• X-Radiography of Textiles, Dress and Related Objects.

      O'Connor, Sonia A.; Brooks, M.M. (2009-11-18)
      X-radiography of textile objects reveals hidden features as well as unexpected components and materials. This non-destructive technique throws light on construction, manufacturing techniques, use, wear, repair, patterns of decay and dating. X-radiography improves artefact documentation and interpretation as well as guiding conservation approaches by enhancing understanding. This book explores techniques for X-raying textiles. It describes approaches to image interpretation and explains how, through digitisation and digital image manipulation, maximum information can be realised. Case studies include archaeological, ecclesiastical and ethnographic textiles, items of dress and accessories, upholstery, quilts, embroideries, dolls and toys. Museum professionals will find this stimulating book an essential guide for developing their own practice or commissioning textile X-radiographs.
    • X-ray crystallographic structure of the potent antiplasmodial compound 2,7-dibromocryptolepine acetic acid solvate.

      Potter, B.S.; Lisgarten, J.N.; Pitts, J.E.; Palmer, R.A.; Wright, Colin W. (2008)
      The structure of 2,7-dibromocryptolepine acetic acid solvate, C16H11N2Br2 [1.5(C2H4O2)][C2H3O2 -] [0.5H2O], Mr = 460.17, has been determined from X-ray diffraction data. The crystals are monoclinic, space group P21/c with Z = 4 molecules per unit cell and a = 7.3243(3), b = 18.7804(6), c = 15.8306(7) A ° , b = 94.279(1) , Vc = 2171.5(2) A ° , crystal density Dc = 1.667 g/cm3. The structure was determined using direct methods and refined by full-matrix least-squares to a conventional R-index of 0.0496 for 4,908 reflections and 258 parameters. The cryptolepine nucleus of the 2,7-dibromocryptolepine molecule is highly planar and the two Br atoms are in this plane within 0.06 and 0.01 A ° , respectively. The crystal structure is maintained via hydrogen bonding between N(10) in the cryptolepine nucleus and the oxygen of one of the three solvated acetic acid molecules. The acetic acid molecules also form hydrogen bonded chains. Acetic acid B is deprotonated and its two C¿O bond lengths are equivalent, unlike those in A and C. Acetic acid C lies very close to a crystallographic centre of symmetry. To avoid overlap the two repeats cannot exist together and are subject to 50% statistical disorder. O(1C) of this methanol is furthest from the two-fold axis and its occupancy refines to a value of 1.0 and is assumed to exist alternately as a water oxygen hydrogen bonding to methanol O(1C) across the two-fold axis at a distance of 2.775 A ° .
    • X-ray crystallography and its role in understanding physicochemical properties of pharmaceutical cocrystals

      Aitipamula, S.; Vangala, Venu R. (2017)
      Properties of a matter are intrinsically dependent upon the internal arrangement of molecules in the solid state. Therefore, knowledge of 3-dimensional structure of the matter is prerequisite for structure-property correlations and design of functional materials. Over the past century, X-ray crystallography has evolved as a method of choice for accurate determination of molecular structure at atomic resolution. The structural information obtained from crystallographic analysis paved the way for rapid development in electronic devices, mineralogy, geosciences, materials science, pharmaceuticals, etc. Knowledge of the structural information of active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) is prerequisite for rational drug design and synthesis of new chemical entities for development as new medicines. Over the past two decades, X-ray crystallography has played a key role in the design of pharmaceutical cocrystals-crystalline solids containing an API and one or more of pharmaceutically acceptable coformers. These materials have proved promising for fine-tuning several important properties of APIs. This short review highlights the history of crystallography, early breakthroughs, and the role of crystallography in understanding physicochemical properties of pharmaceutical cocrystals.
    • Yeast consortium isolated from Woodfordia fruticosa flowers proved to be instrumental for traditional Ayurvedic fermentation

      Bhondave, P.; Burase, R.; Takale, S.; Paradkar, Anant R.; Patil, S.; Mahadik, K.R.; Harsulkar, A. (2013)
    • Yesterday's hair--human hair in archaeology

      Wilson, Andrew S.; Dixon, Ronald A.; Dodson, Hilary I.; Janaway, Robert C.; Pollard, A. Mark; Stern, Ben; Tobin, Desmond J. (2001-10)
      Hair removed from archaeological burials can tell us a lot about the diet and lifestyle of our ancestors--information that may survive because of the unique biology of hair formation. But hair is also biodegradable and the effects of time and burial conditions can result in conflicting evidence of past lives.
    • You Are What You Ate: Consuming the Past to Benefit the Present

