• Nerve guides manufactured from photocurable polymers to aid peripheral nerve repair

      Pateman, C.J.; Harding, A.J.; Glen, A.; Taylor, C.S.; Christmas, C.R.; Robinson, P.P.; Rimmer, Stephen; Boissonade, F.M.; Claeyssens, F.; Haycock, J.W. (2015)
      The peripheral nervous system has a limited innate capacity for self-repair following injury, and surgical intervention is often required. For injuries greater than a few millimeters autografting is standard practice although it is associated with donor site morbidity and is limited in its availability. Because of this, nerve guidance conduits (NGCs) can be viewed as an advantageous alternative, but currently have limited efficacy for short and large injury gaps in comparison to autograft. Current commercially available NGC designs rely on existing regulatory approved materials and traditional production methods, limiting improvement of their design. The aim of this study was to establish a novel method for NGC manufacture using a custom built laser-based microstereolithography (muSL) setup that incorporated a 405 nm laser source to produce 3D constructs with approximately 50 mum resolution from a photocurable poly(ethylene glycol) resin. These were evaluated by SEM, in vitro neuronal, Schwann and dorsal root ganglion culture and in vivo using a thy-1-YFP-H mouse common fibular nerve injury model. NGCs with dimensions of 1 mm internal diameter x 5 mm length with a wall thickness of 250 mum were fabricated and capable of supporting re-innervation across a 3 mm injury gap after 21 days, with results close to that of an autograft control. The study provides a technology platform for the rapid microfabrication of biocompatible materials, a novel method for in vivo evaluation, and a benchmark for future development in more advanced NGC designs, biodegradable and larger device sizes, and longer-term implantation studies.
    • Neural network based modelling and control of batch reactor.

      Mujtaba, Iqbal M.; Aziz, Norashid; Hussain, M.A. (2006)
      The use of neural networks (NNs) in all aspects of process engineering activities, such as modelling, design, optimization and control has considerably increased in recent years (Mujtaba and Hussain, 2001). In this work, three different types of nonlinear control strategies are developed and implemented in batch reactors using NN techniques. These are generic model control (GMC), direct inverse model control (DIC) and internal model control (IMC) strategies. Within the control strategies, NNs have been used as dynamic estimator, dynamic model (forward model) and control (inverse model). An exothermic complex reaction scheme in a batch reactor is considered to explain all these control strategies and their robustness. A dynamic optimization problem with a simple model is solved a priori to obtain optimal operation policy in terms of the reactor temperature with an objective to maximize the desired product in a given batch time. The resulting optimal temperature policy is used as set-point in the control study. All types of controllers performed well in tracking the optimal temperature profile and achieving target conversion to the desired product. However, the NNs used in DIC and IMC controllers need training beyond the nominal operating condition to cope with uncertainties better.
    • Neural Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein modulates Wnt signaling and is required for hair follicle cycling in mice

      Lyubimova, A.; Garber, J.J.; Upadhyay, G.; Sharov, A.A.; Anastasoaie, F.; Yajnik, V.; Cotsarelis, G.; Dotto, G.P.; Botchkarev, Vladimir A.; Snapper, S.B. (2010)
      The Rho family GTPases Cdc42 and Rac1 are critical regulators of the actin cytoskeleton and are essential for skin and hair function. Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome family proteins act downstream of these GTPases, controlling actin assembly and cytoskeletal reorganization, but their role in epithelial cells has not been characterized in vivo. Here, we used a conditional knockout approach to assess the role of neural Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (N-WASP), the ubiquitously expressed Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome-like (WASL) protein, in mouse skin. We found that N-WASP deficiency in mouse skin led to severe alopecia, epidermal hyperproliferation, and ulceration, without obvious effects on epidermal differentiation and wound healing. Further analysis revealed that the observed alopecia was likely the result of a progressive and ultimately nearly complete block in hair follicle (HF) cycling by 5 months of age. N-WASP deficiency also led to abnormal proliferation of skin progenitor cells, resulting in their depletion over time. Furthermore, N-WASP deficiency in vitro and in vivo correlated with decreased GSK-3beta phosphorylation, decreased nuclear localization of beta-catenin in follicular keratinocytes, and decreased Wnt-dependent transcription. Our results indicate a critical role for N-WASP in skin function and HF cycling and identify a link between N-WASP and Wnt signaling. We therefore propose that N-WASP acts as a positive regulator of beta-catenin-dependent transcription, modulating differentiation of HF progenitor cells.
    • Neurodegenerative Diseases: Pathology, Mechanisms and Potential Therapeutic Targets

