an unstoppable trend as international travel and easy global communication make ¿Do-it-Yourself¿ development activities ever more possible. In this chapter, we consider further the conditions required for volunteers to have a positive rather than a negative or neutral impact.
    • Relationships among tonic and episodic aspects of motivation to eat, gut peptides, and weight before and after bariatric surgery.

      Bryant, Eleanor J.; King, N.; Falken, Y.; Hellstrom, P.; Holst, J.J.; Blundell, J.E.; Naslund, E. (18/09/2013)
      Background The interaction between motivation to eat, eating behaviour traits and gut peptides following gastric bypass (GBP) surgery are not fully understood. Setting Danderyd Hospital, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden. Method Appetite and hormone responses to a fixed liquid pre-load were assessed in 12 obese (BMI 45 ± 1.9 kg/m2) participants immediately before, 3 days, 2 months, and 1 year following gastric by-pass (GBP) surgery. Subjective appetite and plasma levels of ghrelin, leptin, insulin and GLP-1 were measured for a 3-hour postprandial period. Eating behaviour traits were also measured using the TFEQR18. Results There was a decrease in TFEQ Emotional Eating (EE) and Uncontrolled Eating (UE) from pre to 1-year post-surgery, but no significant change in Restraint. In addition, there was a reduction in subjective appetite ratings, and alterations in appetite peptides favouring an anorectic response. Pre-surgery EE was significantly related to fasting and AUC ghrelin; UE was associated with AUC desire to eat while there was a significant association between fasting desire to eat and ghrelin (fasting and AUC). 1 year post-surgery, UE was positively related to fasting insulin and Restraint was negatively associated with GLP-1. UE and subjective hunger were positively correlated, while the relationship between desire to eat and ghrelin remained. Conclusion The relationships amongst subjective appetite ratings, eating behaviour traits and appetite peptides in obese patients both before and at one-year post GBP surgery contribute to the reduction in a propensity to over-eat and weight loss.
    • Exercise, appetite and weight management: understanding the compensatory responses in eating behaviour and how they contribute to variability in exercise-induced weight loss.

      King, N.; Horner, K.; Byrne, N.; Wood, R.; Bryant, Eleanor J.; Caudwell, P.; Finlayson, G.; Gibbons, C.; Hopkins, M.; Martins, C.; et al. (19/05/2011)
      Does exercise promote weight loss? One of the key problems with studies assessing the effi cacy of exercise as a method of weight management and obesity is that mean data are presented and the individual variability in response is overlooked. Recent data have highlighted the need to demonstrate and characterise the individual variability in response to exercise. Do people who exerc ise compensate for the increase in energy expenditure via compensatory increases in hunger and food intake? The authors address the physiological, psychological and behavioural factors potentially involved in the relationship between exercise and appetite, and identify the research questions that remain unanswered. A negative consequence of the phenomena of individual variability and compensatory responses has been the focus on those who lose little weight in response to exercise; this has been used unreasonably as evidence to suggest that exercise is a futile method of controlling weight and managing obesity. Most of the evidence suggests that exercise is useful for improving body composition and health. For example, when exercise-induced mean weight loss is <1.0 kg, signifi cant improvements in aerobic capacity (+6.3 ml/kg/min), systolic (¿6.00 mm Hg) and diastolic (¿3.9 mm Hg) blood pressure, waist circumference (¿3.7 cm) and positive mood still occur. However, people will vary in their responses to exercise; understanding and characterising this variability will help tailor weight loss strategies to suit individuals.
    • The teaching of conflict studies

      Leeds, Christopher A.; Politics Association (1974)
    • Politics, Social Cost Benefit Analysis and Planners

      Potts, David J. (1978-08)
      The paper explores some of the political assumptions implicit in the use of social cost-benefit analysis, and the role of economic planners using this analysis. It is argued that the recent emphasis on income distribution in project planning techniques rests on questionable assumptions about the nature and intentions of governments. These techniques can be thought of as attempts to redistribute income ‘through the back door’. Some possible justification for the use of income distribution weights in project planning is given, but it is concluded that they are very much second best to direct macro-economic policies and popular participation in planning.
    • Shadow pricing agricultural projects: an approach using unknown parameters

