• A web-based and mobile health social support intervention to promote adherence to inhaled asthma medications: randomized controlled trial

      Koufopoulos, J.T.; Conner, M.T.; Gardner, Peter H.; Kellar, P. (2016-06)
      Background: Online communities hold great potential as interventions for health, particularly for the management of chronic illness. The social support that online communities can provide has been associated with positive treatment outcomes, including medication adherence. There are few studies that have attempted to assess whether membership of an online community improves health outcomes using rigorous designs. Objective: Our objective was to conduct a rigorous proof-of-concept randomized controlled trial of an online community intervention for improving adherence to asthma medicine. Methods: This 9-week intervention included a sample of asthmatic adults from the United Kingdom who were prescribed an inhaled corticosteroid preventer. Participants were recruited via email and randomized to either an “online community” or “no online community” (diary) condition. After each instance of preventer use, participants (N=216) were required to report the number of doses of medication taken in a short post. Those randomized to the online community condition (n=99) could read the posts of other community members, reply, and create their own posts. Participants randomized to the no online community condition (n=117) also posted their medication use, but could not read others’ posts. The main outcome measures were self-reported medication adherence at baseline and follow-up (9 weeks postbaseline) and an objective measure of adherence to the intervention (visits to site). Results: In all, 103 participants completed the study (intervention: 37.8%, 39/99; control: 62.2%, 64/117). MANCOVA of self-reported adherence to asthma preventer medicine at follow-up was not significantly different between conditions in either intention-to-treat (P=.92) or per-protocol (P=.68) analysis. Site use was generally higher in the control compared to intervention conditions. Conclusions: Joining an online community did not improve adherence to preventer medication for asthma patients. Without the encouragement of greater community support or more components
    • Welcome to Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine

      Pieroni, Andrea; Leimar Price, L.; Vandebroek, I. (2005)
      Ethnobiology is a multidisciplinary field of study that draws on approaches and methods from both the social and biological sciences. Ethnobiology aims at investigating culturally based biological and environmental knowledge, cultural perception and cognition of the natural world, and associated behaviours and practices. Ethnomedicine is concerned with the cultural interpretations of health, disease and illness and also addresses the health care seeking process and healing practices. Research interest and activities in the areas of ethnobiology and ethnomedicine have increased tremendously in the last decade. Since the inception of the disciplines, scientific research in ethnobiology and ethnomedicine has made important contributions to understanding traditional subsistence and medical knowledge and practice. The Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine (JEE) invites manuscripts and reviews based on original interdisciplinary research from around the world on the inextricable relationships between human cultures and nature, on Traditional Environmental Knowledge (TEK), folk and traditional medical knowledge, as well as on the relevance of the above for Primary Health Care (PHC) policies in developing countries.
    • Were there Vikings in Carlisle?

      McCarthy, Michael R.; Montgomery, Janet; Lerwick, Ceilidh; Buckberry, Jo (2014)
    • The West Coast Palaeolandscape Project

      Gaffney, Vincent L.; Fitch, Simon (2019-10)
    • What do all the numbers mean? Making sure that we have all the pieces of the puzzle.

      Sparrow, Thomas; Gaffney, Christopher F.; Schmidt, Armin R. (2009)
      No Abstract
    • What doesnt kill you: Early life health and nutrition in early Anglo Saxon East Anglia

      Kendall, E.J.; Millard, A.; Beaumont, Julia; Gowland, R.; Gorton, Marise; Gledhill, Andrew R. (Springer Nature, 2020)
      Early life is associated with high vulnerability to morbidity and mortality - risks which can be reduced in infancy and early childhood through strategically high levels of parental or alloparental investment, particularly in the case of maternal breastfeeding. Recent evidence has supported links between early-life health and care patterns and long-term population health. This growing body of research regarding the broader impacts of infant-parent interactions transcends a traditional partitioning of research into discrete life stages. It also highlights implications of childhood data for our understanding of population health and behaviour. Skeletal and environmental data indicate that the 5-7th century cemeteries at Littleport and Edix Hill (Barrington A), Cambridgeshire represent populations of similar material culture but contrasting environments and health. The high prevalence of skeletal stress markers at Littleport indicates a community coping with unusual levels of biological stress, potentially a consequence of endemic malaria present in the marshy Fen environs. In contrast, Edix Hill was an inland site which exhibited lower skeletal stress marker prevalence comparable to wider British data for the early medieval period. Early life patterns relating to diet and physiological stress at Littleport (n=5) and Edix Hill (n=8) were investigated through analyses of carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes from incrementally-sampled deciduous dentine. Meaningful variation in isotopic values within and between populations was observed, and should be a focus of future interdisciplinary archaeological childhood studies.
    • What Drives Adaptive Gait Changes to Acutely Presented Monocular Blur?