      Beart, P.; Robinson, M.; Rattray, Marcus; Maragakis, N. (2017-08)
      Provides a timely overview of critical advances in molecular and cellular neurobiology, covers key methodologies driving progress, and highlights key future directions for research on neuronal injury and neurodegeneration relevant to neuronal brain pathologies. The editors bring together contributions from internationally recognized workers in the field to provide an up to date account of how and why molecular and cellular neurobiology is such an important area for clinical neuroscience. Understanding the molecular aspects of a number of neurodegenerative conditions such as Parkinson's or Alzheimer's disease for the purpose of improving patient management remains a major challenge of neurobiology be it from the basic or clinical perspective. A strategic evaluation of research contributions and the power of modern methods will help advance knowledge over the next years.
    • A neuroendocrine role for chemerin in hypothalamic remodelling and photoperiodic control of energy balance

      Helfer, Gisela; Ross, A.W.; Thomson, L.M.; Mayer, C.D.; Stoney, P.N.; McCaffery, P.J.; Morgan, P.J. (2016)
      Long-term and reversible changes in body weight are typical of seasonal animals. Thyroid hormone (TH) and retinoic acid (RA) within the tanycytes and ependymal cells of the hypothalamus have been implicated in the photoperiodic response. We investigated signalling downstream of RA and how this links to the control of body weight and food intake in photoperiodic F344 rats. Chemerin, an inflammatory chemokine, with a known role in energy metabolism, was identified as a target of RA. Gene expression of chemerin (Rarres2) and its receptors were localised within the tanycytes and ependymal cells, with higher expression under long (LD) versus short (SD) photoperiod, pointing to a physiological role. The SD to LD transition (increased food intake) was mimicked by 2 weeks of ICV infusion of chemerin into rats. Chemerin also increased expression of the cytoskeletal protein vimentin, implicating hypothalamic remodelling in this response. By contrast, acute ICV bolus injection of chemerin on a 12h:12h photoperiod inhibited food intake and decreased body weight with associated changes in hypothalamic neuropeptides involved in growth and feeding after 24hr. We describe the hypothalamic ventricular zone as a key site of neuroendocrine regulation, where the inflammatory signal, chemerin, links TH and RA signaling to hypothalamic remodeling.
    • Neuroendocrinology and neurobiology of sebaceous glands

      Clayton, R.W.; Langan, E.A.; Ansell, David M.; de Vos, I.J.H.M.; Göbel, K.; Schneider, M.R.; Picardo, M.; Lim, X.; van Steensel, M.A.M.; Paus, R. (2020-06)
      The nervous system communicates with peripheral tissues through nerve fibres and the systemic release of hypothalamic and pituitary neurohormones. Communication between the nervous system and the largest human organ, skin, has traditionally received little attention. In particular, the neuro-regulation of sebaceous glands (SGs), a major skin appendage, is rarely considered. Yet, it is clear that the SG is under stringent pituitary control, and forms a fascinating, clinically relevant peripheral target organ in which to study the neuroendocrine and neural regulation of epithelia. Sebum, the major secretory product of the SG, is composed of a complex mixture of lipids resulting from the holocrine secretion of specialised epithelial cells (sebocytes). It is indicative of a role of the neuroendocrine system in SG function that excess circulating levels of growth hormone, thyroxine or prolactin result in increased sebum production (seborrhoea). Conversely, growth hormone deficiency, hypothyroidism, and adrenal insufficiency result in reduced sebum production and dry skin. Furthermore, the androgen sensitivity of SGs appears to be under neuroendocrine control, as hypophysectomy (removal of the pituitary) renders SGs largely insensitive to stimulation by testosterone, which is crucial for maintaining SG homeostasis. However, several neurohormones, such as adrenocorticotropic hormone and α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone, can stimulate sebum production independently of either the testes or the adrenal glands, further underscoring the importance of neuroendocrine control in SG biology. Moreover, sebocytes synthesise several neurohormones and express their receptors, suggestive of the presence of neuro-autocrine mechanisms of sebocyte modulation. Aside from the neuroendocrine system, it is conceivable that secretion of neuropeptides and neurotransmitters from cutaneous nerve endings may also act on sebocytes or their progenitors, given that the skin is richly innervated. However, to date, the neural controls of SG development and function remain poorly investigated and incompletely understood. Botulinum toxin-mediated or facial paresis-associated reduction of human sebum secretion suggests that cutaneous nerve-derived substances modulate lipid and inflammatory cytokine synthesis by sebocytes, possibly implicating the nervous system in acne pathogenesis. Additionally, evidence suggests that cutaneous denervation in mice alters the expression of key regulators of SG homeostasis. In this review, we examine the current evidence regarding neuroendocrine and neurobiological regulation of human SG function in physiology and pathology. We further call attention to this line of research as an instructive model for probing and therapeutically manipulating the mechanistic links between the nervous system and mammalian skin.
    • Neuromedin U can exert colon-specific, enteric nerve-mediated prokinetic activity, via a pathway involving NMU1 receptor activation.