      Potts, David J. (1990)
      The ‘Modified UNIDO Approach’ to economic analysis of projects is described. It was used in Tanzania when no national parameters were available for shadow pricing. The main features are: the choice of a domestic price numeraire; the use of cost breakdowns rather than composite conversion factors, and their application on a year-by-year basis rather than to present values; the treatment of the shadow exchange rate as an unknown and the presentation of results as a matrix of NPV values relating to different combinations of parameters; and calculation of the domestic resource cost of foreign exchange to rank the efficiency of projects in earning or saving foreign exchange.
    • The New politics of race and gender : the 1992 yearbook of the Politics of Education Association

      Marshall, Catherine; Politics of Education Association (1994)
      What can schools do to eliminate sexism and racism? By the 1990's with shifting demographics, disillusionment with conventional liberal policies and new political coalitions, the politics of race and gender requires new analyses. The chapters in this book demonstrate how the politics of race and gender enter into proposals for parental choice, business involvement in schools, definitions of good leadership, special schools for minority children, curriculum debates, and debates about testing and accountability. Catherine Marshall provides the political historical context of race and gender politics in schools, and the following eighteen chapters provide a greater in-depth analysis. The chapters include work of scholars and policy analysts focusing on policy and policy implementation at all levels of school politics in the US, Australia and Israel. The book ends with critical policy analysis, raising deep theoretical questions and pulling out the chronic race and gender issues in education politics.
    • A New Form of Warfare: The rise of non-lethal weapons.

      Dando, Malcolm R. (1996)
      An exploration of deploying non-lethal weapons in todays chaotic post cold-war world; thereby facilitating peacekeeping deployments without casualties. Dando argues a more sinister outcome could be the result.
    • When prices change: consistency in the financial analysis of projects

      Potts, David J. (1996)
      There are problems in practice with dealing with inflation and exchange rate changes in the financial analysis of projects. This paper reviews existing procedures for dealing with changing prices, identifies problem areas and explains how they can be dealt with. The approach is manageable in its complexity, comprehensive in its coverage and consistent in so far as possible with both economic and accounting disciplines. It is illustrated with an example of a productive sector project with a ten-year life cycle.
    • Bradford Non-Lethal Weapons Research Project (BNLWRP). Research Report 1.

      Lewer, N. (University of Bradford, 1997)
      The NLW database illustrates the extensive and eclectic literature regarding NLWs which covers the last few decades. It currently contains over 250 entries. It is important to have access not only to the more recent material, but also to earlier sources since many of the general debates and controversies have already been rehearsed, and lessons learnt from them are still relevant today. Yet, it is also vital to follow new developments of NLWs closely because rapidly changing technology is producing weapons whose implications for integration into military and civil police forces have yet to be clearly defined and understood. Of particular interest are not only NLW applications for war fighting, but opportunities for deployment in peace enforcement and peace keeping missions. These technologies span many bases including: psycho-chemicals; unmanned weapons platforms and delivery systems; biogenetics; acoustic and microwave weapons; biological and chemical weapons; laser systems; kinetic energy ballistics; dual purpose (lethal/non-lethal) weapons; and, sprays and foams which inhibit movement. The database will keep up to date on these developments and future reports will highlight new issues and debates surrounding them. With these rapid technological advances come a series of associated dangers and concerns including: the ethics of use; implications for weapons control and disarmament treaties; military doctrine; public accountability and guidelines; dangers of misuse and proliferation; and, research and development strategies. Using the database, and drawing from military and non-military sources, this report will select the main current issues and debates within the non-lethal community. Bearing in mind that many operations undertaken by military forces are now more akin to policing actions (such as peace support operations) there are lessons to be learnt by military units from civil police experience. There still remains a tension between perceived benign and malign intent both in NLW operational use and non-lethal research and development.
    • Bradford Non-Lethal Weapons Research Project (BNLWRP). Research Report 2

      Lewer, N. (University of Bradford, 1998)
      Drawing from the Non-Lethal Weapons Database this report summarises and reviews: non-lethal technology research and development issues, themes and trends developments in non-lethal military organisation and co-ordination capacity recent developments in selected non-lethal technologies commercial opportunities and applications of non-lethal technology ethical and social implications of non-lethal technolgy non-lethal human bioeffect research