      Chapman, Graham J.; Scally, Andy J.; Elliott, David B. (2011)
      Purpose. To determine whether gait alterations due to monocular spherical lens blur were a safety strategy or driven by lens magnification. Methods. Adaptive gait and visual function were measured in 10 older adults (mean age, 74.9 4.8 years) with the participants¿ optimal refractive correction and when monocularly blurred with 1.00 DS and 2.00 DS lens over the dominant eye. Adaptive gait measurements for the lead and trail foot included foot position before the raised surface, toe clearance of the raised surface edge, and foot position on the raised surface. Vision measurements included binocular visual acuity, contrast sensitivity, and stereoacuity. Results. Equal levels of monocular positive and negative spherical lens blur led to very different stepping strategies when negotiating a raised surface. Positive blur lenses led to an increased vertical toe clearance and reduced distance of the lead foot position on the raised surface. Negative lenses led to the opposite of these changes. Conclusions. Findings suggest that step negotiation strategies were driven by the magnification effect provided by the spherical lenses. Steps appeared closer and larger with magnification from positive lenses and further away and smaller with minification from negative lenses and gait was adjusted accordingly. These results suggest that previously reported adaptive gait changes to monocular spherical lens blur were not safety strategies as previously suggested but driven by lens magnification. The significance of these findings in terms of prescribing large refractive changes in frail older patients is discussed.
    • What health-related activities could be delivered by pharmacy students in the Digital Health Enterprise Zone (DHEZ) Academic?

      Medlinskiene, Kristina; Tappas, Theodora; Tomlinson, Justine (2018)
      Background: Digital Health Enterprise Zone (DHEZ) Academic building opened in 2017 with the aim of improving outcomes of people living with long-term conditions. This multi-disciplinary facility houses: physiotherapy and optometry public clinics, health promotion areas, and digital diagnostics. Additionally, a medicines review hub with consultation rooms and teaching space was created for the School of Pharmacy and Medical Sciences (SPMS), University of Bradford. Pharmacy students have already successfully performed health-related activities with the public in international literature (Lawrence, 2018). This project explored SPMS academics’ perspectives on the potential use of the facility for the teaching and delivery of health-related activities by pharmacy students.
    • What makes a good graphene-binding peptide? Adsorption of amino acids and peptides at aqueous graphene interfaces

      Hughes, Zak E.; Walsh, T.R. (2015-02-27)
      Investigation of the non-covalent interaction of biomolecules with aqueous graphene interfaces is a rapidly expanding area. However, reliable exploitation of these interfaces in many applications requires that the links between the sequence and binding of the adsorbed peptide structures be clearly established. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations can play a key role in elucidating the conformational ensemble of peptides adsorbed at graphene interfaces, helping to elucidate these rules in partnership with experimental characterisation. We apply our recently-developed polarisable force-field for biomolecule–graphene interfaces, GRAPPA, in partnership with advanced simulation approaches, to probe the adsorption behaviour of peptides at aqueous graphene. First we determine the free energy of adsorption of all twenty naturally occurring amino acids (AAs) via metadynamics simulations, providing a benchmark for interpreting peptide–graphene adsorption studies. From these free energies, we find that strong-binding amino acids have flat and/or compact side chain groups, and we relate this behaviour to the interfacial solvent structuring. Second, we apply replica exchange with solute tempering simulations to efficiently and widely sample the conformational ensemble of two experimentally-characterised peptide sequences, P1 and its alanine mutant P1A3, in solution and adsorbed on graphene. For P1 we find a significant minority of the conformational ensemble possesses a helical structure, both in solution and when adsorbed, while P1A3 features mostly extended, random-coil conformations. In solution this helical P1 configuration is stabilised through favourable intra-peptide interactions, while the adsorbed structure is stabilised via interaction of four strongly-binding residues, identified from our metadynamics simulations, with the aqueous graphene interface. Our findings rationalise the performance of the P1 sequence as a known graphene binder.
    • What you see is what you step: the horizontal-vertical illusion increases toe clearance in older adults during stair ascent.