      McCleery, I.; Shearman, V.; Buckberry, Jo (2017)
      You Are What You Ate was a British public engagement project funded by the Wellcome Trust between 2010 and 2014. It was a collaboration between the University of Leeds, the University of Bradford and Wakefield Council, especially its museums, schools and libraries, which aimed to use medieval food as a way to encourage reflection about modern food and lifestyle. The innovative project ran three exhibitions in Wakefield and Pontefract, a mobile exhibition, numerous schools and youth workshops, and a series of market stalls and osteology workshops for adults and children in the Yorkshire region. This article provides an overview of the project’s aims, activities, outcomes, including an analysis of how to evaluate them, and its legacy.
    • You Are What You Ate: Using Bioarchaeology to Promote Healthy Eating

      Buckberry, Jo; Ogden, Alan R.; Shearman, V.; McCleery, I. (2015)
      The You Are What You Ate project is a collaboration between historians, archaeologists, museum officers, medieval re-enactors and food scientists. We aim to encourage public debate and personal reflection on modern eating habits through exploration of the dietary choices of the medieval and early modern period. This paper will discuss our osteology workshops, aimed at adults or at school children. We use archaeological examples of diet-related conditions, including dental disease, scurvy, rickets and gout, plus those associated with obesity such as osteoarthritis and DISH, to help the public visualise how dietary choices can affect the body. This information is delivered via an introductory talk and carefully monitored bone handling sessions – and, for the children, includes the analysis of a plastic skeleton modified to display pathological conditions. Evaluation data shows that the majority of adults and all children feel they have learnt something new during the sessions, and that this has led them to think about healthy eating. The inclusion of examples of dental pathology has promoted dental hygiene to school children, although it was not one of our primary aims. It is difficult to assess if these short-term experiences translate to long-term knowledge gain or to changes in behaviour.
    • Zeitschrift fur Physikalische Chemie: Editorial

      Hickey, Stephen G.; Bund, A. (2011-02-25)
    • Zinc oxide nanoparticle induced genotoxicity in primary human epidermal keratinocytes.

      Sharma, V.; Singh, Suman K.; Anderson, Diana; Tobin, Desmond J.; Dhawan, A. (2011-05)
      Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles are widely used in cosmetics and sunscreens. Human epidermal keratinocytes may serve as the first portal of entry for these nanoparticles either directly through topically applied cosmetics or indirectly through any breaches in the skin integrity. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to assess the biological interactions of ZnO nanoparticles in primary human epidermal keratinocytes (HEK) as they are the most abundant cell type in the human epidermis. Cellular uptake of nanoparticles was investigated by scanning electron microscopy using back scattered electrons imaging as well as transmission electron microscopy. The electron microscopy revealed the internalization of ZnO nanoparticles in primary HEK after 6 h exposure at 14 microg/ml concentration. ZnO nanoparticles exhibited a time (6-24 h) as well as concentration (8-20 microg/ml) dependent inhibition of mitochondrial activity as evident by the MTT assay. A significant (p < 0.05) induction in DNA damage was observed in cells exposed to ZnO nanoparticles for 6 h at 8 and 14 microg/ml concentrations compared to control as evident in the Comet assay. This is the first study providing information on biological interactions of ZnO nanoparticles with primary human epidermal keratinocytes. Our findings demonstrate that ZnO nanoparticles are internalized by the human epidermal keratinocytes and elicit a cytotoxic and genotoxic response. Therefore, caution should be taken while using consumer products containing nanoparticles as any perturbation in the skin barrier could expose the underlying cells to nanoparticles.
    • Zinc oxide nanoparticles affect the expression of p53, Ras p21 and JNKs: an ex vivo/in vitro exposure study in respiratory disease patients

      Kumar, A.; Najafzadeh, Mojgan; Jacob, B.K.; Dhawan, A.; Anderson, Diana (2015)
      Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles are the mostly used engineered metal oxide nanoparticles in consumer products. This has increased the likelihood of human exposure to this engineered nanoparticle (ENPs) through different routes. At present, the majority of the studies concerning ZnO ENPs toxicity have been conducted using in vitro and in vivo systems. In this study, for the first time we assessed the effect of ZnO ENPs on the major cellular pathways in the lymphocytes of healthy individuals as well as in susceptible patients suffering from lung cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and asthma. Using the differential expression analysis, we observed a significant (P < 0.05) dose-dependent (10, 20 and 40 microg/ml for 6h) increase in the expression of tumour suppressor protein p53 (40, 60 and 110%); Ras p21 (30, 52 and 80%); c-Jun N-terminal kinases; JNKs) (28, 47 and 78%) in lung cancer patient samples treated with ZnO ENPs compared to healthy controls. A similar trend was also seen in COPD patient samples where a significant (P < 0.05) dose-dependent increase in the expression of tumour suppressor protein p53 (26, 45 and 84%), Ras p21 (21, 40 and 77%), JNKs (17, 32 and 69%) was observed after 6h of ZnO ENPs treatment at the aforesaid concentrations. However, the increase in the expression profile of tested protein was not significant in the asthma patients as compared to controls. Our results reiterate the concern about the safety of ZnO ENPs in consumer products and suggest the need for a complete risk assessment of any new ENPs before its use.
    • β-Diketonate Titanium Compounds Exhibiting High In Vitro Activity and Specific DNA Base Binding