      Dass, N.B.; Bassil, A.K.; North-Laidler, V.J.; Morrow, R.; Aziz, E.; Tuladhar, Bishwa R.; Sanger, G.J. (2007)
      The neuromedin U (NMU) receptors, NMU1 and NMU2, are expressed in the gut but their functions are unclear. This study explores the role of NMU in gastrointestinal motility. Experimental approach: The effects of NMU were examined in the forestomach and colon isolated from NMU2R wild-type and NMU2R-/- (knockout) mice, looking for changes in muscle tension and in nerve-mediated responses evoked by electrical field stimulation (EFS), and in models of peristalsis in mouse colon and faecal pellet transit in guinea-pig colon. Key results: In the mouse forestomach, NMU (1 nM-10 ¿M) concentration-dependently induced muscle contraction, in the presence of tetrodotoxin and atropine, in preparations from both wild-type and NMU2R-/- mice (pEC50: 7.9, 7.6, Emax: 0.26, 0.20g tension, respectively, n=8 each concentration). The same concentrations of NMU had no consistent effects on the responses to EFS (n=8). In the mouse colon, NMU (0.1 nM-1 ¿M) had no significant effect on baseline muscle tension (n=8), but concentration-dependently potentiated EFS-evoked contractions in preparations from both wild-type and NMU2R-/- mice, pEC50: 8.1, 7.8, Emax: 24%, 21%, respectively, n=6-11. NMU (0.01 nM-0.1 ¿M, n=5-7) concentration-dependently decreased the interval between waves of peristalsis in the mouse colon (pEC50: 8.8) and increased the rate at which a faecal pellet moved along the guinea-pig colon. Conclusions and implications: These results demonstrate that NMU exerts colon-specific, nerve-mediated, prokinetic activity, via a pathway involving activation of NMU1 receptors. This suggests that this receptor may represent a molecular target for the treatment of intestinal motility disorders.
    • Neuronal influences are necessary to produce mitochondrial co-localization with glutamate transporters in astrocytes.

      Ugbode, Christopher I.; Hirst, W.D.; Rattray, Marcus (2014-09)
      Abstract Recent evidence suggests that the predominant astrocyte glutamate transporter, GLT-1/ Excitatory Amino Acid Transporter 2 (EAAT2) is associated with mitochondria. We used primary cultures of mouse astrocytes to assess co-localization of GLT-1 with mitochondria, and tested whether the interaction was dependent on neurons, actin polymerization or the kinesin adaptor, TRAK2. Mouse primary astrocytes were transfected with constructs expressing V5-tagged GLT-1, pDsRed1-Mito with and without dominant negative TRAK2. Astrocytes were visualized using confocal microscopy and co-localization was quantified using Volocity software. Image analysis of confocal z-stacks revealed no co-localization between mitochondria and GLT-1 in pure astrocyte cultures. Co-culture of astrocytes with primary mouse cortical neurons revealed more mitochondria in processes and a positive correlation between mitochondria and GLT-1. This co-localization was not further enhanced after neuronal depolarization induced by 1 h treatment with 15 mM K+. In pure astrocytes, a rho kinase inhibitor, Y27632 caused the distribution of mitochondria to astrocyte processes without enhancing GLT-1/mitochondrial co-localization, however, in co-cultures, Y27632 abolished mitochondrial: GLT-1 co-localization. Disrupting potential mitochondrial: kinesin interactions using dominant negative TRAK2 did not alter GLT-1 distribution or GLT-1: mitochondrial co-localization. We conclude that the association between GLT-1 and mitochondria is modest, is driven by synaptic activity and dependent on polymerized actin filaments. Mitochondria have limited co-localization with the glutamate transporter GLT-1 in primary astrocytes in culture. Few mitochondria are in the fine processes where GLT-1 is abundant. It is necessary to culture astrocytes with neurones to drive a significant level of co-localization, but co-localization is not further altered by depolarization, manipulating sodium ion gradients or Na/K ATPase activity.
    • Neuronal-glial populations form functional networks in a biocompatible 3D scaffold.

