• Swing Power

      Taylor, Timothy F. (2010)
    • Symmetry breaking: polymorphic form selection by enantiomers of the melatonin agonist and its missing polymorph

      Stephenson, G.A.; Kendrick, John; Wolfangel, C.; Leusen, Frank J.J. (2012)
      Synthesis of a melatonin agonist for treatment of sleep disorders produced a pair of enantiomers, of which one is biologically active. Two polymorphs were discovered using the inactive enantiomer, conserving the active enantiomer for toxicological testing. Later studies with the active enantiomer yielded only the metastable form, despite more than 1000 attempts to isolate the stable form. The difficulty is surprising, since the stable form is favored by 0.7 kcal mol–1, which is toward the extreme for stability differences between organic polymorphs. Study of individual enantiomers allowed the phase behavior of polymorphs of greatly different energy to be examined without interconversion. A number of unusual features are noted. After the stable polymorph of the inactive enantiomer was nucleated, the metastable form became very difficult to isolate. The metastable form converts into a less soluble monohydrate structure in water, whereas the stable polymorph does not due to its reduced activity. Both chiral polymorphs are denser than the racemic crystalline form at low temperature, the stable form being at the extreme for chiral-racemic pairs. Free energy-temperature relations predict “spontaneous resolution” of the racemic crystalline form into a conglomerate mixture of stable polymorph at low temperature. The unusual characteristics of the system are explained by hydrogen bonding and conformational flexibility of the molecule. Ab initio calculations aid in understanding the relative contributions of these interactions to the lattice energies and the role that conformational energy differences play in the polymorphic stability. This system highlights the importance of the creation of the very first nuclei of a crystalline form. The reluctance of the stable form to nucleate is attributed to a large energy difference between polymorphic forms. The large interfacial tension for primary nucleation reduces the probability of forming clusters of size sufficient for favorable growth in the absence of heterogeneous nucleation. This study highlights how nucleation of a new form can revise the readily “accessible” region of a compound’s crystal form landscape.
    • Sympathetic innervation of ciliary muscle and oculomotor function in emmetropic and myopic young adults.

      Mallen, Edward A.H.; Gilmartin, B.; Wolffsohn, J.S. (2005)
      Purpose: Evidence exists for an additional inhibitory accommodative control system mediated by the sympathetic branch of the autonomic nervous system (ANS). This work aims to show the relative prevalence of sympathetic inhibition in young emmetropic and myopic adults, and to evaluate the effect of sympathetic facility on accommodative and oculomotor function. Methods: Profiling of ciliary muscle innervation was carried out in 58 young adult subjects (30 emmetropes, 14 early onset myopes, 14 late onset myopes) by examining post-task open-loop accommodation responses, recorded continuously by a modified open-view infrared optometer. Measurements of amplitude of accommodation, tonic accommodation, accommodative lag at near, AC/A ratio, and heterophoria at distance and near were made to establish a profile of oculomotor function. Results: Evidence of sympathetic inhibitory facility in ciliary smooth muscle was observed in 27% of emmetropes, 21% of early-onset myopes and 29% of late-onset myopes. Twenty-six percent of all subjects demonstrated access to sympathetic facility. Closed-loop oculomotor function did not differ significantly between subjects with sympathetic facility, and those with sympathetic deficit. Conclusions: Emmetropic and myopic groups cannot be distinguished in terms of the relative proportions having access to sympathetic inhibition. Presence of sympathetic innervation does not have a significant effect on accommodative function under closed-loop viewing conditions.
    • Synthesis and anticancer activity evaluation of η5-C5(CH3)4R ruthenium complexes bearing chelating diphosphine ligands

      Rodríguez-Bárzano, A.; Lord, Rianne M.; Basri, A.M.; Phillips, Roger M.; Blacker, A.J.; McGowan, P.C. (2015-02)
      The complexes [RuCp*(PP)Cl] (Cp* = C5Me5; [1], PP = dppm; [4], PP = Xantphos), [RuCp#(PP)Cl] (Cp# = C5Me4(CH2)5OH; [2], PP = dppm; [5], PP = Xantphos) and [RuCp*(dppm)(CH3CN)][SbF6] [3] were synthesized and evaluated in vitro as anticancer agents. Compounds 1–3 gave nanomolar IC50 values against normoxic A2780 and HT-29 cell lines, and were also tested against hypoxic HT-29 cells, maintaining their high activity. Complex 3 yielded an IC50 value of 0.55 ± 0.03 μM under a 0.1% O2 concentration.
    • Synthesis and antiprotozoal activity of oligomethylene- and p-phenylene-bis(methylene)-linked bis(+)-huprines.

