Recent Submissions

  • Hypothalamic Rax+ tanycytes contribute to tissue repair and tumorigenesis upon oncogene activation in mice

    Mu, W.; Li, S.; Guo, X.; Wu, H.; Chen, Z.; Qiao, L.; Helfer, Gisela; Lu, F.; Liu, C.; Wu, Q.-F. (2021-04-16)
    Hypothalamic tanycytes in median eminence (ME) are emerging as a crucial cell population that regulates endocrine output, energy balance and the diffusion of blood-born molecules. Tanycytes have recently been considered as potential somatic stem cells in the adult mammalian brain, but their regenerative and tumorigenic capacities are largely unknown. Here we found that Rax+ tanycytes in ME of mice are largely quiescent but quickly enter the cell cycle upon neural injury for self-renewal and regeneration. Mechanistically, Igf1r signaling in tanycytes is required for tissue repair under injury conditions. Furthermore, Braf oncogenic activation is sufficient to transform Rax+ tanycytes into actively dividing tumor cells that eventually develop into a papillary craniopharyngioma-like tumor. Together, these findings uncover the regenerative and tumorigenic potential of tanycytes. Our study offers insights into the properties of tanycytes, which may help to manipulate tanycyte biology for regulating hypothalamic function and investigate the pathogenesis of clinically relevant tumors.
  • Dermal fibroblasts cultured from donors with type 2 diabetes mellitus retain an epigenetic memory associated with poor wound healing responses

    Al-Rikabi, Aaiad H.A.; Tobin, Desmond J.; Riches-Suman, Kirsten; Thornton, M. Julie (2021-01)
    The prevalence of Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is escalating globally. Patients suffer from multiple complications including the development of chronic wounds that can lead to amputation. These wounds are characterised by an inflammatory environment including elevated tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α). Dermal fibroblasts (DF) are critical for effective wound healing, so we sought to establish whether there were any differences in DF cultured from T2DM donors or those without diabetes (ND-DF). ND- and T2DM-DF when cultured similarly in vitro secreted comparable concentrations of TNF-α. Functionally, pre-treatment with TNF-α reduced the proliferation of ND-DF and transiently altered ND-DF morphology; however, T2DM-DF were resistant to these TNF-α induced changes. In contrast, TNF-α inhibited ND- and T2DM-DF migration and matrix metalloprotease expression to the same degree, although T2DM-DF expressed significantly higher levels of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteases (TIMP)-2. Finally, TNF-α significantly increased the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines (including CCL2, CXCL1 and SERPINE1) in ND-DF, whilst this effect in T2DM-DF was blunted, presumably due to the tendency to higher baseline pro-inflammatory cytokine expression observed in this cell type. Collectively, these data demonstrate that T2DM-DF exhibit a selective loss of responsiveness to TNF-α, particularly regarding proliferative and secretory functions. This highlights important phenotypic changes in T2DM-DF that may explain the susceptibility to chronic wounds in these patients.
  • Adipose tissue: a source of stem cells with potential for regenerative therapies for wound healing

    Trevor, Lucy V.; Riches-Suman, Kirsten; Mahajan, A.L.; Thornton, M. Julie (2020-07)
    Interest in adipose tissue is fast becoming a focus of research after many years of being considered as a simple connective tissue. It is becoming increasingly apparent that adipose tissue contains a number of diverse cell types, including adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) with the potential to differentiate into a number of cell lineages, and thus has significant potential for developing therapies for regenerative medicine. Currently, there is no gold standard treatment for scars and impaired wound healing continues to be a challenge faced by clinicians worldwide. This review describes the current understanding of the origin, different types, anatomical location, and genetics of adipose tissue before discussing the properties of ASCs and their promising applications for tissue engineering, scarring, and wound healing.
  • A learning development-faculty collaborative exploration of postgraduate research student mental health in a UK university