      Smith, I.; Haag, M.; Ugbode, Christopher I.; Tams, D.; Rattray, Marcus; Przyborski, S.; Bithell, A.; Whalley, B.J. (2015-11-16)
      Monolayers of neurons and glia have been employed for decades as tools for the study of cellular physiology and as the basis for a variety of standard toxicological assays. A variety of three dimensional (3D) culture techniques have been developed with the aim to produce cultures that recapitulate desirable features of intact. In this study, we investigated the effect of preparing primary mouse mixed neuron and glial cultures in the inert 3D scaffold, Alvetex. Using planar multielectrode arrays, we compared the spontaneous bioelectrical activity exhibited by neuroglial networks grown in the scaffold with that seen in the same cells prepared as conventional monolayer cultures. Two dimensional (monolayer; 2D) cultures exhibited a significantly higher spike firing rate than that seen in 3D cultures although no difference was seen in total signal power (<50 Hz) while pharmacological responsiveness of each culture type to antagonism of GABAAR, NMDAR and AMPAR was highly comparable. Interestingly, correlation of burst events, spike firing and total signal power (<50 Hz) revealed that local field potential events were associated with action potential driven bursts as was the case for 2D cultures. Moreover, glial morphology was more physiologically normal in 3D cultures. These results show that 3D culture in inert scaffolds represents a more physiologically normal preparation which has advantages for physiological, pharmacological, toxicological and drug development studies, particularly given the extensive use of such preparations in high throughput and high content systems.
    • Neuroprotective effects of phenolic antioxidant tBHQ associate with inhibition of FoxO3a nuclear translocation and activity.

      Bahia, P.K.; Pugh, V.; Hoyland, K.; Rattray, Marcus; Williams, R.J. (2012-10)
      The Forkhead transcription factor, FoxO3a induces genomic death responses in neurones following translocation from the cytosol to the nucleus. Nuclear translocation of FoxO3a is triggered by trophic factor withdrawal, oxidative stress and the stimulation of extrasynaptic NMDA receptors. Receptor activation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)-Akt signalling pathways retains FoxO3a in the cytoplasm, thereby inhibiting the transcriptional activation of death-promoting genes. We hypothesized that phenolic antioxidants such as tert-Butylhydroquinone (tBHQ), which is known to stimulate PI3K-Akt signalling, would inhibit FoxO3a translocation and activity. Treatment of cultured cortical neurones with NMDA increased the nuclear localization of FoxO3a, reduced the phosphorylation of FoxO3a, increased caspase activity and up-regulated Fas ligand expression. In contrast the phenolic antioxidant, tBHQ, caused retention of FoxO3a in the cytosol coincident with enhanced PI3K- dependent phosphorylation of FoxO3a. tBHQ-induced nuclear exclusion of FoxO3a was associated with reduced FoxO-mediated transcriptional activity. Exposure of neurones to tBHQ inhibited NMDA-induced nuclear translocation of FoxO3a, prevented NMDA-induced up-regulation of FoxO-mediated transcriptional activity, blocked caspase activation and protected neurones from NMDA-induced excitotoxic death. Collectively, these data suggest that phenolic antioxidants such as tBHQ oppose stress-induced activation of FoxO3a and therefore have potential neuroprotective utility in neurodegeneration.
    • Neurotrophin-3 regulates mast cell functions in neonatal mouse skin