      Sola, I.; Artigas, A.; Taylor, M.C.; Gbedema, Stephen Y.; Perez, B.; Clos, M.V.; Wright, Colin W.; Kelly, J.M.; Muñoz-Torrero, D. (2014-12)
      We have synthesized a series of dimers of (+)-(7R,11R)-huprine Y and evaluated their activity against Trypanosoma brucei, Plasmodium falciparum, rat myoblast L6 cells and human acetylcholinesterase (hAChE), and their brain permeability. Most dimers have more potent and selective trypanocidal activity than huprine Y and are brain permeable, but they are devoid of antimalarial activity and remain active against hAChE. Lead optimization will focus on identifying compounds with a more favourable trypanocidal/anticholinesterase activity ratio.
    • Synthesis and biological evaluation of N-cyanoalkyl-, Naminoalkyl-, and N-guanidinoalkyl-substituted 4-aminoquinoline derivatives as potent, selective, brain permeable antitrypanosomal agents

      Sola, I.; Artigas, A.; Taylor, M.C.; Perez-Areales, F.J.; Viayna, E.; Clos, M.V.; Perez, B.; Wright, Colin W.; Kelly, J.M.; Muñoz-Torrero, D. (2016-11-01)
      Current drugs against human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) suffer from several serious drawbacks. The search for novel, effective, brain permeable, safe, and inexpensive antitrypanosomal compounds is therefore an urgent need. We have recently reported that the 4-aminoquinoline derivative huprine Y, developed in our group as an anticholinesterasic agent, exhibits a submicromolar potency against Trypanosoma brucei and that its homo- and hetero-dimerization can result in to up to three-fold increased potency and selectivity. As an alternative strategy towards more potent smaller molecule anti-HAT agents, we have explored the introduction of ω-cyanoalkyl, ω-aminoalkyl, or ω-guanidinoalkyl chains at the primary amino group of huprine or the simplified 4-aminoquinoline analogue tacrine. Here, we describe the evaluation of a small in-house library and a second generation of newly synthesized derivatives, which has led to the identification of 13 side chain modified 4-aminoquinoline derivatives with submicromolar potencies against T. brucei. Among these compounds, the guanidinononyltacrine analogue 15e exhibits a 5-fold increased antitrypanosomal potency, 10-fold increased selectivity, and 100-fold decreased anticholinesterasic activity relative to the parent huprine Y. Its biological profile, lower molecular weight relative to dimeric compounds, reduced lipophilicity, and ease of synthesis, make it an interesting anti-HAT lead, amenable to further optimization to eliminate its remaining anticholinesterasic activity.
    • Synthesis and biological evaluation of novel chloroethylaminoanthraquinones with potent cytotoxic activity against cisplatin-resistant tumor cells

      Pors, Klaus; Paniwnyk, Z.; Patterson, Laurence H.; Ruparelia, K.C.; Hartley, J.A.; Kelland, L.R. (2004)
      Novel 1- and 1,4-substituted chloroethylaminoanthraquinones with DNA binding and alkylating properties along with their respective hydroxyethylaminoanthraquinone intermediates were synthesized. Selected chloroethylaminoanthraquinones were shown to cross-link DNA and alkylate guanines (at low nM concentration) with a preference for reaction sites containing 5'-PyG. A compound (Alchemix) with the bis-chloroethyl functionality confined to one side chain alkylated but did not cross-link DNA. All the 1,4-disubstituted chloroethylaminoanthraquinones were potently cytotoxic (nM IC50s) against cisplatin-resistant ovarian cancer cell lines.
    • Synthesis and Characterization of Novel Nopyl-Derived Phosphonium Ionic Liquids

      Yu, Jiangou; Wheelhouse, Richard T.; Honey, M.A.; Karodia, N. (2020-10-10)
      A series of novel nopyl-derived chiral phosphonium ionic liquids have been successfully synthesised and characterised. Analysis of each novel ionic liquid was conducted in order to confirm structure, purity and thermal stability.
    • Synthesis and controlled growth of osmium nanoparticles by electron irradiation

      Pitto-Barry, Anaïs; Perdigao, L.M.A.; Walker, M.; Lawrence, J.; Constantini, G.; Sadler, P.J.; Barry, Nicolas P.E. (2015)
      We have synthesised osmium nanoparticles of defined size (1.5–50 nm) on a B- and S-doped turbostratic graphitic structure by electron-beam irradiation of an organometallic osmium complex encapsulated in self-spreading polymer micelles, and characterised them by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high-resolution TEM (HRTEM), and atomic force microscopy (AFM) on the same grid. Oxidation of the osmium nanoparticles after exposure to air was detected by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS).
    • Synthesis and evaluation of cryptolepine analogues for their potential as new antimalarial agents.