    Delderfield, Russell; Ndoma-Egba, Mathias; Riches-Suman, Kirsten; Boyne, J. (2020-10)
    Mental ill-health is an escalating problem in higher education. Not only does this impact students’ ability to learn, it can lead to poor completion, with learners opting to withdraw from studies, even if attainment has been satisfactory. The aim of this study was to gain insight about perceptions of poor mental health from postgraduate research students in a diverse UK university and canvas opinion regarding how the University could improve this. A short, pragmatic survey with basic quantitative and qualitative responses was distributed. This was analysed by a team comprising the learning developer responsible for postgraduate researcher learning development, academics and a doctoral student. The study found that poor mental health was evident, with over three quarters of respondents reporting some experience of mental ill-health. We identified five areas in need of attention: University Systems, Supervisor Training, Well-being Monitoring, Building Networks, and Finance. Sources of University-based stress were finance, administrative support, and an environment where a perception that poor mental health was an expectation rather than a problem was experienced. Students preferred to access support outside the academic environment. This is the first study of its kind at a diverse, plate-glass UK university, to consider research student mental ill-health, with a staff-student team working with data, and the learning developer spear-heading changes across postgraduate research. These findings have already influenced university strategy, staff training, and induction practices. The synthesis of the five areas could be used to visualise where further work is needed to improve mental health in these learners.
  • Therapeutic Targeting of the Proinflammatory IL-6-JAK/STAT Signalling Pathways Responsible for Vascular Restenosis in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.

    Moshapa, Flora Tshepo; Riches-Suman, Kirsten; Palmer, T.M. (2019)
    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is increasing worldwide, and it is associated with increased risk of coronary artery disease (CAD). For T2DM patients, the main surgical intervention for CAD is autologous saphenous vein grafting. However, T2DM patients have increased risk of saphenous vein graft failure (SVGF). While the mechanisms underlying increased risk of vascular disease in T2DM are not fully understood, hyperglycaemia, insulin resistance, and hyperinsulinaemia have been shown to contribute to microvascular damage, whereas clinical trials have reported limited effects of intensive glycaemic control in the management of macrovascular complications. This suggests that factors other than glucose exposure may be responsible for the macrovascular complications observed in T2DM. SVGF is characterised by neointimal hyperplasia (NIH) arising from endothelial cell (EC) dysfunction and uncontrolled migration and proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs). This is driven in part by proinflammatory cytokines released from the activated ECs and SMCs, particularly interleukin 6 (IL-6). IL-6 stimulation of the Janus kinase (JAK)/signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT) pathway is a key mechanism through which EC inflammation, SMC migration, and proliferation are controlled and whose activation might therefore be enhanced in patients with T2DM. In this review, we investigate how proinflammatory cytokines, particularly IL-6, contribute to vascular damage resulting in SVGF and how suppression of proinflammatory cytokine responses via targeting the JAK/STAT pathway could be exploited as a potential therapeutic strategy. These include the targeting of suppressor of cytokine signalling (SOCS3), which appears to play a key role in suppressing unwanted vascular inflammation, SMC migration, and proliferation.
  • Synthesis of sulfonamide-based ynamides and ynamines in water

    Zhao, L.; Yang, H.; Li, R.; Tao, Y.; Guo, X-F.; Anderson, E.A.; Whiting, A.; Wu, Na (Anna) (2021-01)
    Ynamides, though relatively more stable than ynamines, are still moisture-sensitive and prone to hydration especially under acidic and heating conditions. Here we report an environmentally benign, robust protocol to synthesize sulfonamide-based ynamides and arylynamines via Sonogashira coupling reactions in water, using a readily available quaternary ammonium salt as the surfactant.
  • The Chemistry of Ynamide and its Application in Organic Synthesis

    Siyu, Y.; Wu, Na (Anna) (Bentham Science Publishers, 2020)
    Ynamide, is an understudied but attractive class of alkynes, activated by the donating ability of the nitrogen adjacent to alkynes. With the nucleophilicity on β-carbon and the electrophilicity on α-carbon of ynamides, this review summarizes the syntheses of ynamides and miscellaneous reactions - oxidation, rearrangement, cyclization, and cycloaddition to construct complicated heterocyclic rings. The synthetic methodologies were further applied into natural products synthesis, e.g. marinoquinolines A and C, aplidiopsamine A, rigidin A, and 7-azaserotonin derivative.
  • Obtaining archaeointensity data from British Neolithic pottery: A feasibility study