      Foster, Richard J.; Whitaker, David J.; Scally, Andy J.; Buckley, John G.; Elliott, David B. (2015-05)
      Purpose.: Falls on stairs are a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in elderly people. A simple safety strategy to avoid tripping on stairs is increasing foot clearance. We determined whether a horizontal–vertical illusion superimposed onto stairs to create an illusory perceived increase in stair-riser height would increase stair ascent foot clearance in older participants. Methods.: Preliminary experiments determined the optimum parameters for the horizontal–vertical illusion. Fourteen older adults (mean age ± 1 SD, 68.5 ± 7.4 years) ascended a three-step staircase with the optimized version of the horizontal–vertical illusion (spatial frequency: 12 cycles per stair riser) positioned either on the bottom or top stair only, or on the bottom and top stair simultaneously. These were compared to a control condition, which had a plain stair riser with edge highlighters positioned flush with each stair-tread edge. Foot clearance and measures of postural stability were compared across conditions. Results.: The optimized illusion on the bottom and top stair led to a significant increase in foot clearance over the respective stair edge, compared to the control condition. There were no significant decreases in postural stability. Conclusions.: An optimized horizontal–vertical visual illusion led to significant increases in foot clearance in older adults when ascending a staircase, but the effects did not destabilize their postural stability. Inclusion of the horizontal–vertical illusion on raised surfaces (e.g., curbs) or the bottom and top stairs of staircases could improve stair ascent safety in older adults.
    • What's the catch? Archaeological application of rapid collagen-based species identification for Pacific Salmon

      Korzow Richter, K.; McGrath, K.; Masson-MacLean, E.; Hickinbotham, S.; Tedder, Andrew; Britton, K.; Bottomley, Z.; Dobney, K.; Hulme-Beaman, A.; Zona, M.; et al. (2020-04)
      Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) are ecological and cultural keystone species along the Northwest Coast of North America and are ubiquitous in archaeological sites of the region. The inability to morphologically identify salmonid post-cranial remains to species, however, can limit our understanding of the ecological and cultural role different taxa played in the seasonal subsistence practices of Indigenous groups in the past. Here, we present a rapid, cost-effective ZooMS method to distinguish salmonid species based on collagen peptide mass-fingerprinting. Using modern reference material and an assemblage of 28 DNA-identified salmonid bones from the pre-contact Yup'ik site of Nunalleq, Western Alaska, we apply high-resolution mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) to identify a series of potential collagen peptide markers to distinguish Pacific salmon. We then confirm these peptide markers with a blind ZooMS analysis (MALDI-TOF-MS) of the archaeological remains. We successfully distinguish five species of anadromous salmon with this ZooMS approach, including one specimen that could not be identified through ancient DNA analysis. Our biomolecular identification of chum (43%), sockeye (21%), chinook (18%), coho (11%) and pink (7%), confirm the exploitation of all five available species of salmonid at Nunalleq.
    • When a domain is not a domain, and why it is important to properly filter proteins in databases: conflicting definitions and fold classification systems for structural domains make filtering of such databases imperative

      Towse, Clare-Louise; Daggett, V. (2012-12-01)
      Membership in a protein domain database does not a domain make; a feature we realized when generating a consensus view of protein fold space with our consensus domain dictionary (CDD). This dictionary was used to select representative structures for characterization of the protein dynameome: the Dynameomics initiative. Through this endeavor we rejected a surprising 40% of the 1,695 folds in the CDD as being non-autonomous folding units. Although some of this was due to the challenges of grouping similar fold topologies, the dissonance between the cataloguing and structural qualification of protein domains remains surprising. Another potential factor is previously overlooked intrinsic disorder; predictions suggest that 40% of proteins have either local or global disorder. One thing is clear, filtering a structural database and ensuring a consistent definition for protein domains is crucial, and caution is prescribed when generalizations of globular domains are drawn from unfiltered protein domain datasets.
    • When is refraction stable following routine cataract surgery? A systematic review and meta-analysis

      Charlesworth, Emily; Alderson, Alison J.; de Juan, V.; Elliott, David B. (2020-09)
      Purpose: We systematically reviewed the literature to investigate when refraction is stable following routine cataract surgery implanting monofocal intraocular lenses. Current advice recommends obtaining new spectacles 4–6 weeks following surgery. Due to advancements in surgical techniques, we hypothesised that refractive stability would be achieved earlier, which could have major short-term improvements in quality of life for patients. Methods: Medline, CINAHL, AMED, Embase, Web of Science and the Cochrane Library were searched with key words chosen to find articles, which assessed refraction following uncomplicated cataract surgery. Citation chains and the reference lists of all included papers were searched. Unpublished literature was identified using OpenGrey (www.opengrey.eu). The review considered studies that measured refraction at regular intervals following surgery until stability was achieved. Results: The search identified 6,680 papers. Two reviewers independently screened the abstracts and nine papers were found to fit the criteria, of which five were included in the meta-analysis. The quality of the papers was evaluated using the Methodological Index for Non-Randomised Studies (MINORS) instrument. Meta-analysis of 301 patients’ data of spherical, cylindrical and spherical equivalent correction were performed using Review Manager 5 (RevMan 5.3) (https://revman.cochrane.org/). Refraction at 1-week versus the gold standard of 4-weeks showed no significant difference for sphere data (effect size and 95% confidence interval of; ES = 0.00, 95% CI: −0.17, 0.17; p = 1.00), cylindrical data (ES = +0.06; 95% CI: −0.05, 0.17; p = 0.31), and spherical equivalent (ES = −0.01; 95% CI: −0.12, 0.10; p = 0.90). Heterogeneity was non-significant (I2 
    • When is visual information used to control locomotion when descending a kerb?