      Wright, Colin W.; Addae-Kyereme, Jonathan A.; Breen, Anthony G.; Brown, John E.; Cox, Marlene F.; Croft, S.L.; Gokcek, Yaman; Kendrick, H.; Phillips, Roger M.; Pollet, Pamela L. (2001)
      The indoloquinoline alkaloid cryptolepine 1 has potent in vitro antiplasmodial activity, but it is also a DNA intercalator with cytotoxic properties. We have shown that the antiplasmodial mechanism of 1 is likely to be due, at least in part, to a chloroquine-like action that does not depend on intercalation into DNA. A number of substituted analogues of 1 have been prepared that have potent activities against both chloroquine-sensitive and chloroquine-resistant strains of Plasmodium falciparum and also have in common with chloroquine the inhibition of ß-hematin formation in a cell-free system. Several compounds also displayed activity against Plasmodium berghei in mice, the most potent being 2,7-dibromocryptolepine 8, which suppressed parasitemia by 89% as compared to untreated infected controls at a dose of 12.5 mg kg-1 day-1 ip. No correlation was observed between in vitro cytotoxicity and the effect of compounds on the melting point of DNA (¿Tm value) or toxicity in the mouse¿malaria model.
    • Synthesis and Evaluation of Selected Benzimidazole Derivatives as Potential Antimicrobial Agents

      Alasmary, Fatmah A.S.; Snelling, Anna M.; Zain, M.E.; Alafeefy, A.M.; Awaad, A.S.; Karodia, Nazira (2015)
      A library of 53 benzimidazole derivatives, with substituents at positions 1, 2 and 5, were synthesized and screened against a series of reference strains of bacteria and fungi of medical relevance. The SAR analyses of the most promising results showed that the antimicrobial activity of the compounds depended on the substituents attached to the bicyclic heterocycle. In particular, some compounds displayed antibacterial activity against two methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains with minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) comparable to the widely-used drug ciprofloxacin. The compounds have some common features; three possess 5-halo substituents; two are derivatives of (S)-2-ethanaminebenzimidazole; and the others are derivatives of one 2-(chloromethyl)-1H-benzo[d]imidazole and (1H-benzo[d]imidazol-2-yl)methanethiol. The results from the antifungal screening were also very interesting: 23 compounds exhibited potent fungicidal activity against the selected fungal strains. They displayed equivalent or greater potency in their MIC values than amphotericin B. The 5-halobenzimidazole derivatives could be considered promising broad-spectrum antimicrobial candidates that deserve further study for potential therapeutic applications.
    • Synthesis and growth-inhibitory activities of imidazo[5,1-d]-1,2,3,5-tetrazine-8-carboxamides related to the anti-tumour drug temozolomide, with appended silicon, benzyl and heteromethyl groups at the 3-position

      Cousin, D.; Hummersone, M.G.; Bradshaw, T.D.; Zhang, J.; Moody, C.J.; Foreiter, M.B.; Summers, H.S.; Lewis, W.; Wheelhouse, Richard T.; Stevens, M.F.G. (2018)
      A series of 3-(benzyl-substituted)-imidazo[5,1-d]-1,2,3,5-tetrazines (13) and related derivatives with 3-heteromethyl groups has been synthesised and screened for growth-inhibitory activity in vitro against two pairs of glioma cell lines with temozolomide-sensitive and -resistant phenotypes dependent on the absence/presence of the DNA repair protein O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT). In general the compounds had low inhibitory activity with GI50 values > 50 µM against both sets of cell lines. Two silicon-containing derivatives, the TMS-methylimidazotetrazine (9) and the SEM-analogue (10), showed interesting differences: compound (9) had a profile very similar to that of temozolomide with the MGMT+ cell lines being 5 to 10-fold more resistant than MGMT– isogenic partners; the SEM-substituted compound (10) showed potency across all cell lines irrespective of their MGMT status.
    • Synthesis and quantitative structure-activity relationship of imidazotetrazine prodrugs with activity independent of O6-methylguanine-DNA-methyltransferase, DNA mismatch repair, and p53