    Allington, M.L.; Batt, Catherine M.; Hill, M.J.; Nilsson, A.; Biggin, A.J.; Card, N. (Elsevier, 2021-06)
    There is a significant lack of geomagnetic field strength (archaeointensity) measurements for many archaeological time periods in the United Kingdom (UK). This not only makes past geomagnetic secular variation difficult to model but also limits the development of archaeointensity dating. This paper presents the first archaeointensity study on UK Neolithic material. In this study, twenty-five sherds of Neolithic Grooved Ware pottery from the Ness of Brodgar, Orkney, UK, some with direct radiocarbon dates, were subjected to a full archaeomagnetic investigation with the aim of increasing the amount of archaeointensity data for the UK. Both thermal Thellier and microwave palaeointensity experiments were used to determine which technique would be most suitable for British Neolithic pottery. Three successful archaeointensity results between 35 and 40μT were obtained using thermal Thellier method, which is consistent with the limited data available within a 15° radius and geomagnetic field model predictions from the same time. We separated the results into four different types with an intention of explaining the behaviours that determine the likelihood of achieving an acceptable archaeointensity estimate. The feasibility of obtaining geomagnetic field strength information during the UK Neolithic from ceramics has been demonstrated and the results provide a solid basis for improving our knowledge of geomagnetic secular variation during archaeological time in Britain.
  • Co-creating social licence for sharing health and care data

    Fylan, F.; Fylan, Beth (2021-05)
    Optimising the use of patient data has the potential to produce a transformational change in healthcare planning, treatment, condition prevention and understanding disease progression. Establishing how people's trust could be secured and a social licence to share data could be achieved is of paramount importance. The study took place across Yorkshire and the Humber, in the North of the England, using a sequential mixed methods approach comprising focus groups, surveys and co-design groups. Twelve focus groups explored people's response to how their health and social care data is, could, and should be used. A survey examined who should be able to see health and care records, acceptable uses of anonymous health and care records, and trust in different organisations. Case study cards addressed willingness for data to be used for different purposes. Co-creation workshops produced a set of guidelines for how data should be used. Focus group participants (n = 80) supported sharing health and care data for direct care and were surprised that this is not already happening. They discussed concerns about the currency and accuracy of their records and possible stigma associated with certain diagnoses, such as mental health conditions. They were less supportive of social care access to their records. They discussed three main concerns about their data being used for research or service planning: being identified; security limitations; and the potential rationing of care on the basis of information in their record such as their lifestyle choices. Survey respondents (n = 1031) agreed that their GP (98 %) and hospital doctors and nurses (93 %) should be able to see their health and care records. There was more limited support for pharmacists (37 %), care staff (36 %), social workers (24 %) and researchers (24 %). Respondents thought their health and social care records should be used to help plan services (88 %), to help people stay healthy (67 %), to help find cures for diseases (67 %), for research for the public good (58 %), but only 16 % for commercial research. Co-creation groups developed a set of principles for a social licence for data sharing based around good governance, effective processes, the type of organisation, and the ability to opt in and out. People support their data being shared for a range of purposes and co-designed a set of principles that would secure their trust and consent to data sharing.
  • Polymers and boron neutron capture therapy(BNCT): a potent combination

    Pitto-Barry, Anaïs (Royal Society of Chemistry, 2021-03)
    Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) has a long history of unfulfilled promises for the treatment of aggressive cancers. In the last two decades, chemists, physicists, and clinical scientists have been coordinating their efforts to overcome practical and scientific challenges needed to unlock its full therapeutic potential. From a chemistry point of view, the two current small-molecule drugs used in the clinic were developed in the 1950s, however, they both lack some of the essential requirements for making BNCT a successful therapeutic modality. Novel strategies are currently used to design new drugs, more selective towards cancer cells and tumours, as well as able to deliver high boron contents to the target. In this context, macromolecules, including polymers, are promising tools to make BNCT an effective, accepted, and front-line therapy against cancer. In this review, we will provide a brief overview of BNCT, and its potential and challenges, and we will discuss the most promising strategies that have been developed so far.
  • Descriptors for vitamin K3 (menadione): calculation of biological and physicochemical properties