      Buckley, John G.; Timmis, Matthew A.; Scally, Andy J.; Elliott, David B. (2011)
      Background: Descending kerbs during locomotion involves the regulation of appropriate foot placement before the kerb-edge and foot clearance over it. It also involves the modulation of gait output to ensure the body-mass is safely and smoothly lowered to the new level. Previous research has shown that vision is used in such adaptive gait tasks for feedforward planning, with vision from the lower visual field (lvf) used for online updating. The present study determined when lvf information is used to control/update locomotion when stepping from a kerb. Methodology/Principal Findings: 12 young adults stepped down a kerb during ongoing gait. Force sensitive resistors (attached to participants' feet) interfaced with an high-speed PDLC 'smart glass' sheet, allowed the lvf to be unpredictably occluded at either heel-contact of the penultimate or final step before the kerb-edge up to contact with the lower level. Analysis focussed on determining changes in foot placement distance before the kerb-edge, clearance over it, and in kinematic measures of the step down. Lvf occlusion from the instant of final step contact had no significant effect on any dependant variable (p>0.09). Occlusion of the lvf from the instant of penultimate step contact had a significant effect on foot clearance and on several kinematic measures, with findings consistent with participants becoming uncertain regarding relative horizontal location of the kerb-edge. Conclusion/Significance: These findings suggest concurrent feedback of the lower limb, kerb-edge, and/or floor area immediately in front/below the kerb is not used when stepping from a kerb during ongoing gait. Instead heel-clearance and pre-landing-kinematic parameters are determined/planned using lvf information acquired in the penultimate step during the approach to the kerb-edge, with information related to foot placement before the kerb-edge being the most salient.
    • The White Stuff: Milking in the Outer Scottish Isles

      Bond, Julie M.; Mulville, J.; Craig, O.E. (2005)
    • Who were these people? A sideways view and a non-answer of political proportions

      Gibson, Alex M. (2016-05)
      This chapter looks at the variability of burial practices inthe Neolithic and Bronze Age and questions accepted orthodoxies.
    • Whole genome sequence of Mycobacterium kansasii isolates of the genotype 1 from Brazilian patients with pulmonary disease demonstrates considerable heterogeneity

      Machado, E.; Vasconcellos, S.E.G.; Cerdeira, C.; Gomes, L.L.; Junqueira, R.; de Carvalho, L.D.; Ramos, J.P.; Redner, P.; Campos, C.E.D.; de Souza Caldas, P.C.; et al. (2018-06)
      Mycobacterium kansasii is an opportunistic pathogen and one of the most commonly encountered species in individuals with lung disease. We here report the complete genome sequence of 12 clinical isolates of M. kansasii from patients with pulmonary disease in Brazil.
    • Whole genome sequencing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis: current standards and open issues

      Meehan, Conor J.; Goig, G.A.; Kohl, T.A.; Verboven, L.; Dippenaar, A.; Ezewudo, M.; Farhat, M.R.; Guthrie, J.L.; Laukens, K.; Miotto, P.; et al. (2019-09)
      Whole genome sequencing (WGS) of Mycobacterium tuberculosis has rapidly progressed from a research tool to a clinical application for the diagnosis and management of tuberculosis and in public health surveillance. This development has been facilitated by drastic drops in cost, advances in technology and concerted efforts to translate sequencing data into actionable information. There is, however, a risk that, in the absence of a consensus and international standards, the widespread use of WGS technology may result in data and processes that lack harmonization, comparability and validation. In this Review, we outline the current landscape of WGS pipelines and applications, and set out best practices for M. tuberculosis WGS, including standards for bioinformatics pipelines, curated repositories of resistance-causing variants, phylogenetic analyses, quality control and standardized reporting.