      Pletsas, Dimitrios; Garelnabi, Elrashied A.E.; Li, Li; Phillips, Roger M.; Wheelhouse, Richard T. (2013)
      The antitumor prodrug temozolomide is compromised by its dependence for activity on DNA mismatch repair (MMR) and the repair of the chemosensitive DNA lesion, O6-methylguanine (O6-MeG), by O6-methylguanine-DNA-methyltransferase (E.C., MGMT). Tumor response is also dependent on wild-type p53. Novel 3-(2-anilinoethyl)-substituted imidazotetrazines are reported that have activity independent of MGMT, MMR, and p53. This is achieved through a switch of mechanism so that bioactivity derives from imidazotetrazine-generated arylaziridinium ions that principally modify guanine-N7 sites on DNA. Mono- and bifunctional analogues are reported, and a quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) study identified the p-tolyl-substituted bifunctional congener as optimized for potency, MGMT-independence, and MMR-independence. NCI60 data show the tumor cell response is distinct from other imidazotetrazines and DNA-guanine-N7 active agents such as nitrogen mustards and cisplatin. The new imidazotetrazine compounds are promising agents for further development, and their improved in vitro activity validates the principles on which they were designed.
    • Synthesis and structural studies (H-1, C-13, P-31 NMR and X-ray) of new C-bonded cyclotriphosphazenes with heterocyclic substituents from novel phosphinic acid derivatives.

      Vicente, V.; Fruchier, A.; Taillefer, M.; Coombes-Chamelet, C.; Scowen, Ian J.; Plenat, F.; Cristeau, H-J. (2004)
      Three new C-bonded cyclotriphosphazenes, [N3P3(2-thienyl)6], 2, [N3P3(3-thienyl)6], 4, and [N3P3(3,3-bithienyl-2,2-ylene)3], 6, have been prepared by two new synthetic procedures and are the first examples of non-spiro and trispirocyclotriphosphazene derivatives composed of thiophene and 3,3-dithiophene substituents, respectively. Their 1H, 13C and 31P NMR parameters are given. The solid state structures of 2, 4 and 6 have been determined by X-ray crystallography.
    • The synthesis and unexpected solution chemistry of thermochromic carborane-containing osmium half-sandwich complexes

      Pitto-Barry, Anaïs; South, A.; Rodger, A.; Barry, Nicolas P.E. (2016)
      The functionalisation of the 16-electron complex [Os(η6-p-cymene)(1,2-dicarba-closo-dodecarborane- 1,2-dithiolato)] (1) with a series of Lewis bases to give the 18-electron complexes of general formula [Os(η6-p-cymene)(1,2-dicarba-closo-dodecarborane-1,2-dithiolato)(L)] (L = pyridine (2), 4-dimethylaminopyridine (3), 4-cyanopyridine (4), 4-methoxypyridine (5), pyrazine (6), pyridazine (7), 4,4’-bipyridine (8) and triphenylphosphine (9)) is reported. All 18-electron complexes are in equilibrium in solution with the 16-electron precursor, and thermochromic properties are observed in some cases (2, 3, 5, 8, and 9). The binding constants and Gibbs free energies of the equilibria are determined using UV-visible titrations and their stabilities investigated. Synthetic routes for forcing the formation of the 18-electron species are proposed, and analytical methods to characterise the equilibria are described.
    • Synthesis by extrusion: continuous, large-scale preparation of MOFs using little or no solvent

      Crawford, Deborah E.; Casaban, J.; Haydon, R.; Giri, N.; McNally, T.; James, S.L. (2015-03)
      Grinding solid reagents under solvent-free or low-solvent conditions (mechanochemistry) is emerging as a general synthetic technique which is an alternative to conventional solvent-intensive methods. However, it is essential to find ways to scale-up this type of synthesis if its promise of cleaner manufacturing is to be realised. Here, we demonstrate the use of twin screw and single screw extruders for the continuous synthesis of various metal complexes, including Ni(salen), Ni(NCS)2(PPh3)2 as well as the commercially important metal organic frameworks (MOFs) Cu3(BTC)2 (HKUST-1), Zn(2-methylimidazolate)2 (ZIF-8, MAF-4) and Al(fumarate)(OH). Notably, Al(fumarate)(OH) has not previously been synthesised mechanochemically. Quantitative conversions occur to give products at kg h−1 rates which, after activation, exhibit surface areas and pore volumes equivalent to those of materials produced by conventional solvent-based methods. Some reactions can be performed either under completely solvent-free conditions whereas others require the addition of small amounts of solvent (typically 3–4 mol equivalents). Continuous neat melt phase synthesis is also successfully demonstrated by both twin screw and single screw extrusion for ZIF-8. The latter technique provided ZIF-8 at 4 kg h−1. The space time yields (STYs) for these methods of up to 144 × 103 kg per m3 per day are orders of magnitude greater than STYs for other methods of making MOFs. Extrusion methods clearly enable scaling of mechanochemical and melt phase synthesis under solvent-free or low-solvent conditions, and may also be applied in synthesis more generally.
    • Synthesis of caffeine/maleic acid co-crystal by ultrasound assisted slurry co-crystallization

