• Waking the dead: Scientific analysis of an Egyptian tunic.

      Haldane, E.A.; Gillies, Sara; O'Connor, Sonia A.; Batt, Catherine M.; Stern, Ben (V&A, 2009)
      The aim of the research is to identify and help to explain the unusual pattern of staining on the tunic, provide more specific information relating to the tunic's age and provenance and the chronology of alterations, and also inform the conservation decision-making process.
    • WASP restricts active Rac to maintain cells' front-rear polarization

      Amato, C.; Thomason, P.A.; Davidson, A.J.; Swaminathan, Karthic; Ismail, S.; Machesky, L.M.; Insall, R.H. (2019-12)
      Efficient motility requires polarized cells, with pseudopods at the front and a retracting rear. Polarization is maintained by restricting the pseudopod catalyst, active Rac, to the front. Here, we show that the actin nucleation-promoting factor Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (WASP) contributes to maintenance of front-rear polarity by controlling localization and cellular levels of active Rac. Dictyostelium cells lacking WASP inappropriately activate Rac at the rear, which affects their polarity and speed. WASP’s Cdc42 and Rac interacting binding (“CRIB”) motif has been thought to be essential for its activation. However, we show that the CRIB motif’s biological role is unexpectedly complex. WASP CRIB mutants are no longer able to restrict Rac activity to the front, and cannot generate new pseudopods when SCAR/WAVE is absent. Overall levels of Rac activity also increase when WASP is unable to bind to Rac. However, WASP without a functional CRIB domain localizes normally at clathrin pits during endocytosis, and activates Arp2/3 complex. Similarly, chemical inhibition of Rac does not affect WASP localization or activation at sites of endocytosis. Thus, the interaction between small GTPases and WASP is more complex than previously thought—Rac regulates a subset of WASP functions, but WASP reciprocally restricts active Rac through its CRIB motif.
    • Water Demand Management in England and Wales: constructions of the domestic water-user

      Sharp, Liz (2006)
      Measures to manage demand include implicit and explicit messages about domestic water-users which have important potential impacts on their perceptions and practices. Drawing on recent literature, this paper identifies three different ¿dimensions¿ along which demand management measures¿ constructions of the water-user may vary: these relate to whether the water user is passive or active, whether they are motivated by individual or common needs, and whether they perceive water as a right or a commodity. Demand management measures currently used in England and Wales are then discussed and analysed. The paper concludes by highlighting the importance of communications associated with demand management, and in particular, notes the need to consider the cumulative impact of messages and their interactions with people¿s existing understandings.
    • Water in Everyday Use: A study of water-using technologies and the water user in Essex

      Knamiller, C.; Sefton, Christine J.; Sharp, Liz; Medd, W. (2007)
    • Water, Wealth and Social Status at Pompeii, The House of the Vestals in the First Century AD.

      Jones, Rick F.J.; Robinson, Damian (2005)
      The use of water in Roman private houses has been identified as a highly visible status symbol. The detailed study of the House of the Vestals at Pompeii reveals how water features were central to the house¿s structural changes from the late first century B.C. The owners of the house invested heavily in fountains and pools as key elements in the display of their wealth to visitors and passers-by alike. This article relates the structural development of the House of the Vestals to the social history of decorative water usage, from an initial investment exploiting the pressurized water provided by the new aqueduct early in the Augustan period to the responses to crises following the earthquake of A.D. 62
    • Water-associated nosocomial infections.

      Wright, Claire Louise; Snelling, Anna M.; Newton, L.; Kerr, Kevin G. (2008)
      It is estimated that 5-10% of hospitalised patients in developed countries contract hospital acquired infections (HAI). Increasing levels of antimicrobial resistance manifested by many HAI-causing pathogens such as Acinetobacter spp in the intensive care unit (ICU) setting present a significant challenge to those managing these infections. Consequently, much attention has been focused on the prevention of HAIs. Particular emphasis has been placed on interventions intended to interrupt patient-to-patient transmission of pathogens, such as enhanced hand hygiene and identification of patients colonised with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) using rapid DNA-based screening techniques. However, comparatively little attention has been given to the hospital environment, including water supplies, as a source of nosocomial pathogens of importance for patients on the critical care unit. This article reviews the role of hospital water sources in the epidemiology of HAI and new technologies which can be employed in the prevention and control of such infections.
    • The WAVE Regulatory Complex Is Required to Balance Protrusion and Adhesion in Migration