      Botchkareva, Natalia V.; Botchkarev, Vladimir A.; Paus, R.; Tobin, Desmond J. (2006)
      Nerve growth factor (NGF) has long been recognized as an important mast cell (MC) growth factor. To explore whether other neurotrophins (NTs) of the NGF family, which are widely expressed in mouse skin, affect the numbers and/or functions of MCs we examined the effects of NT-3 on neonatal skin MCs. We demonstrate that TrkC, the high affinity NT-3 receptor, is expressed by virtually all neonatal skin MCs in C57BL/6 mice, which indicates that MCs can respond to NT-3. Skin of neonatal and early postnatal NT-3-overexpressing mice (promoter: K14) displayed significantly and up to twofold increased numbers of MCs during the first 20 days after birth, as compared to wild-type mice. To check whether this increase in MC numbers in NT-3 transgenic mice reflects a higher rate of proliferation, we performed immunohistochemistry, which revealed that only 1-2% of all skin MCs both in NT-3-overexpressing and in wild-type controls showed Ki-67-positive nuclei, suggesting that the observed differences in the number of MCs do not reflect a higher rate of MC proliferation. Additionally, we show that the effect of NT-3 on the number of MCs is most likely to be stem cell factor (SCF)-independent, because NT-3 significantly downregulates secretion of SCF-protein in cultured dermal fibroblasts, as assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Numbers of skin MCs in neonatal TrkC-deficient mice were found to be modestly reduced, as compared to wild-type mice, indicating that NT-3 can modulate the number of MCs directly via TrkC, although TrkC does not seem to be essential for the number of basal MCs. To further analyze the effects of NT-3 on MCs, we stimulated skin organ culture of early postnatal C57BL/6 mouse skin with 5-50 ng/ml NT-3, which induced a significant increase in MC degranulation, as visualized by Giemsa staining. However, stimulation of isolated neonatal dermal skin MCs with NT-3 in vitro failed to result in MC activation, as measured by serotonin release. Our data suggest a role for NT-3 in the maturation of MCs, such as a TrkC-mediated stimulation of the differentiation of pre-existing, less mature MCs and/or by enhancing the migration of circulating MC precursors into the skin.
    • A new 12-gene diagnostic biomarker signature of melanoma revealed by integrated microarray analysis.

      Liu, Wanting; Peng, Yonghong; Tobin, Desmond J. (2013)
      Genome-wide microarray technology has facilitated the systematic discovery of diagnostic biomarkers of cancers and other pathologies. However, meta-analyses of published arrays often uncover significant inconsistencies that hinder advances in clinical practice. Here we present an integrated microarray analysis framework, based on a genome-wide relative significance (GWRS) and genome-wide global significance (GWGS) model. When applied to five microarray datasets on melanoma published between 2000 and 2011, this method revealed a new signature of 200 genes. When these were linked to so-called ‘melanoma driver’ genes involved in MAPK, Ca2+, and WNT signaling pathways we were able to produce a new 12-gene diagnostic biomarker signature for melanoma (i.e., EGFR, FGFR2, FGFR3, IL8, PTPRF, TNC, CXCL13, COL11A1, CHP2, SHC4, PPP2R2C, and WNT4). We have begun to experimentally validate a subset of these genes involved in MAPK signaling at the protein level, including CXCL13, COL11A1, PTPRF and SHC4 and found these to be over-expressed in metastatic and primary melanoma cells in vitro and in situ compared to melanocytes cultured from healthy skin epidermis and normal healthy human skin. While SHC4 has been reported previously to be associated to melanoma, this is the first time CXCL13, COL11A1, and PTPRF have been associated with melanoma on experimental validation. Our computational evaluation indicates that this 12-gene biomarker signature achieves excellent diagnostic power in distinguishing metastatic melanoma from normal skin and benign nevus. Further experimental validation of the role of these 12 genes in a new signaling network may provide new insights into the underlying biological mechanisms driving the progression of melanoma.
    • New class of hybrid materials for detection, capture, and "on-demand" release of carbon monoxide

      Pitto-Barry, Anaïs; Lupan, A.; Ellingford, C.; Attia, A.A.A.; Barry, Nicolas P.E. (2018-04)
      Carbon monoxide (CO) is both a substance hazardous to health and a side product of a number of industrial processes, such as methanol steam reforming and large-scale oxidation reactions. The separation of CO from nitrogen (N2) in industrial processes is considered to be difficult because of the similarities of their electronic structures, sizes, and physicochemical properties (e.g., boiling points). Carbon monoxide is also a major poison in fuel cells because of its adsorption onto the active sites of the catalysts. It is therefore of the utmost economic importance to discover new materials that enable effective CO capture and release under mild conditions. However, methods to specifically absorb and easily release CO in the presence of contaminants, such as water, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, and oxygen, at ambient temperature are not available. Here, we report the simple and versatile fabrication of a new class of hybrid materials that allows capture and release of carbon monoxide under mild conditions. We found that carborane-containing metal complexes encapsulated in networks made of poly(dimethylsiloxane) react with CO, even when immersed in water, leading to dramatic color and infrared signature changes. Furthermore, we found that the CO can be easily released from the materials by simply dipping the networks into an organic solvent for less than 1 min, at ambient temperature and pressure, which not only offers a straightforward recycling method, but also a new method for the “on-demand” release of carbon monoxide. We illustrated the utilization of the on-demand release of CO from the networks by carrying out a carbonylation reaction on an electron-deficient metal complex that led to the formation of the CO-adduct, with concomitant recycling of the gel. We anticipate that our sponge-like materials and scalable methodology will open up new avenues for the storage, transport, and controlled release of CO, the silent killer and a major industrial poison.
    • A new combined approach using confocal and scanning electron microscopy to image surface modifications on quartzite