      Lord, Rianne M.; Mannion, J.J.; Crossley, B.D.; Hebden, A.J.; McMullon, M.W.; Fisher, J.; Phillips, Roger M.; McGowan, P.C. (2016-12-01)
      Herein, we report 31 new β-diketonate titanium compounds of the type [Ti(O,O)2X2], whereby O,O = asymmetric or symmetric β-diketonate ligand and X = Cl, Br, OEt or OiPr. Thirteen new crystal structures are discussed and show that these octahedral species all adopt cis geometries in the solid state. These compounds have been tested for their cytotoxicity using SRB and MTT assays, showing several of the compounds are as potent as cisplatin against a range of tumour cell lines. Results also show the [Ti(O,O)2Br2] complexes are more potent than [Ti(O,O)2Cl2], [Ti(O,O)2(OEt)2] and [Ti(O,O)2(OiPr)2]. Using a simple symmetrical heptane-3,5-dione (O,O) ligand bound to titanium, we observed more than a 50-fold increase in potency with the [Ti(O,O)2Br2] (28) when compared to [Ti(O,O)2Cl2] (27). One of the more potent compounds (6) has been added to three different sixmers of DNA, in order to analyse the potential DNA binding of the compound. NMR studies have been carried out on the compounds, in order to understand the structural properties and the species formed in solution during the in vitro cell assays.
    • β1-Adrenergic Receptor and Sphingosine- 1-Phosphate Receptor 1 Reciprocal Down-Regulation Influences Cardiac Hypertrophic Response and Progression Toward Heart Failure: Protective Role of S1PR1 Cardiac Gene Therapy

      Cannavo, A.; Rengo, G.; Liccardo, D.; Pagano, G.; Zincarelli, C.; De Angelis, M.C.; Puglia, R.; Di Pietro, E.; Rabinowitz, J.E.; Barone, M.V.; et al. (2013-10-08)
      The Sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor 1 (S1PR1) and β1-adrenergic receptor (β1AR) are G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) expressed in the heart. These two GPCRs have opposing actions on adenylyl cyclase due to differential G protein-coupling. Importantly, both of these receptors can be regulated by the actions of GPCR kinase-2 (GRK2), which triggers desensitization and down-regulation processes. Although, classical signaling paradigms suggest that simultaneous activation of β1ARs and S1PR1s in a myocyte would simply be opposing action on cAMP production, in this report we have uncovered a direct interaction between these two receptors with a regulatory involvement of GRK2. In HEK293 cells overexpressing both β1AR and S1PR1, we demonstrate that β1AR down-regulation can occur after sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1PR1 agonist) stimulation while S1PR1 down-regulation can be triggered by isoproterenol (βAR agonist) treatment. This cross-talk between these two distinct GPCRs appears to have physiological significance since they interact and show reciprocal regulation in mouse hearts undergoing chronic βAR stimulation and also in a rat model of post-ischemic heart failure (HF). We demonstrate that restoring cardiac plasma membrane levels of S1PR1 produce beneficial effects counterbalancing deleterious β1AR overstimulation in HF.
    • β‐Ketoiminato Iridium(III) Organometallic Complexes: Selective Cytotoxicity towards Colorectal Cancer Cells HCT116 p53‐/‐

      Lord, Rianne M.; Zegke, Markus; Henderson, I.R.; Pask, C.M.; Shepherd, H.J.; McGowan, P.C. (2019-01-07)
      This report presents a new library of organometallic iridium(III) compounds of the type [Cp*IrCl(L)] (Cp*=pentamethylcyclopentadienyl and L=a functionalized β‐ketoiminato ligand) showing moderate to high cytotoxicity against a range of cancer cell lines. All compounds show increased activity towards colorectal cancer, with preferential activity observed against the immortalized p53‐null colorectal cell line, HCT116 p53‐/‐, with sensitivity factors (SF) up to 26.7. Additionally, the compounds have excellent selectivity for cancerous cells when tested against normal cell types, with selectivity ratios (SR) up to 35.6, contrary to that of cisplatin, which is neither selective nor specific for cancerous cells (SF=0.43 and SR=0.7–2.3). This work provides a preliminary understanding of the cytotoxicity of iridium compounds in the absence of p53 and has potential applications in treatment of cancers for which the p53 gene is absent or mutant.