      Whitelaw, J.A.; Swaminathan, Karthic; Kage, F.; Machesky, L.M. (2020-07-07)
      Cells migrating over 2D substrates are required to polymerise actin at the leading edge to form lamellipodia protrusions and nascent adhesions to anchor the protrusion to the substrate. The major actin nucleator in lamellipodia formation is the Arp2/3 complex, which is activated by the WAVE regulatory complex (WRC). Using inducible Nckap1 floxed mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs), we confirm that the WRC is required for lamellipodia formation, and importantly, for generating the retrograde flow of actin from the leading cell edge. The loss of NCKAP1 also affects cell spreading and focal adhesion dynamics. In the absence of lamellipodium, cells can become elongated and move with a single thin pseudopod, which appears devoid of N-WASP. This phenotype was more prevalent on collagen than fibronectin, where we observed an increase in migratory speed. Thus, 2D cell migration on collagen is less dependent on branched actin.
    • Weaning at Anglo-Saxon Raunds: implications for changing breastfeeding practice in Britain over two millennia

      Haydock, Hannah; Clarke, Leon J.; Craig-Atkins, Elizabeth F.; Howcroft, R.; Buckberry, Jo (2013)
      This study investigated stable-isotope ratio evidence of weaning for the late Anglo-Saxon population of Raunds Furnells, Northamptonshire, UK. δ15N and δ13C values in rib collagen were obtained for individuals of different ages to assess the weaning age of infants within the population. A peak in δ15N values at about 2-year-old, followed by a decline in δ15N values until age three, indicates a change in diet at that age. This change in nitrogen isotope ratios corresponds with the mortality profile from the site, as well as with archaeological and documentary evidence on attitudes towards juveniles in the Anglo-Saxon period. The pattern of δ13C values was less clear. Comparison of the predicted age of weaning to published data from sites dating from the Iron Age to the 19th century in Britain reveals a pattern of changing weaning practices over time, with increasingly earlier commencement and shorter periods of complementary feeding in more recent periods. Such a change has implications for the interpretation of socioeconomic changes during this period of British history, since earlier weaning is associated with decreased birth spacing, and could thus have contributed to population growth.
    • A web-based and mobile health social support intervention to promote adherence to inhaled asthma medications: randomized controlled trial

      Koufopoulos, J.T.; Conner, M.T.; Gardner, Peter H.; Kellar, P. (2016-06)
      Background: Online communities hold great potential as interventions for health, particularly for the management of chronic illness. The social support that online communities can provide has been associated with positive treatment outcomes, including medication adherence. There are few studies that have attempted to assess whether membership of an online community improves health outcomes using rigorous designs. Objective: Our objective was to conduct a rigorous proof-of-concept randomized controlled trial of an online community intervention for improving adherence to asthma medicine. Methods: This 9-week intervention included a sample of asthmatic adults from the United Kingdom who were prescribed an inhaled corticosteroid preventer. Participants were recruited via email and randomized to either an “online community” or “no online community” (diary) condition. After each instance of preventer use, participants (N=216) were required to report the number of doses of medication taken in a short post. Those randomized to the online community condition (n=99) could read the posts of other community members, reply, and create their own posts. Participants randomized to the no online community condition (n=117) also posted their medication use, but could not read others’ posts. The main outcome measures were self-reported medication adherence at baseline and follow-up (9 weeks postbaseline) and an objective measure of adherence to the intervention (visits to site). Results: In all, 103 participants completed the study (intervention: 37.8%, 39/99; control: 62.2%, 64/117). MANCOVA of self-reported adherence to asthma preventer medicine at follow-up was not significantly different between conditions in either intention-to-treat (P=.92) or per-protocol (P=.68) analysis. Site use was generally higher in the control compared to intervention conditions. Conclusions: Joining an online community did not improve adherence to preventer medication for asthma patients. Without the encouragement of greater community support or more components
    • Welcome to Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine

      Pieroni, Andrea; Leimar Price, L.; Vandebroek, I. (2005)
      Ethnobiology is a multidisciplinary field of study that draws on approaches and methods from both the social and biological sciences. Ethnobiology aims at investigating culturally based biological and environmental knowledge, cultural perception and cognition of the natural world, and associated behaviours and practices. Ethnomedicine is concerned with the cultural interpretations of health, disease and illness and also addresses the health care seeking process and healing practices. Research interest and activities in the areas of ethnobiology and ethnomedicine have increased tremendously in the last decade. Since the inception of the disciplines, scientific research in ethnobiology and ethnomedicine has made important contributions to understanding traditional subsistence and medical knowledge and practice. The Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine (JEE) invites manuscripts and reviews based on original interdisciplinary research from around the world on the inextricable relationships between human cultures and nature, on Traditional Environmental Knowledge (TEK), folk and traditional medical knowledge, as well as on the relevance of the above for Primary Health Care (PHC) policies in developing countries.
    • Were there Vikings in Carlisle?

      McCarthy, Michael R.; Montgomery, Janet; Lerwick, Ceilidh; Buckberry, Jo (2014)
    • The West Coast Palaeolandscape Project

      Gaffney, Vincent L.; Fitch, Simon (2019-10)
    • What Are the Barriers and Enablers to the Implementation of Pharmacogenetic Testing in Mental Health Care Settings?

      Jameson, Adam; Fylan, Beth; Bristow, Greg C.; Sagoo, G.S.; Dalton, C.; Cardno, A.; Sohal, J.; McLean, Samantha L. (2021-09-22)
      In psychiatry, the selection of antipsychotics and antidepressants is generally led by a trial-and-error approach. The prescribing of these medications is complicated by sub-optimal efficacy and high rates of adverse drug reactions (ADRs). These both contribute to poor levels of adherence. Pharmacogenetics (PGx) considers how genetic variation can influence an individual’s response to a drug. Pharmacogenetic testing is a tool that could aid clinicians when selecting psychotropic medications, as part of a more personalized approach to prescribing. This may improve the use of and adherence to these medications. Yet to date, the implementation of PGx in mental health environments in the United Kingdom has been slow. This review aims to identify the current barriers and enablers to the implementation of PGx in psychiatry and determine how this can be applied to the uptake of PGx by NHS mental health providers. A systematic searching strategy was developed, and searches were carried out on the PsychInfo, EmBase, and PubMed databases, yielding 11 appropriate papers. Common barriers to the implementation of PGx included cost, concerns over incorporation into current workflow and a lack of knowledge about PGx; whilst frequent enablers included optimism that PGx could lead to precision medicine, reduce ADRs and become a more routine part of psychiatric clinical care. The uptake of PGx in psychiatric care settings in the NHS should consider and overcome these barriers, while looking to capitalize on the enablers identified in this review.
    • What do all the numbers mean? Making sure that we have all the pieces of the puzzle.

      Sparrow, Thomas; Gaffney, Christopher F.; Schmidt, Armin R. (2009)
      No Abstract
    • What doesnt kill you: Early life health and nutrition in early Anglo Saxon East Anglia

      Kendall, E.J.; Millard, A.; Beaumont, Julia; Gowland, R.; Gorton, Marise; Gledhill, Andrew R. (Springer Nature, 2020)
      Early life is associated with high vulnerability to morbidity and mortality - risks which can be reduced in infancy and early childhood through strategically high levels of parental or alloparental investment, particularly in the case of maternal breastfeeding. Recent evidence has supported links between early-life health and care patterns and long-term population health. This growing body of research regarding the broader impacts of infant-parent interactions transcends a traditional partitioning of research into discrete life stages. It also highlights implications of childhood data for our understanding of population health and behaviour. Skeletal and environmental data indicate that the 5-7th century cemeteries at Littleport and Edix Hill (Barrington A), Cambridgeshire represent populations of similar material culture but contrasting environments and health. The high prevalence of skeletal stress markers at Littleport indicates a community coping with unusual levels of biological stress, potentially a consequence of endemic malaria present in the marshy Fen environs. In contrast, Edix Hill was an inland site which exhibited lower skeletal stress marker prevalence comparable to wider British data for the early medieval period. Early life patterns relating to diet and physiological stress at Littleport (n=5) and Edix Hill (n=8) were investigated through analyses of carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes from incrementally-sampled deciduous dentine. Meaningful variation in isotopic values within and between populations was observed, and should be a focus of future interdisciplinary archaeological childhood studies.
    • What Drives Adaptive Gait Changes to Acutely Presented Monocular Blur?