    Liu, Xiangli; Abraham, M.H.; Acree, W.E. (2021-02)
    We have used literature values for the solubility of vitamin K3 in organic solvents to obtain Abraham descriptorsfor vitamin K3. Although these descriptors themselves are not exceptional in any way, when combined withequations that we have already set out, they lead to the prediction of important properties of vitamin K3.These include the vapor pressure and heat of sublimation (necessary for the analysis of data on the concentrationof vitamin K3 in ambient air), and the partitions air-water, air-blood, air-lung, air-fat, air-skin, water-lipid, water-membrane, water-skin, as well as permeation from water through skin. Values of the partitions into biologicalphases are all quite large by comparison to those for organic compounds in general.
  • Descriptors for Edaravone; Studies on its Structure, and Prediction of Properties

    Liu, Xiangli; Aghamohammadi, Amin; Afarinkia, Kamyar; Abraham, R.J.; Acree, W.E. Jr; Abraham, M.H. (2021-06-15)
    Literature solubilities and NMR and IR studies have been used to obtain properties or descriptors of edaravone. These show that edaravone has a significant hydrogen bond acidity so that it must exist in solution partly as the OH and NH forms, as found by Freyer et al. Descriptors have been assigned to the keto form which has a low hydrogen bond acidity, and which is the dominant form in nonpolar solvents. Physicochemical properties of the keto form can be been calculated such as solubilities in nonpolar solvents, partition coefficients from water to nonpolar solvents, and partition coefficients from air to biological phases.
  • Descriptors for adamantane and some of its derivatives

    Abraham, M.H.; Acree, W.E. Jr; Liu, Xiangli (2021-03-01)
    Literature data on solubilities of adamantane in organic solvents have been used to obtain properties, or descriptors, of adamantane. There is much less data on substituted adamantanes but we have been able to obtain descriptors for some 40 substituted adamantanes. These descriptors can then be used to estimate a wide range of physicochemical, environmental and other properties of the adamantanes. For the first time, the water-solvent partition coefficient and the gas-solvent partition coefficient into a large range of solvents, can be estimated, the latter being equivalent to Henry's Law constants. A variety of other important properties can also be estimated. These include vapor pressures, enthalpies of vaporization and sublimation, partitions from air and from blood into biological tissues, and skin permeability from water. The descriptors themselves are not exceptional. Adamantane itself has a rather low dipolarity, zero hydrogen bond acidity and a very low hydrogen bond basicity, in common with other multicyclic aliphatic compounds. These lead to adamantane being a very hydrophobic compound, as is evident from our estimated water-octanol partition coefficient.
  • Classification images for contrast discrimination

    McIlhagga, William H. (2021-05)
    Contrast discrimination measures the smallest difference in contrast (the threshold) needed to successfully tell two stimuli apart. The contrast discrimination threshold typically increases with contrast. However, for low spatial frequency gratings the contrast threshold first increases, but then starts to decrease at contrasts above about 50%. This behaviour was originally observed in contrast discrimination experiments using dark spots as stimuli, suggesting that the contrast discrimination threshold for low spatial frequency gratings may be dominated by responses to the dark parts of the sinusoid. This study measures classification images for contrast discrimination experiments using a 1 cycle per degree sinusoidal grating at contrasts of 0, 25%, 50% and 75%. The classification images obtained clearly show that observers emphasize the darker parts of the sinusoidal grating (i.e. the troughs), and this emphasis increases with contrast. At 75% contrast, observers almost completely ignored the bright parts (peaks) of the sinusoid, and for some observers the emphasis on the troughs is already evident at contrasts as low as 25%. Analysis using a Hammerstein model suggests that the bias towards the dark parts of the stimulus is due to an early nonlinearity, perhaps similar to that proposed by Whittle.
  • Ex-vivo recellularisation and stem cell differentiation of a decellularised rat dental pulp matrix

