• D-Day: geophysical investigation of a World War II German site in Normandy, France.

      Gaffney, Christopher F.; Adcock, J.; Gater, J.A.; Saunders, T. (2004)
      Although military sites have long been the subject of geophysical investigation, those associated with recent military campaigns are noticeably rare. In fact, although such techniques are increasingly used to identify the unwanted legacy of modern warfare, such as unexploded ordnances or mass burials, they have not been used to investigate the archaeology of such conflict. The survey here attempts to identify the archaeology of one military site (Puits d'Herode) that was part of Hitler's Atlantic Wall and to identify the key elements associated with its D-Day defences. Magnetic gradiometry, twin-probe resistance and ground-penetrating radar were used at this site and, as a result of the nature of the buried archaeology, the magnetic technique proved most valuable. Trenches and bunkers previously known from aerial photographs were located accurately and a track believed to relate to the post-D-Day advance of the Allied forces across Puits d'Herode was also identified. The use of geophysical data in the investigation of this site has provided a new avenue to examine previously difficult topics such as the quality of intelligence available at the time of the conflict and the level and accuracy of shelling; although these may seem unlikely targets for archaeological geophysics, they are important to military historians for whom eye witness accounts are becoming increasingly scarce.
    • D1-like receptor activation improves PCP-induced cognitive deficits in animal models: Implications for mechanisms of improved cognitive function in schizophrenia

      McLean, Samantha L.; Idris, Nagi F.; Woolley, M.L.; Neill, Joanna C. (2009-06)
      Phencyclidine (PCP) produces cognitive deficits of relevance to schizophrenia in animal models. The aim was to investigate the efficacy of the D1-like receptor agonist, SKF-38393, to improve PCPinduced deficits in the novel object recognition (NOR) and operant reversal learning (RL) tasks. Rats received either sub-chronic PCP (2 mg/kg) or vehicle for 7 days, followed by a 7-day washout. Rats were either tested in NOR or the RL tasks. In NOR, vehicle rats successfully discriminated between novel and familiar objects, an effect abolished in PCP-treated rats. SKF-38393 (6 mg/kg) significantly ameliorated the PCP-induced deficit (Pb0.01) an effect significantly antagonised by SCH-23390 (0.05 mg/kg), a D1-like receptor antagonist (Pb0.01). In the RL task sub-chronic PCP significantly reduced performance in the reversal phase (Pb0.001); SKF-38393 (6.0 mg/kg) improved this PCPinduced deficit, an effect antagonised by SCH-23390 (Pb0.05). These results suggest a role for D1-like receptors in improvement of cognitive function in paradigms of relevance to schizophrenia.
    • Data for proteomic analysis of murine cardiomyocytic HL1 cells treated with siRNA against tissue factor

      Brioschi, M.; Lento, S.; Barcella, S.; Nasim, Md. Talat; Tremoli, E.; Banfi, C. (2015)
      This data article is related to the research article entitled Proteomics of Tissue Factor silencing in cardiomyocytic cells reveals a new role for this coagulation factor in splicing machinery control by Lento et al [1]. Tissue Factor (TF) is the key player in the coagulation cascade, but it has additional functions ranging from angiogenesis, tumor invasion and, in the heart, the maintenance of the integrity of cardiac cells. This article reports the nano-LC-MSE analysis of the cardiomyocytic HL-1 cell line proteome and describes the results obtained from a Gene Ontology analysis of those proteins affected by TF-gene silencing.
    • Data mining of fractured experimental data using neurofuzzy logic-discovering and integrating knowledge hidden in multiple formulation databases for a fluid-bed granulation process.

      Shao, Qun; Rowe, Raymond C.; York, Peter (2008)
      In the pharmaceutical field, current practice in gaining process understanding by data analysis or knowledge discovery has generally focused on dealing with single experimental databases. This limits the level of knowledge extracted in the situation where data from a number of sources, so called fractured data, contain interrelated information. This situation is particularly relevant for complex processes involving a number of operating variables, such as a fluid-bed granulation. This study investigated three data mining strategies to discover and integrate knowledge "hidden" in a number of small experimental databases for a fluid-bed granulation process using neurofuzzy logic technology. Results showed that more comprehensive domain knowledge was discovered from multiple databases via an appropriate data mining strategy. This study also demonstrated that the textual information excluded in individual databases was a critical parameter and often acted as the precondition for integrating knowledge extracted from different databases. Consequently generic knowledge of the domain was discovered, leading to an improved understanding of the granulation process.
    • Dating at Old Scatness

      Outram, Zoe; Batt, Catherine M. (Shetland Heritage Publications, 2010)
    • Dating Duggleby: Survey at Duggleby Howe, North Yorkshire.