      Chapman, Graham J.; Scally, Andy J.; Elliott, David B. (2011)
      Purpose. To determine whether gait alterations due to monocular spherical lens blur were a safety strategy or driven by lens magnification. Methods. Adaptive gait and visual function were measured in 10 older adults (mean age, 74.9 4.8 years) with the participants¿ optimal refractive correction and when monocularly blurred with 1.00 DS and 2.00 DS lens over the dominant eye. Adaptive gait measurements for the lead and trail foot included foot position before the raised surface, toe clearance of the raised surface edge, and foot position on the raised surface. Vision measurements included binocular visual acuity, contrast sensitivity, and stereoacuity. Results. Equal levels of monocular positive and negative spherical lens blur led to very different stepping strategies when negotiating a raised surface. Positive blur lenses led to an increased vertical toe clearance and reduced distance of the lead foot position on the raised surface. Negative lenses led to the opposite of these changes. Conclusions. Findings suggest that step negotiation strategies were driven by the magnification effect provided by the spherical lenses. Steps appeared closer and larger with magnification from positive lenses and further away and smaller with minification from negative lenses and gait was adjusted accordingly. These results suggest that previously reported adaptive gait changes to monocular spherical lens blur were not safety strategies as previously suggested but driven by lens magnification. The significance of these findings in terms of prescribing large refractive changes in frail older patients is discussed.
    • What health-related activities could be delivered by pharmacy students in the Digital Health Enterprise Zone (DHEZ) Academic?

      Medlinskiene, Kristina; Tappas, Theodora; Tomlinson, Justine (2018)
      Background: Digital Health Enterprise Zone (DHEZ) Academic building opened in 2017 with the aim of improving outcomes of people living with long-term conditions. This multi-disciplinary facility houses: physiotherapy and optometry public clinics, health promotion areas, and digital diagnostics. Additionally, a medicines review hub with consultation rooms and teaching space was created for the School of Pharmacy and Medical Sciences (SPMS), University of Bradford. Pharmacy students have already successfully performed health-related activities with the public in international literature (Lawrence, 2018). This project explored SPMS academics’ perspectives on the potential use of the facility for the teaching and delivery of health-related activities by pharmacy students.
    • What makes a good graphene-binding peptide? Adsorption of amino acids and peptides at aqueous graphene interfaces

      Hughes, Zak E.; Walsh, T.R. (2015-02-27)
      Investigation of the non-covalent interaction of biomolecules with aqueous graphene interfaces is a rapidly expanding area. However, reliable exploitation of these interfaces in many applications requires that the links between the sequence and binding of the adsorbed peptide structures be clearly established. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations can play a key role in elucidating the conformational ensemble of peptides adsorbed at graphene interfaces, helping to elucidate these rules in partnership with experimental characterisation. We apply our recently-developed polarisable force-field for biomolecule–graphene interfaces, GRAPPA, in partnership with advanced simulation approaches, to probe the adsorption behaviour of peptides at aqueous graphene. First we determine the free energy of adsorption of all twenty naturally occurring amino acids (AAs) via metadynamics simulations, providing a benchmark for interpreting peptide–graphene adsorption studies. From these free energies, we find that strong-binding amino acids have flat and/or compact side chain groups, and we relate this behaviour to the interfacial solvent structuring. Second, we apply replica exchange with solute tempering simulations to efficiently and widely sample the conformational ensemble of two experimentally-characterised peptide sequences, P1 and its alanine mutant P1A3, in solution and adsorbed on graphene. For P1 we find a significant minority of the conformational ensemble possesses a helical structure, both in solution and when adsorbed, while P1A3 features mostly extended, random-coil conformations. In solution this helical P1 configuration is stabilised through favourable intra-peptide interactions, while the adsorbed structure is stabilised via interaction of four strongly-binding residues, identified from our metadynamics simulations, with the aqueous graphene interface. Our findings rationalise the performance of the P1 sequence as a known graphene binder.