    Matoug-Elwerfelli, M.; Nazzal, H.; Raif, E.M.; Wilshaw, Stacy-Paul; Esteves, F.; Duggal, M. (2020-12)
    Implementing the principles of tissue engineering within the clinical management of non-vital immature permanent teeth is of clinical interest. However, the ideal scaffold remains elusive. The aim of this work was to assess the feasibility of decellularising rat dental pulp tissue and evaluate the ability of such scaffold to support stem cell repopulation. Rat dental pulps were retrieved and divided into control and decellularised groups. The decellularisation protocol incorporated a low detergent concentration and hypotonic buffers. After decellularisation, the scaffolds were characterised histologically, immunohistochemistry and the residual DNA content quantified. Surface topography was also viewed under scanning electron microscopy. Biocompatibility was evaluated using cytotoxicity assays utilising L-929 cell line. Decellularised scaffolds were recellularised with human dental pulp stem cells up to 14 days in vitro. Cellular viability was assessed using LIVE/DEAD stain kit and the recellularised scaffolds were further assessed histologically and immunolabelled using makers for odontoblastic differentiation, cytoskeleton components and growth factors. Analysis of the decellularised scaffolds revealed an acellular matrix with histological preservation of structural components. Decellularised scaffolds were biocompatible and able to support stem cell survival following recellularisation. Immunolabelling of the recellularised scaffolds demonstrated positive cellular expression against the tested markers in culture. This study has demonstrated the feasibility of developing a biocompatible decellularised dental pulp scaffold, which is able to support dental pulp stem cell repopulation. Clinically, decellularised pulp tissue could possibly be a suitable scaffold for use within regenerative (reparative) endodontic techniques.
  • Förster resonance energy transfer in fluorophore labeled poly(2-ethyl-2-oxazoline)s†

    Merckx, R.; Swift, Thomas; Rees, R.; Van Guyse, J.F.R.; Schoolaert, E.; De Clerck, K.; Thienpont, H.; Jerca, V.V. (Royal Society of Chemistry, 2020)
    Dye-functionalized polymers have been extensively studied to understand polymer chain dynamics, intra or inter-molecular association and conformational changes as well as in practical applications such as signal amplification in diagnostic tests and light-harvesting antennas. In this work, the Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) of dye-functionalized poly(2-ethyl-2-oxazoline) (PEtOx) was studied to evaluate the effect of dye positioning and polymer chain length on the FRET efficiency. Therefore, both α (initiating terminus)- or ω (terminal chain end)-fluorophore single labeled and dual α,ω-fluorescent dye labeled PEtOx were prepared via cationic ring opening polymerization (CROP) using 1-(bromomethyl)pyrene as the initiator and/or 1-pyrenebutyric acid or coumarin 343 as the terminating agent, yielding well-defined PEtOx with high labeling efficiency (over 91%). Fluorescence studies revealed that intramolecular FRET is most efficient for heterotelechelic PEtOx containing both pyrene and coumarin 343 fluorophores as chain ends, as expected. A strong dependence of the energy transfer on the chain length was found for these dual labeled polymers. The polymers were tested in both dilute organic (chloroform) and aqueous media revealing a higher FRET efficiency in water due to the enhanced emissive properties of pyrene. The application of dual labeled polymers as fluorescent probes for temperature sensing was demonstrated based on the lower critical solution temperature behavior of the PEtOx. Furthermore, these polymers could be successfully processed into fibers and thin films. Importantly, the fluorescence properties were retained in the solid state without decreasing the FRET efficiency, thus opening future possibilities for application of these materials in solar cells and/or sensors.
  • Branched amphotericin functional poly(N-isopropyl acrylamide): an antifungal polymer

    Swift, Thomas; Caseley, Emily; Pinnock, A.; Shepherd, J.; Shivshetty, N.; Garg, P.; Ian Douglas, C.W.; MacNeil, S.; Rimmer, Stephen (2021-01-27)
    Branched poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) was functionalized with Amphotericin B (AmB) at the chain ends to produce an antifungal material. The polymer showed antifungal properties against AmB-sensitive strains of Candida albicans, Fusarium keratoplasticum and Aspergillus flavus (minimal inhibitory concentration ranged from 5 to 500 µg ml−1) but was not effective against an AmB resistant strain of C. albicans nor against Candida tropicalis. The polymer end groups bound to the AmB target, ergosterol, and the fluorescence spectrum of a dye used as a solvatochromic probe, Nile red, was blue shifted indicating that segments of the polymer became desolvated on binding. The polymer was less toxic to corneal and renal epithelial cells and explanted corneal tissue than the free drug. Also, the polymer did not induce reactive oxygen species release from peripheral blood mononuclear cells, nor did it cause a substantial release of the proinflammatory cytokines, tumour necrosis factor-α and interleukin-1β (at 0.5 mg ml−1).
  • Fabrication of 3D hybrid scaffold by combination technique of electrospinning-like and freeze-drying to create mechanotransduction signals and mimic extracellular matrix function of skin