      Gibson, Alex M.; Bayliss, A. (Royal Archaeological Institute, 2009)
    • Dating human occupation and adaptation in the southern European last glacial refuge: The chronostratigraphy of Grotta del Romito (Italy)

      Blockley, S.; Pellegrini, M.; Colonese, A.C.; Lo Vetro, D.; Albert, P.G.; Brauer, A.; Di Giuseppe, Z.; Evans, Adrian A.; Harding, P.; Lee-Thorp, J.; et al. (2018-03-15)
      Grotta del Romito has been the subject of numerous archaeological, chronological and palaeoenvironmental investigations for more than a decade. During the Upper Palaeolithic period the site contains evidence of human occupation through the Gravettian and Epigravettian periods, multiple human burials, changes in the pattern of human occupation, and faunal, isotopic and sedimentological evidence for local environmental change. In spite of this rich record, the chronological control is insufficient to resolve shifts in subsistence and mobility patterns at sufficiently high resolution to match the abrupt climate fluctuations at this time. To resolve this we present new radiocarbon and tephrostratigraphic dates in combination with existing radiocarbon dates, and develop a Bayesian age model framework for the site. This improved chronology reveals that local environmental conditions reflect abrupt and long-term changes in climate, and that these also directly influence changing patterns of human occupation of the site. In particular, we show that the environmental record for the site, based on small mammal habitat preferences, is chronologically in phase with the main changes in climate and environment seen in key regional archives from Italy and Greenland. We also calculate the timing of the transitions between different cultural phases and their spans. We also show that the intensification in occupation of the site is chronologically coincident with a rapid rise in Mesic Woody taxa seen in key regional pollen records and is associated with the Late Epigravettian occupation of the site. This change in the record of Grotta del Romito is also closely associated stratigraphically with a new tephra (the ROM-D30 tephra), which may act as a critical marker in environmental records of the region.
    • Dating the sequence

      Coningham, Robin A.E.; Batt, Catherine M. (2007)
      The Bala Hisar of Charsadda is a 23m high mound covering an area of some 25 hectares close to the confluence of the Swat and Kabul rivers in North West Frontier Province's Vale of Peshawa. Astride one of the arteries of the Silk Road, the uttarapatha, the mountain passes to its north and west link south Asia with central and western Asia. Strewn with thousands of ceramic sherds, cobbles and brickbats, the Bala Hisar was identified in 1863 as the city of Pushkalavati, one of the ancient capitals of Gandhar. Although not as formally investigated as Taxila to its south-east, it has been subject to antiquarian and archaeological interest for over 100 years on account of its historical links with the Achaemenid Empire and Alexander the Great. The focus of this research may have changed significantly over time, mirroring broader methodological and theoretical changes, but all researchers have attempted to identify when this great tell site was founded and occupied, and whether there is evidence of Alexander's siege of the site. These issues are not merely of interest to ancient historians but are of great interest to archaeologists of both southern and western Asia as the origins of South Asia second urbanisation are also under scrutiny, in Sir Mortimer Wheeler's words 'The outstanding importance of Charsadda lies in its earlier phases, when it was a metropolitan centre of Asiatic trade and meeting-place of oriental and occidental cultures'. Indeed, most archaeologists would agree that the Bala Hisar of Charsadda and Taxila are amongst the earliest cities that emerged during the subcontinent's second urbanization.
    • Death

      Taylor, Timothy F. (2010)
    • Death and Display in the North Atlantic: The Bronze and Iron Age Human Remains from Cnip, Lewis, Outer Hebrides

      Armit, Ian; Shapland, F. (2015)
      This paper revisits the series of disarticulated human remains discovered during the 1980s excavations of the Cnip wheelhouse complex in Lewis. Four fragments of human bone, including two worked cranial fragments, were originally dated to the 1st centuries BC/AD based on stratigraphic association. Osteoarchaeological reanalysis and AMS dating now provide a broader cultural context for these remains and indicate that at least one adult cranium was brought to the site more than a thousand years after the death of the individual to whom it had belonged.
    • Decellularisation and histological characterisation of porcine peripheral nerves

      Zilic, L.; Wilshaw, Stacy-Paul; Haycock, J.W. (2016-09)
      Peripheral nerve injuries affect a large proportion of the global population, often causing significant morbidity and loss of function. Current treatment strategies include the use of implantable nerve guide conduits (NGC's) to direct regenerating axons between the proximal and distal ends of the nerve gap. However, NGC's are limited in their effectiveness at promoting regeneration Current NGCs are not suitable as substrates for supporting either neuronal or Schwann cell growth, as they lack an architecture similar to that of the native extracellular matrix (ECM) of the nerve. The aim of this study was to create an acellular porcine peripheral nerve using a novel decellularisation protocol, in order to eliminate the immunogenic cellular components of the tissue, while preserving the three-dimensional histoarchitecture and ECM components. Porcine peripheral nerve (sciatic branches were decellularised using a low concentration (0.1%; w/v) sodium dodecyl sulphate in conjunction with hypotonic buffers and protease inhibitors, and then sterilised using 0.1% (v/v) peracetic acid. Quantitative and qualitative analysis revealed a ≥95% (w/w) reduction in DNA content as well as preservation of the nerve fascicles and connective tissue. Acellular nerves were shown to have retained key ECM components such as collagen, laminin and fibronectin. Slow strain rate to failure testing demonstrated the biomechanical properties of acellular nerves to be comparable to fresh controls. In conclusion, we report the production of a biocompatible, biomechanically functional acellular scaffold, which may have use in peripheral nerve repair.
    • Decomposition of Human Remains

      Janaway, Robert C.; Percival, S.L.; Wilson, Andrew S. (2009)
    • The decomposition of materials associated with buried cadavers.

      Janaway, Robert C. (CRC Press, 2008)
      No abstract.
    • Defect-Mediated Trafficking across Cell Membranes: Insights from in Silico Modeling

      Gurtovenko, Andrey A.; Anwar, Jamshed; Vattulainen, I. (2010)
      Review article. No abstract.