      Pedergnana, A.; Ollé, A.; Evans, Adrian A. (2020-04)
      Confocal microscopy has been increasingly employed in the field of traceology to acquire metrological data of surface changes on a micro-scale. However, its advantages for a traditional visual inspection of use-wear are rarely highlighted. As traditional optical microscopy (OM) has proven unable to entirely fulfil the prerequisites for an ideal observation of highly reflective and irregular materials, alternative ways for providing better observation conditions must be sought. In this contribution, we explore the combination of laser scanning confocal (LSCM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) micro-graphs for the visual characterisation of wear on quartzite and evaluate the potential of both techniques.
    • New developments in archaeomagnetic dating for Romania - A progress report on recent directional studies.

      Suteu, C.A.; Batt, Catherine M.; Zananiri, I. (Elsevier, 2008)
      This project seeks to address the lack of geomagnetic field data for the territory of Romania by sampling and analysing burnt archaeological features and sediments. The aim of this paper is to present the initial directional results and some magnetic mineralogical determinations from five features sampled during the first field season. Representative examples of directional and magnetic mineralogical analyses are presented, and dates are obtained using the REN-DATE software [Lanos, P., Kovacheva, M., Chauvin, A., 1999. Archaeomagnetism, methodology and applications: implementation and practice of the archaeomagnetic method in France and Bulgaria. Journal of European Archaeology, 2, 365¿392] and the published moving window averaged data from Hungary [Ma´rton, P., 2003. Recent achievements in archaeomagnetism in Hungary. Geophysical Journal International 153(3), 675¿690]. A comparison is made of the data obtained in this study with the published directional data from Bulgaria, Hungary and Ukraine.
    • New developments in hair research

      McElwee, Kevin J.; Tosti, A. (2020-03)
      This article is an editorial for the special focus theme issue on “hair research” published by the Experimental Dermatology journal. Here we introduce the articles from the special issue and pose a few questions. The full list of publications for the hair research special issue is available on the Journal’s web site. Many of the articles can be viewed free of charge on the web site. This is for; Experimental Dermatology, Volume 29, Number 3, published March 2020.
    • New Dynamic Rotamer Libraries: Data-Driven Analysis of Side-Chain Conformational Propensities

      Towse, Clare-Louise; Rysavy, S.J.; Vulovic, I.M.; Daggett, V. (2016-01-05)
      Most rotamer libraries are generated from subsets of the PDB and do not fully represent the conformational scope of protein side chains. Previous attempts to rectify this sparse coverage of conformational space have involved application of weighting and smoothing functions. We resolve these limitations by using physics-based molecular dynamics simulations to determine more accurate frequencies of rotameric states. This work forms part of our Dynameomics initiative and uses a set of 807 proteins selected to represent 97% of known autonomous protein folds, thereby eliminating the bias toward common topologies found within the PDB. Our Dynameomics derived rotamer libraries encompass 4.8 × 10(9) rotamers, sampled from at least 51,000 occurrences of each of 93,642 residues. Here, we provide a backbone-dependent rotamer library, based on secondary structure ϕ/ψ regions, and an update to our 2011 backbone-independent library that addresses the doubling of our dataset since its original publication.
    • A new embelin from the mangrove Aegiceras corniculatum.

      Thota, S.P.R.; Sarma, N.S.; Murthy, Y.L.N.; Kantamreddi, Venkata Siva Satya Narayana; Wright, Colin W. (2015)
    • New Exploration in the Chitral Valley, Pakistan: An Extension of the Gandharan Grave Culture

      Batt, Catherine M.; Ali, I.; Coningham, Robin A.E.; Young, R.L. (2002)
      New survey in the Chitral Valley has doubled the number of recorded Gandharan Grave culture sites in the region and extended their geographical range. The numbers and location of sites indicates that the Gandharan Grave culture was well established in the Chitral valley, suggesting that the valley may have been central to this cultural development, rather than marginal.