    Aghmiuni, A.I.; Heidari Keshel, S.; Sefat, Farshid; AkbarzadehKhiyavi, A. (2021-01)
    Fabrication of extracellular matrix (ECM)-like scaffolds (in terms of structural-functional) is the main challenge in skin tissue engineering. Herein, inspired by macromolecular components of ECM, a novel hybrid scaffold suggested which includes silk/hyaluronan (SF/HA) bio-complex modified by PCP: [polyethylene glycol/chitosan/poly(ɛ-caprolactone)] copolymer containing collagen to differentiate human-adipose-derived stem cells into keratinocytes. In followed by, different weight ratios (wt%) of SF/HA (S1:100/0, S2:80/20, S3:50/50) were applied to study the role of SF/HA in the improvement of physicochemical and biological functions of scaffolds. Notably, the combination of electrospinning-like and freeze-drying methods was also utilized as a new method to create a coherent 3D-network. The results indicated this novel technique was led to ~8% improvement of the scaffold's ductility and ~17% decrease in mean pore diameter, compared to the freeze-drying method. Moreover, the increase of HA (>20wt%) increased porosity to 99%, however, higher tensile strength, modulus, and water absorption% were related to S2 (38.1, 0.32 MPa, 75.3%). More expression of keratinocytes along with growth pattern similar to skin was also observed on S2. This study showed control of HA content creates a microporous-environment with proper modulus and swelling%, although, the role of collagen/PCP as base biocomposite and fabrication technique was undeniable on the inductive signaling of cells. Such a scaffold can mimic skin properties and act as the growth factor through inducing keratinocytes differentiation.
  • Soil fungal networks maintain local dominance of ectomycorrhizal trees

    Liang, M.; Johnson, D.; Burslem, D.F.R.P.; Yu, S.; Fang, M.; Taylor, Joe D.; Taylor, A.F.S.; Helgason, T.; Liu, X. (2020-05)
    The mechanisms regulating community composition and local dominance of trees in species-rich forests are poorly resolved, but the importance of interactions with soil microbes is increasingly acknowledged. Here, we show that tree seedlings that interact via root-associated fungal hyphae with soils beneath neighbouring adult trees grow faster and have greater survival than seedlings that are isolated from external fungal mycelia, but these effects are observed for species possessing ectomycorrhizas (ECM) and not arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi. Moreover, survival of naturally-regenerating AM seedlings over ten years is negatively related to the density of surrounding conspecific plants, while survival of ECM tree seedlings displays positive density dependence over this interval, and AM seedling roots contain greater abundance of pathogenic fungi than roots of ECM seedlings. Our findings show that neighbourhood interactions mediated by beneficial and pathogenic soil fungi regulate plant demography and community structure in hyperdiverse forests.
  • Diverse groups of fungi are associated with plastics in the surface waters of the Western South Atlantic and the Antarctic Peninsula

    Lacerda, A.L.d.F.; Proietti, M.C.; Secchi, E.R.; Taylor, Joe D. (2020-05)
    Marine plastic pollution has a range of negative impacts for biota and the colonization of plastics in the marine environment by microorganisms may have significant ecological impacts. However, data on epiplastic organisms, particularly fungi, is still lacking for many ocean regions. To evaluate plastic associated fungi and their geographic distribution, we characterised plastics sampled from surface waters of the western South Atlantic (WSA) and Antarctic Peninsula (AP), using DNA metabarcoding of three molecular markers (ITS2, 18S rRNA V4 and V9 regions). Numerous taxa from eight fungal phyla and a total of 64 orders were detected, including groups that had not yet been described associated with plastics. There was a varied phylogenetic assemblage of predominantly known saprotrophic taxa within the Ascomycota and Basidiomycota. We found a range of marine cosmopolitan genera present on plastics in both locations, i.e., Aspergillus, Cladosporium, Wallemia and a number of taxa unique to each region, as well as a high variation of taxa such as Chytridiomycota and Aphelidomycota between locations. Within these basal fungal groups we identified a number of phylogenetically novel taxa. This is the first description of fungi from the Plastisphere within the Southern Hemisphere, and highlights the need to further investigate the potential impacts of plastic associated fungi on other organisms and marine ecosystems.

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