      Apshingekar, Prafulla P.; Aher, Suyog; Kelly, Adrian L.; Brown, Elaine C.; Paradkar, Anant R. (2017-01)
      A green approach has been used for co-crystallization of non-congruent co-crystal pair of caffeine – maleic acid using water. Ultrasound is known to affect crystallization hence the effect of high power ultrasound on the ternary phase diagram has been investigated in detail using a slurry co-crystallization approach. A systematic investigation was performed to understand how the accelerated conditions during ultrasound assisted co-crystallization will affect different regions of the ternary phase diagram. Application of ultrasound showed considerable effect on the ternary phase diagram; principally on caffeine/maleic acid 2:1 (disappeared) and 1:1 co-crystal (narrowed) regions. Also, the stability regions for pure caffeine and maleic acid in water were narrowed in the presence of ultrasound, expanding the solution region. The observed effect of ultrasound on the phase diagram was correlated with solubility of caffeine and maleic acid and stability of co-crystal forms in water.
    • Synthesis of citrate-ciprofloxacin conjugates.

      Md-Saleh, S.R.; Chilvers, E.C.; Kerr, Kevin G.; Milner, S.J.; Snelling, Anna M.; Weber, J.P.; Thomas, G.H.; Duhme-Klair, A-K.; Routledge, A. (2009)
      Two regioisomeric citrate-functionalized ciprofloxacin conjugates have been synthesized and their antimicrobial activities against a panel of clinically-relevant bacteria have been determined. Cellular uptake mechanisms were investigated using wild-type and ompF deletion strains of Escherichia coli K-12.
    • Synthesis of DNA-Directed Pyrrolidinyl and Piperidinyl Confined Alkylating Chloroalkylaminoanthraquinones: Potential for Development of Tumor-Selective N-Oxides

      Patterson, Laurence H.; Pors, Klaus; Shnyder, Steven D.; Teesdale-Spittle, P.H.; Hartley, J.A.; Searcey, M.; Zloh, M. (2006)
      A novel series of 1,4-disubstituted chloroethylaminoanthraquinones, containing alkylating chloroethylamino functionalities as part of a rigid piperidinyl or pyrrolidinyl ring-system, have been prepared. The target compounds were prepared by ipso-displacement of halides of various anthraquinone chromophores by either hydroxylated or chlorinated piperidinyl- or pyrrolidinyl-alkylamino side chains. The chloroethylaminoanthraquinones were shown to alkylate guanine residues of linearized pBR322 (1¿20 ¿M), and two symmetrically 1,4-disubstituted anthraquinones (compounds 14 and 15) were shown to interstrand cross-link DNA in the low nM range. Several 1,4-disubstituted chloroethylaminoanthraquinones were potently cytotoxic (IC50 values: ¿40 nM) in human ovarian cancer A2780 cells. Two agents (compounds 18 and 19) exhibited mean GI50 values of 96 nM and 182 nM, respectively, in the NCI human tumor cell line panel. Derivatization of the potent DNA cross-linking agent 15 to an N-oxide resulted in loss of the DNA unwinding, DNA interstrand cross-linking and cytotoxic activity of the parent molecule.
    • Synthesis of iridium and ruthenium complexes with (N,N), (N,O) and (O,O) coordinating bidentate ligands as potential anti-cancer agents

      Lucas, S.J.; Lord, Rianne M.; Wilson, R.L.; Phillips, Roger M.; Sridharan, V.; McGowan, P.C. (2012-12-07)
      Several Ru-arene and Ir–Cp* complexes have been prepared incorporating (N,N), (N,O) and (O,O) coordinating bidentate ligands and have been found to be active against both HT-29 and MCF-7 cell lines. By incorporating a biologically active ligand into a metal complex the anti-cancer activity is increased.